Skip to main content

Full text of "History of South Africa, from 1873 to 1884, twelve eventful years, with continuation of the history of Galekaland, Tembuland, Pondoland, and Bethshuanaland until the annexation of those territories to the Cape Colony, and of Zululand until its annexation to Natal"

See other formats




A# 1. Ethnography and Condition of South Africa before 

A.D. 1505 (this takes the place of a volume entitled 
"The Yellow and Dark-Skinned People of Africa 
South of the Zambesi). 

B. 2, 3, 4. History of South Africa from 1505 to 1795, in three 

volumes, viz. : — 
Vol. I. The Portuguese in South Africa. Fourth 

Vol. II. \ The Administration of the Dutch East India 

Vol. III. ) Third Edition, a few copies still on hand. 

C. 6, 8, 7, 8, 9. History of South Africa from 1795 to 1872, in five 
volumes, viz. : — 
Vols. I. II. and III. Fourth Edition. 
Vol. IV. Revised Edition, ready shortly. 
Vol. V. With Synoptical Index, in the press. 

I> 10, 11. History of South Africa from 187S to 1881>. Twelv* 

Eventful Years. In two volumes. 


FROM 1873 TO 1884 












Vol. II. -Q 


First published in igig 

(All rights reserved) 




Failure of Sir Garnet "Wolseley's so-called settlement — John Dunn's 
mode of government — Strife caused by Sitimela — Movements for 
and against the restoration of Ketshwayo — His visit to England 
and treatment there — Attitude of Sibebu — Return of Ketshwayo 
to a part of Zululand — Conditions imposed upon him— Conduct 
of Mnyamana— War with Sibebu and Hamu — Utter defeat of 
Ketshwayo by Sibebu — Protection given to Ketshwayo by the 
British commissioner in the Zulu reserve — Sudden death of 
Ketshwayo — Continuation of hostilities between Sibebu and 
Hamu on one side and the Usutu party under Mnyamana on the 
other — Agreement made by Mnyamana with a party of farmers 
to assist Dinizulu, Ketshwayo's son, in return for eight hundred 
farms — Defeat of Sibebu, who takes refuge with the British 
commissioner in the reserve — Formation of the state termed the 
New Republic — Formal possession of Saint Lucia Bay taken by 
Great Britain — Resolutions of the legislative council pf Natal 
favouring the annexation of Zululand — Killing of Dabulamanzi 
in the reserve and its consequences — Annexation of Zululand to 
the British dominions — Annexation of the New Republic to the 
South African Republic — Insurrection of Dinizulu — His banish- 
ment to Saint Helena — Annexation of Zululand and Tongaland 
to Natal ........ 



The northern border war — Account of Donker Malgas— Settlement 
of Xosas at Schietfontein, now Carnarvon — Account of Klaas 
Pofadder, captain of a Korana clan — Account of Jacobus 

vi Contents. 


Afrikaner, head of a band of Hottentot robbers — Mention of 
Klaas Lukas, a Korans captain — Mode of existence of the 
Bushmen on the northern border — Mention of Gamka 
Windwaai — Occupation by the marauders of the islands in the 
Orange river — Mission of Captain Sissison to restore order 
— Punishment of Klaas Lukas — Mission of Colonel Zachary 
Bayly — Mission of Mr. Edward Judge — Appointment of Mr. 
Maximilian Jackson as special commissioner — Journey of 
Attorney -General Upington to the northern border — Success 
of Commandant McTaggart in two engagements — Capture _of 
Jacobus Afrikaner — Capture of Pofadder and his whole gang 
— Death of Donker Malgas in action and capture of his 
entire band — Appointment of Mr. John H. Scott as special 
magistrate — Change in the condition of the locality since 
that time — Effect of irrigation— Account of the Baputi chief 
Morosi — Formation of the district of Quthing — Attitude of 
Morosi towards the magistrate — Forcible release from prison 
of Morosi's son Doda — Excitement in Basutoland caused by 
the announcement that the disarmament act has been passed 
by the Cape parliament — Early acts of rebellion by the Baputi 
— Commencement of hostilities against them — Progress of 
operations until all their cattle are captured — Description of 
Morosi's stronghold — Failure of the first attempt to take it 
by storm — Disaster to a patrol of yeomanry under Captain 
Chiappini — Failure of the second attempt to take Morosi's 
stronghold by storm — Interview between Prime Minister 
Sprigg and Morosi — Capture of the stronghold — Death of 
Morosi— Complete suppression of the rebellion. . . 29 



Policy pursued towards the Basuto by Mr. Molteno's ministry— 
Condition of the Basuto in 1880 — Acquisition of arms by the 
tribe — Announcements made by the prime minister at the 
pitso in 1879 — Application of the disarmament act to Basuto- 
land — Petitions against disarmament — Attitude of the Cape 
house of assembly — Declaration of resistance by a large 
section of the tribe — Death of Molapo and strife between 
his sons — Surrender of guns by a few Basuto — Spoliation and 
maltreatment of these by their countrymen — Protection 
claimed by them from the government — Arrival of armed 

Contents. vii 

forces in Basutoland — Series of encounters with the insur- 
gents — Petition of some of the insurgent chiefs for peace — 
Offer of mediation by Sir Hercules Robinson — Terms offered 
by the Cape ministry — Acceptance of the high commissioner's 
mediation — Terms of his award — Change of ministry — Accept- 
ance of the high commissioner's award by the insurgent 
chiefs, but only partial compliance with its terms — Appoint- 
ment of Mr. Joseph M. Orpen as acting governor's agent — 
Unsuccessful efforts to enforce full compliance with the 
award — Repeal of the application of the disarmament act to 
Basutoland — Proceedings of Major-General Gordon — Revenue 
and expenditure of Basutoland — Appointment of Captain 
Blyth as acting governor's agent — Proposal of a new form 
of administration, which is not accepted — War between 
Jonathan and Joel — Flight of women, children, and cattle 
into the Orange Free State — Application by President Brand 
to the imperial government to restore order — Consent of the 
imperial authorities to take over the administration of 
Basutoland — Arrangements for the transfer, which is com- 
pleted in March 1884 ...... 54 



Immigration into the Transvaal — Opinion in England with regard 
to the treatment of coloured people by the Transvaal farmers 
— Desire of the British government for the confederation of 
the South African states and colonies — Dealings of Sir Bartle 
Frere with the Transvaal farmers — Replacement of Sir 
Theophilus Shepstone as administrator by Colonel Owen 
Lanyon — Refusal of Mr. Paul Kruger to accept an appoint- 
ment under the British government — Interview of a deputa- 
tion of farmers with Sir Owen Lanyon — Visit of Sir Bartle 
Frere to the Transvaal — Petition to her Majesty the queen 
— Attitude of the British authorities — Petition of a large 
number of Cape colonists in support of the Transvaal farmers 
— Interview of many leading men of the Cape Colony with 
Sir Bartle Frere — Seizure of ammunition by some Transvaal 
farmers — Assumption of duty as governor by Sir Garnet 
Wolseley— Military measures adopted by him — Creation of 
executive and legislative councils — Petition of English resi- 


viii Contents. 


dents to Mr. Gladstone — Dealings with Sekukuni — Complete 
suppression of the Bapedi rebellion — Mass meeting of the 
farmers at Wonderfontein — Arrest of Messrs. Pretorius and 
Bok — Refusal of Mr. Pretorius to accept an office under the 
British government — Attitude of Mr. Gladstone regarding 
the annexation of the Transvaal — His return to power as 
prime minister — His indisposition to restore independence to 
the Transvaal — Mission of Messrs. Kruger and Joubert to the 
Cape Colony ........ 81 



British troops in South Africa at the close of 1880 — Departure of 
Sir Garnet Wolseley — Arrival of Sir George Pomeroy Colley 
— Change of officials in the Transvaal — Speculation in land 
in the Transvaal — Influx of English and Germans into the 
towns and villages — Prosecution of the editor of the Volk- 
atem for libel — Interference with a sheriff's sale at Potchef- 
stroom — Mass meeting at Paardekraal — Resolution to restore 
the republic — Installation of a triumvirate at Heidelberg — 
Commencement of hostilities at Potchefstroom — Surrender of 
Major Clark with the garrison of a small fort — Gallant 
defence of the principal fort at Potchefstroom — Destruction 
of a British force at Bronkhorst Spruit — Defeat of Sir 
George Colley at Lang's Nek — Disastrous engagement at 
Schuins Hoogte — Arrival of British reinforcements — Defeat 
and death of Sir George Colley at Majuba — Succession of 
Sir Evelyn Wood to the chief command — Attitude of the 
right honourable Mr. Gladstone — Difficulties of his position 
— Exertions of President Brand to bring about peace — Con- 
clusion of an armistice — Surrender of the garrison of the 
fort at Potchefstroom — Arrangement of terms of peace — 
Arrival of further British reinforcements — Appointment of 
royal commissioners — Signing of the convention of Pretoria 
— Its ratification by the volksraad unwillingly . . .113 


LONDON IN 1884. 

Attitude of the Englishmen in the Transvaal — Condition of things 
along the new western border — Discord caused by the new 

Contents, ix 


boundary — Loss of life in the war of independence — Election 
of Mr. Paul Kruger as president — Feud between Sekukuni 
and Mampuru — Release of Sekukuni from prison — Seditious 
conduct of Mampuru — Murder of Sekukuni by Mampuru — 
Shelter given to Mampuru by Njabel, chief of the tribe of 
Mapoch — Cost of Sir Garnet Wolseley's operations against 
Sekukuni — Muster of a commando to reduce Njabel to sub- 
jection — Events during the war with Mapoch — Destruction 
of caverns with dynamite — Successful ending of the war — 
Trial and execution of Mampuru — Effects of a long drought 
— System of granting monopolies — Great extension of gold- 
mining in the Lydenburg district — Disappearance of the tsetsey 
fly between the goldfields and Delagoa Bay — Concession by 
the Portuguese government to a company for the construc- 
tion of a railway from Delagoa Bay to Komati Poort — Strife 
on the south-western border — Dealings of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Charles Warren with the residents there — War between 
Mankoroane and David Massou — Enlistment of European 
volunteers by both parties — Cession of land to the volunteers 
— Formation of the republic of Stellaland — War between the 
Barolong chiefs Moshete and Montsiwa — Particulars of the 
strife — Defeat of Montsiwa — Severe terms imposed upon him 
— Attempted formation of a republic under the title Land of 
Goshen — Conference in London between Transvaal delegates 
and the secretary of state — Conclusion of the Convention of 
London ........ 131 



Views of the earl of Derby regarding Betshuanaland — Appoint- 
ment of the reverend John Mackenzie as deputy commissioner 
there — Dealings of Mr. Mackenzie with Mankoroane — 
Announcement of a British protectorate over Stellaland and 
Montsiwa's country — Raising of a police force under Major 
Stanley Lowe — Resignation of Mr. Mackenzie — Appointment 
of Mr. Cecil John Rhodes as deputy commissioner — Trans- 
actions of Mr. Rhodes in Betshuanaland — Attitude of the 
people of Goshen — Transactions of Mr. P. J. Joubert in 
Betshuanaland — Mission of Messrs. Upington, Sprigg, and 
Marais to Land Goosen — Despatch from England of a strong 
VOL. II. * 

x Contents. 


military force under Major-General Sir Charles Warren to 
take possession of Land Goosen — Proceedings of the expedi- 
tion — Beaconing off the boundary line between the South 
African Republio and Betshuanaland — Dispersal without 
resistance of the people of Land Goosen — Resignation of Mr. 
Rhodes ' as deputy commissioner — Proclamation of a pro- 
tectorate over the whole of Betshuanaland — Withdrawal of 
Sir Charles Warren's expedition from Betshuanaland — Enrol- 
ment of a strong police force under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Carrington — Creation of the Crown Colony of British Betshu- 
analand — Appointment of the necessary officials — Account of 
Mankoroane — Progress of British Betshuanaland — Attitude of 
David Massou — Dispersal of his clan — Account of the tribes 
in the protectorate of Northern Betshuanaland — Exploration 
of Matabeleland — Death of the explorers from poison — Mission 
to Lobengula — Efforts of Germany to obtain possession of 
parts of South Africa — Annexation of British Betshuanaland 
to the Cape Colony — Number of Europeans in the province 
— Condition of the protectorate of Northern Betshuanaland . 151 



Various views concerning confederation — Formation of the 
Farmers' Protection Association — Formation of the Afrikander 
Bond — Rejection of confederation by the Cape Colony — Retire- 
ment of Sir Bartle Frere — Appointment of Sir Hercules 
Robinson as governor of the Cape Colony and high com- 
missioner—Opening of telegraphic communication with Europe 
— Progress in the construction of railways — Advance in civili- 
sation of the Bantu in the colony — Marks of improvement 
in the Cape Colony — Disastrous shipwrecks — Erection of the 
Parliament Houses in Capetown — Progress in steamship com- 
munication with England — Restoration of Dutch as one of 
the official languages of the Cape Colony — Ravages of small- 
pox — Retirement from public life of Mr. Saul Solomon — 
Prominence of Mr. Cecil John Rhodes — Retirement of the 
Scanlen ministry — Formation of the Upington ministry — 
Improvements in Capetown — Opening of an Industrial Exhibi- 
tion — Formation and dissolution of the Empire League — Death 
of the reverend Dr. Moffat and of the honourable Robert 
Godlonton ........ 185- 

Contents. xi 


END OF 1884. 


Succession of heads of the Natal government — Movement in 
favour of responsible government — Progress in the construc- 
tion of railways — Dissatisfaction with the appointment of a 
lieutenant-governor — Appointment of Sir Henry Bulwer as 
governor — Amendment of the constitution of Natal — Exten- 
sion of the railway towards the interior— Conference with 
representatives of the Orange Free State — Display of Natal 
products — Diseases in plants and animals — Improvements in 
Durban and Maritzburg — Death of Mr. Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof 
and of Bishop Colenso — Destruction of Bishopstowe by fire — 
Condition of the Bantu in Natal — Various mission associations 
working with them — Power of the governor as supreme chief 
— System of government of the Bantu in Natal — Duties of 
the Native High Court — Account of President Brand of the 
Orange Free State — Establishment of a supreme court of 
three judges in the Orange Free State — Construction of 
bridges over the Orange River — Prosperity and progress of the 
Orange Free State — Improvements in educational institutions 
— Devotion to duty of President Brand — Death of President 
Brand — Death of the Barolong chief Moroko — Dispute between 
Tsepinare and Samuel as to the succession to the chieftain- 
ship — Murder of Tsepinare by Samuel — Great confusion in 
the tribe — Annexation of the territory to the Orange Free 
State — Its retention as a reserve for the use of the Barolong 208 



Bevenue of the Cape Colony — Expenditure of the Cape Colony 
— Bevenue of Natal — Expenditure of Natal — Exports of the 
Cape Colony — Effects of prolonged drought — Public debt of 
the Cape Colony — Exports of Natal — Imports of South Africa 
— Total overseas commerce of South Africa — Public debt of 
Natal — Population of Natal at the close of 1884 — Results of 
the census of [the Cape Colony in 1891 .... 228 

INDEX 289 


FROM 1873 TO 1884. 


The so-called settlement of Zululand by Sir Garnet 
Wolseley broke down almost at once. The elements of 
discord were numerous, and nothing but a central power 
with a strong force to support it could have preserved 
order for any length of time. In many of the thirteen 
districts there were men living who were of higher rank by 
birth than the nominal rulers, and this alone was sufficient 
to bring about confusion and strife. It was believed by 
Sir Garnet that the Zulus had been completely disarmed, 
bub this was far from being the case, and if in truth every 
stabbing assagai had been given up, others could be manu- 
factured without difficulty and with hardly any fear of 
detection by prying Europeans. The regiments were 
indeed broken up, and there was no longer open drilling, 
but for strife among themselves this made little difference. 
Jealousy of each other was prevalent among the chiefs, 
and soon there was anarchy in the greater part of the 
country. White men were engaged by the petty rulers to 
assist them, which usually made matters worse. 

John Dunn alone attempted to govern in a kind of 
civilised manner. He levied a hut-tax of ten shillings a 
year upon his subjects, appointed magistrates to try civil 
and criminal cases, and even made roads in a few localities. 
He declared that the revenue was absorbed in this manner, 
and it may have been, but the fines, which he frequently 

VOL. II. 2 { 

2 History of South Africa. [\%%\ 

inflicted upon individuals who displeased him, went into 
his own pocket. He was generally believed to be a very 
wealthy man, with large investments in Natal. 

Mr. Wheelwright resigned the position of British repre- 
sentative in Zululand after a very short experience of the 
difficulties of the position, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Melmoth Osborn, who was acquainted with Zulu customs 
and conversant with the Zulu language. Mr. Osborn was 
an able man, and perhaps if he had been given authority 
and the country had been annexed to the British dominions 
all might have gone on well, but the British government 
declined responsibility of any kind for maintaining order, 
and directed that each of the thirteen heads of districts 
was to be regarded as an independent sovereign. 

Under these circumstances there was almost constant 
quarrelling and plundering, and in faction fights more 
blood was shed than during the whole period of Ketsh- 
wayo's government before the war. As an instance, a 
man named Sitimela, who had been living in Natal, made 
his appearance in Zululand, and claimed to be a grandson 
of Dingiswayo, of higher rank than Mlandela, who had 
been appointed ruler of a district by Sir Garnet Wolseley. 
A large proportion of the Umtetwa supported his preten- 
sions, and he attempted to drive Mlandela away and take 
his place as a petty sovereign. He might have succeeded, 
if in July 1881 John Dunn had not marched against him 
with a strong force that defeated his partisans with great 
slaughter and drove him with the remnant of his ad- 
herents to take refuge as fugitives in the Transvaal 
Republic. As another instance, over a thousand of the 
Abaqulusi, men, women, and children, perished in October 
1881 in a quarrel with Hamu. 

The feeling of devotion to Ketshwayo had been partly 
lost by many of the descendants of the incorporated tribes 
when he was removed from the country, but the religious 
tie that bound him to the pure Zulus was not weakened, 
and it seemed now to most of them that his restoration 

1881] Discord in 2m Inland. 3 

was necessary to preserve them from annihilation. Even 
several of the appointed heads of districts were of this 
opinion, though Sibebu, Hamu, and John Dunn were 
determined not to relinquish their power if they could 
help it. Deputation after deputation — one in April 1882 
consisting of nearly two thousand individuals — was sent 
to Natal to beg Governor Sir Henry Bulwer to represent 
the condition of things to the authorities in England and 
to forward their request that Ketshwayo might be sent 
back to them under conditions that would make him a 
child of the queen. The bishop of Natal too, who believed 
Ketshwayo to be an innocent and injured man, was doing 
all that was in his power to aid this movement. He was 
acting in Natal indeed as Dr. Philip had acted in the 
Cape Colony half a century before, and unfortunately with 
a similar result to those whom he conscientiously believed 
needed his advocacy. Another champion of Ketshwayo 
was Lady Florence Dixie, the special correspondent of a 
leading London newspaper, who wrote strongly in favour 
of his return. The government of the Transvaal Kepublic 
also, fearing that the anarchy and strife in Zululand 
would have the same result as the similar condition of 
things was causing on their south-western border, thereby 
involving them in great difficulties, on more than one 
occasion represented to the imperial authorities that the 
return of Ketshwayo was desirable to restore order. This 
must not be taken to imply that they admired the Zulu 
chief's method of governing, but that they regarded it as 
preferable to no government at all, and, as has been 
stated before, they were never in fear of him. 

On the other hand" practically all of the Natal colonists 
were strongly opposed to such a step, believing that, no 
matter what conditions were imposed upon him, Ketsh- 
wayo, if restored, would find means to build up again 
the military system, which was such a menace to his 
neighbours that its overthrow had become necessary in 
the interests of civilisation. On the 1st of December 

4 History of South Africa. [ l882 

1881 the legislative council of that colony unanimously 
decided ** that the return of Ketshwayo to Zululand or its 
neighbourhood would imperil the maintenance of peace and 
order in South Africa, and would be inimical to the best 
interests of the native tribes." 

Meantime the captive Zulu chief was being treated with 
as much consideration and kindness as was possible, 
though naturally nothing could compensate him for loss 
of liberty and separation from his people. It was recog- 
nised that confinement within a limited space within the 
walls of the castle of Good Hope must be exceedingly 
irksome to a man accustomed to take abundant exercise 
daily, and after a time a small farm with a good house 
upon it was obtained near Mowbray in the Cape penin- 
sula, and he and his retinue and attendants were removed 
to it. Here, at Oude Molen, as the estate was called, he 
could take as much exercise as he pleased, while he was 
protected from the intrusion of idle visitors. He con- 
ducted himself with perfect propriety and great dignity, but 
repeatedly expressed a strong desire to be permitted to go 
to England and lay his case before the queen, when he 
felt confident he would be allowed to return to his country 
and his people. 

The British authorities were willing to grant his request, 
but some delay occurred in making the necessary arrange- 
ments and bringing from Zululand the men whom he 
wished to accompany him. At length, on the 12th of 
July 1882 he left Table Bay in the mail steamer Arab, 
accompanied by the chiefs Mkosana, Ngobazana, and 
Ngongcwana, and four Zulu servants. A competent in- 
terpreter, Mr. B. Dunn, (not related to the chief John 
Dunn), went with him, and Mr. Henrique Shepstone (a son 
of Sir Theophilus) was in charge of the party. 

There was nothing of any importance occupying the 
attention of the English people at the time, so a visit 
from a celebrated "black king," as he was called, was a 
welcome event. He was received and treated as if he had 

1 882] Ketshwayos Visit to England. 5 

been a beneficent civilised ruler who had merely done his 
duty to his people by heroically endeavouring to protect 
them against an invading army. Great crowds assembled 
to cheer him wherever he went, deputations from various 
societies waited upon him, he was taken to see places of 
interest far and near, in short he was made the lion of 
the day, such as no white head of a third rate state would 
have been. As the guest of the British government he 
was provided with everything that could tend to his com- 
fort, and was fitted out with clothing in the greatest 
variety and of the most expensive kind. He appeared in 
London dressed as an English gentleman and, what is 
wonderful, really conducted himself as if he had been 
accustomed all his life to wear a silk hat and kid gloves, 
and to drink champagne at his dinner. Great as is the 
power of imitation of the ordinary African, Ketshwayo 
certainly excelled all his countrymen in this respect. 
Presents of the most incongruous kind were showered 
upon him, such as gold lockets and cashmere shawls for 
his wives and plaids and railway rugs for his own use, 
together with travelling trunks and cooking utensils and 
articles of furniture, three large waggon loads in all. He 
would have been utterly spoiled if it had not been that 
his intense desire to return to Zululand overcame all other 
feelings and enabled him to keep his senses. 

He was very kindly received by the queen at Osborne, 
and was informed by her Majesty that he should be 
restored to his country under conditions which would be 
made known to him by her ministers. The measure of his 
happiness was now complete, but neither the prime 
minister, Mr. Gladstone, nor the secretary for the 
colonies, Earl Kimberley, could venture to act so rashly as 
to permit him to recover his former power. One may feel 
pity for a man in Ketshwayo's position, separated from his 
family and his associates, bereft of power and wealth such 
as he had once enjoyed, but no clearheaded person could 
wish to see that great military menace to South Africa 

6 History of South Africa. [1882 

restored which made progress in civilisation impossible for 
the black man and threatened constantly the destruction 
of the lives and property of the European colonists. The 
petty rulers were not allowed to stand in the way of any 
change that the British authorities might determine upon, 
except Sibebu, who announced his intention of resisting 
with arms any interference in the district that had been 
assigned to him by Sir Garnet Wolseley. He said he had 
kept faithfully the conditions he had agreed to, and 
therefore could not be deposed or set aside. So Zululand 
as given back to Ketshwayo was greatly reduced in size, 
by Sibebu's district on the north-eastern side being cut 
off and all the ground between the Umhlatusi and Tugela 
rivers, which formed the districts given by Sir Garnet 
Wolseley to John Dunn and the Batlokua chief Hlubi, 
being formed into what was termed the Zulu Reserve. It 
was announced that all who wished to be independent of 
Ketshwayo could obtain ground there, and those who 
desired to be under him could move out of it. Conditions 
too were imposed which he was required to agree to, and 
which were intended to reduce his power to that of an 
ordinary Kaffir chief. 

On the 2nd of September 1882 Ketshwayo left England 
in the mail steamer Nubian, and on the 24th of the same 
month reached Capetown and took up his residence once 
more at Oude Molen, where he was to remain until the 
necessary arrangements could be made by Sir Henry 
Bulwer, governor of Natal, for his presentation to his 
people. This residence at Oude Molen formed a kind of 
transition to the life he would lead after his return to 
Zululand from the luxurious life he had led in England 
and on the mail steamer, where a large cabin had been 
specially prepared for his accommodation. 

At length everything was ready, and Ketshwayo and his 
attendants, male and female, were taken from Oude 
Molen to Simonstown, where they embarked in her 
Majesty's steam corvette Briton and were conveyed to 

1883] Ketshwayo" s Return to Zululand. 7 

Port Durnford on the Zulu coast. The sea was smooth 
when the Briton arrived there, on the 10th of January 
1883, so Ketshwayo was set ashore with his attendants, 
his luggage, the presents he had received in England, and 
a number of dogs of different breeds that he was particularly 
fond of. Sir Theophilus Shepstone was there to receive 
him, with Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis and a squadron of 
the sixth dragoons, a company of the fifty-eighth regiment, 
mounted, a company of the forty-first regiment, mounted, 
and two companies on foot, several other Europeans, 
newspaper reporters, and Sir Theophilus Shepstone's 
bodyguard of sixty Bantu. More to make a show than 
to meet actual requirements, the troops were accompanied 
by about one hundred and fifty waggons. 

The Zulus had been informed that Ketshwayo would 
be presented to them at Entonjaneni, near Ulundi, and 
while they were assembling there the troops, acting as a 
guard of honour to the chief, marched slowly up from 
Port Durnford. Here Ketshwayo first realised that a 
defeated ruler is in a very different position from an un- 
vanquished one. He had expected to see the people 
crowding to Port Durnford to welcome him back, and 
very keen was his disappointment when none were there. 
On the way to Entonjaneni only about fifteen hundred 
in little parties came to meet him, a few bringing an 
ox or two as a present. The most enthusiastic among 
them were fifteen of his wives, with his eldest son, a 
boy about fourteen years of age named Dinizulu, four of 
his little daughters, and about sixty waiting women and 

On the 29th of January 1883 the ceremony of presenta- 
tion took place. Messengers had been sent out to call 
the people together, and about five thousand of both sexes 
were present. They were drawn up to form three sides 
of a hollow square, the fourth side being occupied by Sir 
Theophilus Shepstone's party. There was no enthusiasm, 
for the people had already heard that the old order of 

8 History of South Africa. [1S83 

things was not to be restored and that the Zululand 
of the future was not to be the Zululand of the past. 
The conditions which Ketshwayo had agreed to, most of 
which were almost identical with those imposed upon the 
thirteen petty rulers by Sir Garnet Wolseley, were read 
to the assembly by Sir Theophilus Shepstone, the chief 
repeated his promise to observe them, and was then 
formally transferred to his people. Three hundred and 
sixty head of cattle, that had been collected by Mr. Osborn 
as lawful booty, were presented to him in the name of 
the British government, to form the nucleus of his 

The conditions imposed upon Ketshwayo were : 
" 1. I will observe and respect the boundaries assigned 
to my territory by the British government. 

" 2. I will not permit the existence of the Zulu military 
system, or the existence of any military system or organi- 
sation whatever within my territory ; and I will proclaim 
and make it a rule that all men shall be allowed 
to marry when they choose, and as they choose, 
according to the good and ancient customs of my people, 
known and followed in the days preceding the establish- 
ment by Tshaka of the system known as the military 
system ; and I will allow and encourage all men living 
within my territory to go and come freely for peaceful 
purposes, and to work in Natal, or the Transvaal, or 
elsewhere, for themselves or for hire. 

"3. I will not import or allow to be imported into my 
territory, by any person upon any pretence or for any 
object whatsoever, any arms or ammunition from any 
part whatsoever, or any goods or merchandise by the 
seacoast of Zululand, without the express sanction of 
the British resident, and I will not encourage, or promote, 
or take part in, or countenance in any way whatsoever, 
the importation into any part of Zululand of any arms 
or ammunition from any part whatsoever, or of goods 
or merchandise by the seacoast of Zululand, without such 

1883] Conditions imposed upon Kctskwayo. 9 

sanction, and I will confiscate and hand over to the 
Natal government all arms and ammunition and goods 
and merchandise so imported into my territory, and I 
will punish by fine or other sufficient punishment any 
person guilty of or concerned in such unsanctioned im- 
portation, and any person found possessing arms, or 
ammunition, or goods, or merchandise knowingly obtained 

"4. I will not allow the life of any of my people to 
be taken for any cause, except after sentence passed in 
a council of the chief men of my territory, and after 
fair and impartial trial in my presence, and after hearing 
of witnesses ; and I will not tolerate the employment 
of witch-doctors, or the practice known as smelling out, 
or any practices of witchcraft. 

" 5. The surrender of all persons fugitives in my territory 
from justice, when demanded by the government of any 
British colony, territory, or province in the interests of 
justice, shall be readily and promptly made to such govern- 
ment ; and the escape into my territory of persons accused 
or convicted of offences against British laws shall be 
prevented by all possible means, and every exertion shall 
be used to seize and deliver up such persons to British 

"6. I will not make any treaty or agreement with 
any chief, people, or government outside my territory 
without the consent and approval of the British govern- 
ment. I will not make war upon any chief, or chiefs, 
or people, without the sanction of the British gov- 
ernment ; and in any unsettled dispute with any 
chief, people, or government, I will appeal to the 
arbitration of the British government, through the British 

" 7. The nomination of my successor, and of all future 
successors, shall be according to the ancient laws and 
customs of my people, and shall be subject to the approval 
of the British government. 

io History of South Africa. [1883 

"8. I will not sell, or in any way alienate, or permit 
or countenance any sale or alienation of any part of the 
land in my territory. 

" 9. I will permit all people now residing within my 
territory to there remain upon the condition that they 
recognise my authority, and any persons not wishing to 
recognise my authority, and desiring to quit my territory, 
I will permit to quit it and to pass unmolested elsewhere. 

" 10. In all cases of dispute in which British subjects 
are involved I will appeal to and abide by the decision 
of the British resident, and in all cases where accusations 
of offences or crimes committed in my territory are brought 
against my people in relation to British subjects, I will 
hold no trial, and pass no sentence, except with the 
approval of such British resident. 

" 11. In all matters not included within these terms, 
conditions, and limitations, and in all cases unprovided 
for herein, and in all cases where there may be doubt or 
uncertainty as to the laws, rules, or stipulations applicable 
to matters to be dealt with, I will govern, order, and 
decide in accordance with the ancient laws and usage 
of my people. 

"12. I will observe and respect the boundaries of the 
territories placed under the appointed chief Sibebu, as 
also those of the territory which her Majesty's ^government 
have decided shall be set apart as reserved territory with 
a British resident commissioner, and I will not attempt 
in any way to interfere with any of the people liviDg 
in those territories. 

"13. I undertake to leave without interference all girls 
who, prior to the war in 1879, formed part of what was 
known as the Boyal Zulu House, and who since that 
time have been married, as also their husbands, parents, 
guardians, and other relations, and I will make no claim 
on any of them in respect of such marriage. And I also 
undertake to hold no one criminally or otherwise re- 
sponsible for any act of whatsoever nature or kind done 

1883] Diminution of Zulu Territory. 1 1 

or committed during my absence from Zululand, and I 
will not punish or proceed against any one for such 
in any way. 

" These terms, conditions, and limitations I engage, and 
I solemnly pledge my faith to abide by and respect in 
letter and in spirit, without qualification or reserve." 

These conditions, if faithfully kept, would have made 
Ketshwayo harmless : their fault was the absence of means 
to enforce them. They rested upon the word of a bar- 
barian, who did not have, and who could not in fairness 
be expected to have, such a conception of right and wrong 
as a civilised honourable European has. In some respects 
he was highly intelligent, but in others his faculties were 
those of a child. It was now to be seen whether in his 
case a written agreement covering many subjects would 
prove to be of greater value than all other similar con- 
tracts with Bantu chiefs in South Africa had been, that 
is, of no value at all. 

The only one of the conditions that was objected to 
by the Zulus assembled at Entonjaneni was the dimi- 
nution of territory, but that was just the one without 
which all the others would have been useless, for if the 
whole of his former country had been given back to 
Ketshwayo he would speedily have found means to regain 
his old authority. Mnyamana, Ndabuko (Ketshwayo's full 
brother), Dabulamanzi, and others who had hoped that 
the old order of things would be fully restored, expressed 
their keen disappointment over the creation of the reserve 
and the retention of Sibebu as an independent ruler. 
That was not the restoration of Ketshwayo, they said, 
it was his degradation. He himself also, as soon as he 
heard the expressions of dissatisfaction, protested against 
the division of Zululand, and asserted that he had only 
agreed to such a condition because without doing so he 
could not have recovered his liberty, and therefore he 
did not regard it as binding upon him. And immediately 
efforts began to be made to induce the British authorities 

12 History of South Africa. [1883 

to cancel the restriction, efforts which were not only 
approved of, but abetted by the persistent champion of 
Zulu dynastic claims, the bishop of Natal.* So inauspici- 
ously began the rule of Ketshwayo after his return to his 

As British resident with the chief Mr. Henry Francis 
Fynn, a son of the pioneer of the same name, was 
appointed, and remained with him when Sir Theophilus 
Shepstone returned to Natal. A tent waggon was left 
for him to live in, and another waggon and some bell 
tents were given to Ketshwayo for his use until his people 
could build a residence for him. 

The arrangements made for the reserve were reluctantly 
agreed to by John Dunn, though he was obliged to give 
up all his power. After a time he was recognised as 
chief of the people who chose to adhere to him, but with 
no greater authority than any of the heads of clans in 
Natal. On the 22nd of December 1882 Mr. John Wesley 
Shepstone, a brother of Sir Theophilus, was appointed 
commissioner to reside in the reserve and direct affairs in 
it, though it was not to be regarded as British territory. 
The taxation measures initiated by John Dunn were con- 
tinued, in order to raise a revenue sufficient to cover the 
expenses. At the end of March 1883 Mr. Melmoth Osborn 
succeeded Mr. Shepstone with the title of British Kesident 
Commissioner and Supreme Chief. 

Even if Ketshwayo had been personally disposed to act 
in accordance with the conditions imposed upon him, it 
was out of his power to do so. He was not what he once 
had been, a despot with unlimited power over a great 
army, but was obliged to accommodate himself to the 
inclinations of others. Mnyamana, who was without 
responsibility to the British government or any other 
power, treated the conditions with perfect scorn. Military 
kraals were built by his order, and the [surviving men 
of the Ngobamakosi and other regiments were called 

* Sea volume ii of 77k Ruin of Zululand by Miss F, E r Colenso. 

1883] Attack upon Sibebu. 13 

together again, though there were no big reviews to attract 
notice and no careful drilling as formerly. When reminded 
by Mr. Fynn that this was a violation of his pledges, 
Ketshwayo coolly asserted that the men were needed to 
build kraals for him, which he contended was perfectly 

Next a large army was organised, and under Mnya- 
mana's command marched to attack Sibebu and effect the 
conquest of his territory. On the 30th of March 1883 
this army reached its destination, but was skilfully drawn 
into a hilly locality, where it met with a crushing defeat. 
Mnyamana was outgeneralled by Sibebu, whose force was 
inferior in number, but superior in bravery and devotion 
to its chief. He concealed some of his men until his 
opponents had passed by, when he attacked them in 
the rear and in front at the same time. Ketshwayo's 
army broke and fled. It was closely pursued to the 
boundary of the district, losing about a thousand men on 
the way. On the boundary Sibebu's forces halted, and 
then turned back to kill the wounded who lay on the 
ground, as was the usual Zulu custom. This action 
Ketshwayo tried to explain away by asserting that he 
had given no order to attack Sibebu, and was in fact 
ignorant of the whole transaction until it was too late to 
prevent it. 

Early in May 1883 as large a force as could be mustered 
was sent against Hamu, who, however, had notice in 
time to prepare for defence. It was allowed to advance 
far from its base, and then unexpectedly Sibebu attacked 
its flanks while Hamu operated in front. This plan suc- 
ceeded, for the Usutu, as Ketshwayo's adherents were 
termed, turned and fled. They were pursued, and cut 
down without mercy. The slaughter was greater than on 
the former occasion, greater even than at Kambula, the 
Zulus asserted. But in June Hamu was defeated and his 
principal kraal was burnt, when he and his people were 
obliged to take refuge in a tract of country containing 

14 History of South Africa. [1883 

many caverns and natural strongholds, where they were safe 
from attack, but where they suffered severely from hunger. 

These attacks upon Hamu were justified by Ketshwayo 
on the ground that his brother was a rebel, who did not 
live in Sibebu's territory, but on ground restored to him 
by the British government. But on the 14th of July he 
attacked Sibebu again, on this occasion without any 
decisive result to either side. 

Sibebu now resolved to act on the offensive, and in the 
belief that his opponents must be disheartened by their 
recent reverses, in the early morning of the 21st of July 
he fell by surprise upon Ketshwayo's kraal at Ulundi, 
after marching during the greater part of the night. The 
Usutu were terror stricken, and made hardly any stand. 
Among the indunas who were in attendance on the chief 
was Tshingwayo, who was the commander of the Zulu 
army at Isandhlwana. He was at once stabbed to death. 
Another was Sirayo, who seized a saddled horse belonging 
to a Swazi who happened to be there, and assisted Ketsh- 
wayo to mount it. His son Methlokazulu took the reins 
and dragged the animal away, as Ketshwayo was not a 
good rider and his great weight caused it to stagger. 
Sirayo was struck down, but probably died contented, 
as he had done all that was possible to save his chief. 
Sibebu had given orders that no women or children were 
to be killed and there were three white men with him 
who presumably would act in the same spirit, but among 
his followers were many who were too excited to pay 
attention to such commands. Some of Ketshwayo's wives 
and several of the girls of his household perished, as did 
every male who did not take to flight. The great place 
was pillaged, all the presents received by the chief in 
England were taken, and then the huts and those of a 
military kraal close by were destroyed by fire. Nothing 
whatever was left, the site was as bare as a beaten road 
when Sibebu retired, driving with him all the cattle that 
had been Ketshwayo's. 

1883] Flight of Ketshwayo to his Reserve. 15 

While this was taking place, the young men of the 
attacking party were pursuing the fugitives and spearing 
all that were overtaken. Ketshwayo himself reached a 
bushy tract of country not far distant, and then told 
Methlokazulu to leave him, when he would endeavour to 
conceal himself. The faithful attendant did as he was 
ordered to do, and managed to get safely away. After a 
time several young men discovered the fugitive chief, 
and threw their assagais at him, one cutting the calf of 
his left leg, but not deeply, and another inflicting a severe 
wound in his right thigh. Ketshwayo in this strait ex- 
hibited all the fortitude of a Bantu chief of the best 
type. Standing upright and facing his assailants, " who 
are you," he demanded, "who dare to kill me?" They 
were struck with awe, and did not venture again to raise 
a hand against him. 

For nearly three weeks he moved about from place to 
place, without any one knowing where he was except a 
few devoted followers, who dressed his wounds and sup- 
plied him with food. Then, on the 9th of August, he 
took shelter in the Inkandhla forest in the reserve. In 
Natal, and indeed everywhere in South Africa, it was 
believed that he was dead, but soon after his arrival in 
the Inkandhla it began to be rumoured that he was still 
alive. A week or two later this became known as a 
certainty to the Natal government, and as it was appre- 
hended that his presence in the reserve might lead to 
fighting there, followed by a rush of fugitives across the 
Tugela, a military force, consisting of a squadron of the 
sixth dragoons and as many men of the forty-first 
regiment as could be mustered, was sent to Etshowe to 
support Mr. Osborn in trying to maintain order. Message 
after message was sent by the commissioner to the chief, 
desiring him to repair to the residency, but for more than 
two months he declined to do so. He was in hope that 
the people would rally and restore him to power once 
more, and was bitterly disappointed when only the sur- 

1 6 History of South Africa. [^^3 

viving members of his own household and a couple of 
hundred men came to join him in the Inkandhla. 

Meantime Sibebu was carrying all before him. After his 
great victory at Ulundi he went to the relief of Hamu, 
and then speedily made himself master of all northern 
Zululand. The Abaqulusi were Ketshwayo's staunchest 
adherents, and during the night of the 3rd of October he 
fell upon them by surprise, routed them, and slaughtered a 
large proportion of their fighting men. 

On learning this, all Ketshwayo's hope of relief came to 
an end. The unfortunate man seemed doomed to drink 
the cup of bitterness to the very dregs. Several farmers 
from the Transvaal visited him at this time with the 
object of ascertaining the exact condition of things, for 
the eastern districts of that state were kept in unrest by 
the frequent inroads of fugitives. Very likely their inten- 
tion was to propose such a plan as that carried out a little 
later, but this is uncertain, for they found him so weak 
and despondent that they did not care to discuss matters 
with him. He made only one request of them, which 
was that they would protect his son Dinizulu, who had 
so far escaped capture, if he sought shelter within their 
territory. This they said would certainly be done, and 
in fact Dinizulu did take refuge at Utrecht, where he was 
safe from pursuit. 

Mr. Fynn next had an interview with the fallen chief, 
whom he found careworn and much thinner in person than 
when he had last seen him. Ketshwayo was induced to 
promise that he would go to reside with the British com- 
missioner, so an ambulance was sent for, and on the 16th 
of October 1883 he was conveyed to Etshowe. The wound 
in his thigh was not yet completely healed, so the army 
surgeon at once attended to it. He left his wives in the 
Inkandhla, but was accompanied to Etshowe by the girls 
of his household and about two hundred male attendants. 
He had not been at war with Great Britain and had done 
nothing criminal, so that legally he could not be detained 

1884] Death of Ketshwayo. 17 

in confinement, though the general welfare required that 
he should not be left to do exactly as he pleased. He was 
therefore received by Mr. Osborn nominally as a guest of 
the British government, really as a state prisoner. Tents 
were given to him to live in at a short distance from the 
military camp until a comfortable hut could be built, and 
a guard of soldiers was provided, as he was told to protect 
him, but really to prevent him from escaping. He was 
in great mental distress, and frequently gave expression to 
a fear that he would be assassinated. On the 14th of 
January 1884, as some companies of the forty-first regiment 
had been withdrawn to be sent to Mauritius, the military 
guard was replaced by black policemen, which so alarmed 
Ketshwayo that in the night of the 27th he made his 
escape from the hut and fled to the military camp. There 
he was joined by several of his devoted adherents, who 
never went far from him. But on the following day by 
Mr. Osborn's order he was brought back to his hut again. 

The troubles of the unfortunate man were- now, however, 
nearly over. A little before midday on the 8th of February 
1884 he suddenly became faint, and four hours later was a 
corpse. The military doctor could not hold a post-mortem 
examination, as that would have irritated every Zulu in 
the country, but gave his opinion that heart disease was 
the cause of death. There can be no doubt that it was 
hastened by mental anxiety. There was much disputing as 
to where he should be buried, and also as to the length 
of time that should elapse before the interment, the 
custom of the military tribes being that the body of a 
supreme ruler should remain several weeks above ground, 
during which time the wailing of the women should 
be continuous. The custom was respected as far as Mr. 
Osborn thought it necessary to avoid giving offence. The 
body was fastened in a sitting position in a huge box 
filled with all of his personal effects that could be obtained, 
which was covered with black cloth, and at length was 
buried at the Sigqileni kraal in the Inkandhla. The grave 

vol. 11. 3 

1 8 History of South Africa. [1884 

was made on a low neck between two hills in a wide 
valley, and was thereafter regarded by the Zulus as a 
sacred spot. No widows or attendants were slaughtered 
and buried with the chief, as would have been the case 
in former times. 

Of the four supreme chiefs of the Zulu tribe, Ketshwayo 
was beyond dispute the best. Compared with the terrible 
Tshaka, the founder of the tribe, he was benevolent and 
humane, compared with the treacherous Dingana he was 
honest and truthful, compared with the slothful Panda, 
his father, he was energetic and progressive. It was the 
system of government, not the personal qualities of the 
man, that brought him to ruin. This has often been the 
same with much more prominent men than Ketshwayo. 
Louis XVI, of France, was a more amiable man than either 
of his two predecessors, but it was his fate to pay the 
penalty of their misconduct. In our own day Nicholas II, 
the best, though the weakest, of all the Komanoffs, lost 
the throne of Russia and his life because his predecessors 
were despots. 

After the death of Ketshwayo the quarrels between 
Hamu and Sibebu on one side and the Usutu party on 
the other went on as before. Sometimes in a skirmish one 
would be successful, sometimes the other, but in any case 
lives were lost and property was destroyed, without any 
decisive result. On the whole perhaps the Usutu were the 
gainers. Thus on the 16th of March 1884 Sibebu attacked 
Mnyamana in the Ingomi forest, but was repulsed with 
heavy loss, when Mnyamana pursued the fugitives and 
burnt his opponent's principal kraal. And on the 24th of 
the same month Sibebu was again defeated in an attempt 
to recover his lost ground. It became necessary to rein- 
force the British troops in the reserve, so the ninety-first 
regiment was brought up from Capetown for that purpose, 
but even then Mr. Osborn was unable to maintain order 
there. Ketshwayo's widows accused him of having poisoned 
their husband, and if he had not been well protected he 

1884] Installation of Dinizulu. 19 

would certainly have lost his life. In the night of the 
10th of May 1884 his residence was attacked by a large 
party of the Usutu, and about a hundred of the assailants 
were killed before the others withdrew discomfited. The 
matter was discussed in the house of commons, when the 
policy of the ministry was approved of, which was 
announced to be no responsibility for or interference with 
any part of Zululand beyond the reserve. It was con- 
sidered advisable, however, to strengthen the military force 
in South Africa, and the second battalion of the eighty- 
second or South Lancashire regiment was sent from 
England and arrived at Durban on the 5th of August 1884, 
and the thirteenth huzzars were ordered from Bombay, but 
did not reach Durban until the 28th of November in the 
same year. 

The farmers in the eastern districts of the South African 
Republic were thus almost forced to intervene. It was 
impossible for them to carry on their proper industry while 
exposed constantly to the inroads of Zulu refugees, who 
whenever defeated in a skirmish fled to them for protec- 
tion. They regarded what was termed the old disputed 
territory as theirs by right, and many of them had never 
ceased to use a portion of it as winter grazing ground, 
without being interfered with by the Zulus. This was the 
condition of things when Mnyamana made overtures to 
them for assistance on behalf of Dinizulu, and pro- 
fessed himself ready to agree to any reasonable conditions 
they should name. It was then arranged that Dinizulu 
should be installed as supreme chief and that a meeting 
should take place on the 23rd of May 1884 between the 
leaders of the Usutu and a committee of eight members to 
be elected by the farmers for the purpose of arranging 
terms. On the 21st of May the youth Dinizulu was placed 
by the farmers in front of a large assembly of the Usutu 
and was declared by them to be the lawful chief of the 
Zulus. He was received as such by the assemblage with 
acclamations and shouts of bayete, their highest form of 

20 History of South Africa. [1884 

salute. Such a farce as that enacted by Sir Theophilus 
Shepstone when he put a tinsel crown upon Ketshwayo's 
head was in Dinizulu's case omitted by the republican 
farmers, as it had been in the case of his grandfather 
Panda, when Andries Pretorius installed him as a ruler of 
the Zulus. 

At the meeting on the 23rd of May Mnyamana was the 
spokesman of the Usutu leaders, as he was the most 
powerful and influential among them, and was practically 
regent for Dinizulu, though Ndabuko bore that title. The 
farmers' committee stated that they were prepared to assist 
against Sibebu and restore and maintain order in the 
country, leaving Dinizulu to govern his people under their 
protection, provided they were granted eight hundred 
farms of three thousand morgen each in full possession and 
sovereignty. To this condition the Usutu leaders agreed, 
but either they were perfectly reckless, or they did not 
realise that this meant their parting with over seven thou- 
sand five hundred square miles of ground. The boundary 
of the land to be ceded was not settled, only it was 
understood that the old disputed territory was to be 
included in it. The government of the South African 
Eepublic had nothing whatever to do with this arrange- 
ment, it was entirely the act of private individuals forced 
by circumstances to provide for their own security. 

The committee immediately made known throughout South 
Africa what had been done, and invited competent persons 
to take part in the venture. Applications were made 
chiefly by farmers in the Transvaal, but some were sent 
from the Orange Free State, some from the Cape Colony, 
and no fewer than one hundred and fifty from young men 
in Natal, sons of Dutch-speaking farmers in that colony. 
So many made application in person without any delay 
that in less than a fortnight three hundred men were in 
the field, and as Sibebu declined to submit to Dinizulu, a 
very strong Usutu army aided by a hundred farmers 
attacked him on the 5th of June, while two hundred were 

1884] Utter Defeat of Sibebu. 21 

so stationed as to prevent Hamu from joining him. There 
were nine English traders in his district, and they had 
always assisted him before, but on this occasion they 
thought it prudent to make their escape, leaving all their 
property behind. The farmers only fired a single volley, for 
Sibebu's men fled at once. The Usutu contingent, seven 
or eight thousand strong, was with difficulty restrained 
from a general slaughter, and mad with the joy of success 
spread over the district, plundering and laying waste all 
before them. The traders lost the whole of their property. 
One of them, Grosvenor Darke by name, assisted Sibebu 
to escape, and they managed to conceal themselves for 
several days and travel by night until on the 12th they 
reached Etshowe and were protected by Mr. Osborn. 
Ultimately some six thousand of Sibebu's people, or about 
one third of his followers, in a famishing state, were so 
fortunate as to make their way to the reserve, which 
became an asylum for them, as it had been for their 
enemies. Such were the reverses of fortune at that time 
in Zululand. 

Hamu now thought it advisable to make peace, which 
he did by professing submission to Dinizulu, so that the 
farmers were not three weeks in the field when the war 
was over. 

So many people had by this time perished that the 
Zulu tribe as a whole was only a fraction of what it had 
been before 1879, and large areas in the country were 
almost without inhabitants. To add to their trouble their 
corn and cattle had been destroyed in the long strife, 
they had been unable to cultivate gardens, and now a 
dire famine set in. It became necessary for the military 
commissariat in the reserve to purchase grain in Natal, 
and distribute it to the refugees there, or they would 
have died of starvation. It was indeed time for peace 
if the most renowned tribe in South Africa, the tribe 
that once deemed itself invincible, was not to disappear 

22 History of South Africa [1884 

On the 16th of August 1884 an instalment of 1,350,000 
morgen of land was formally ceded by the Zulus to the 
farmers, and arrangements as to all other matters having 
been settled with tho consent of both parties, Mr. Lucas 
Johannes Meyer, the acting state president, issued pro- 
clamations declaring the establishment of the New Kepublic 
as a sovereign independent state, and a protectorate over 
the remainder of Zululand beyond the reserve. At the 
same time a proclamation was issued by Dinizulu, with 
the concurrence of the leading men of the Usutu party, 
ratifying and confirming those by Mr. Meyer. The 
farmers had taken care not to trespass upon or to 
interfere in any way with the reserve, and so the British 
authorities did not interfere with them. In this manner 
a new South African state, though a very small one, 
came into existence. 

A volksraad was elected, and all the machinery of a 
regular government was provided. A town, named Vryheid, 
was laid out to be the capital. Mr. P. J. Joubert was 
invited to be the president, and when he declined Mr. 
Lucas Meyer was elected and proved himself a competent 
man. The territory ceded was too small to provide each 
of the eight hundred adventurers with a farm or cattle 
run of the full size of three thousand morgen or six 
thousand English acres, so it was proposed that 
only those who had taken part in the first engagement 
should receive such grants, and those who came later 
smaller allotments, in many cases of only a thousand 

The citizens of the New Kepublic were desirous that 
their state should be acknowledged by the British 
authorities, but were unable to obtain its formal recog- 
nition, though they were not directly interfered with. 
It was merely brought to their notice that Dinizulu was 
not legally the supreme chief of the Zulus, because it 
was stipulated in the conditions under which Ketshwayo 
was restored that his successors should be approved of 

1885] Attitude of Mnyamana. 23 

by the British government, and further in the same con- 
ditions alienation of ground was prohibited. 

The action of the Bremen merchant Luderitz, 
who tried at this time to obtain for Germany a footing 
on the coast of Zululand, caused Great Britain to call 
to mind the cession of Saint Lucia Bay by Panda in 
1843, and Lieutenant-Commander Moore was sent in her 
Majesty's ship Goshawk to take formal possession of 
that inlet. On the 18th of December 1884 he hoisted 
the British flag there, and with the usual ceremonies 
proclaimed the bay and its shores British property. In 
the following year the New Republic caused a township 
and a number of farms to be laid out there, and advertised 
the sale by public auction on the 2nd of October 1885 of 
three hundred and four building allotments, each an 
acre in size, in the township. But the project came to 
nothing, as the governor of Natal in his capacity as 
special commissioner for Zululand notified that the bay 
and its shores belonged to Great Britain, and the farmers 
were apprehensive that if they attempted to occupy the 
surveyed ground it might lead to collision with the British 

There was now peace in Zululand, and such order was 
established that the people could turn their attention to 
the cultivation of the ground. The only disturbing element 
was that Mnyamana, having gained his object, regretted 
the large price he had paid for it. He began to assert 
that by the cession of farms he had meant the use of the 
ground for winter grazing, not its permanent occupation. 
When it was proved to him in such a way that he 
could deny it no longer, that he had clearly understood 
that sovereign rights and full possession were ceded, he 
shifted his ground and asserted that he and the other 
Zulu leaders had intended to grant farms only to those 
who actually fought for them, and asked why all those 
who came into the country at a later date and had done 
nothing for them should obtain ground at their expense. 

24 History of South Africa. t l88 5 

In this line of argument he was supported by Dinizulu, 
Ndabuko, and all the other leaders of the tribe. The 
reply of the farmers was short and to the point. 
Eight hundred men had been named, they said, because 
that number would be needed to maintain order permanently, 
and if there was any further repudiation of the agreement 
entered into they would take possession of the full extent 
of ground they were entitled to, which they had not yet 
done, leaving still for the Zulu people ample for their 
maintenance. This settled the matter for the time, but 
it was pretty certain that care must be taken not to 
allow the Zulus an opportunity to recover their strength 
or there would be trouble again. 

On the 24th of June 1885 Mr. Gladstone resigned 
as prime minister of England, and was succeeded by 
Lord Salisbury, with Colonel Frederick A. Stanley as 
secretary of state for the colonies. It was believed that 
the new ministry would favour the expansion of the 
British dominions much more readily than their pre- 
decessors had done, whose policy had been guided by 
caution and a desire to avoid additional responsibility. 

As matters looked so favourable from their point of 
view, on the 15th of July 1885 the legislative council of 
Natal, then in session, transmitted the following resolu- 
tions to Governor Sir Henry Bulwer, with a request 
that he would communicate them by telegraph to the 
secretary of state for the colonies : 

" 1. That this council recognises the fact that the 
interests of Zululand and of this colony are inseparable. 

"2. That in the opinion of this house it is desirable 
that her Majesty's rule should at once be extended 
over the whole of Zululand. 

"3. As soon as existing difficulties shall have been 
adjusted, this council considers that the territory should 
be united to Natal, upon such terms and conditions as 
may be mutually agreed upon between the imperial 
government and this colony. 

i886] Death of Dabulamansi. 25 

" 4. That this council is further of opinion that it 
will be for the advantage of the countries to the north 
of Zululand, between the South African Eepublic and 
the Portuguese frontiers, to be included in any arrange- 
ment which may be made. 

These resolutions were taken into consideration by 
the imperial authorities, who did not consider it 
advisable to comply with them, as Natal made no offer 
to bear the expense. 

In March 1886 negotiations for a settlement of Zulu- 
land were opened between Sir Arthur Havelock, governor 
of Natal, on behalf of the British ministry, and the 
authorities of the New Eepublic, but nothing definite 
had been arrived at when on the 22nd of September 
an event took place which brought matters to a point. 

The chief Dabulamanzi, who bore a very indifferent 
character, was summoned to appear before a petty 
magistrate at Vryheid to answer to a charge of attempt- 
ing to cheat a man from whom he had bought a horse, 
and as he did not comply, two farmers were sent to 
bring him by force. He was arrested, but shortly after- 
wards made his escape, and fled into the reserve. The 
farmers pursued him and arrested him the second time, 
but had only proceeded a few paces when he turned 
and attacked one of them. A scuffle followed, and he 
got away from them and was running to a shelter 
when one or both of them fired and killed him. The body 
was found with three wounds, any one of which would 
have caused death. This took place within the boundary 
of the reserve, and therefore it could not be overlooked 
by the British government. 

The authorities at Vryheid at once realised the difficult 
position in which they were placed by the violation of 
territory under British control, though not under British 
sovereignty, and sent a commission of three members, 
Messrs. L. J. Meyer, P. B. Spies, and D. J. Esselen, to 
Maritzburg to renew the negotiations that had been 

26 History of South Africa. [1886 

suspended with Sir Arthur Havelock, with instructions to 
agree to the best terms they could obtain if by doing so 
they could prevent military invasion and preserve the 
independence of the republic. They were successful 
in their mission, for on the 22nd of October 1886 an 
agreement was signed by Governor Sir Arthur Havelock 
and themselves, which was ratified by the imperial 
authorities, by which the independence of the New Eepublic, 
but with a very restricted boundary, was acknowledged, 
and its protectorate over the remainder of Zululand 

On the 30th of September, while the discussion that led 
to this arrangement was going on privately at government 
house, Mr. J. L. Hulett brought again before the legisla- 
tive council of Natal the desirability of the annexation 
of Zululand to that colony. The great advantage would 
be not only that the influx of Bantu refugees from 
that territory would cease, but that many thousands 
then in Natal would return to their former homes. 
Northern Zululand was then very thinly inhabited, so 
that there was ample space for a great many more people 
to occupy. The debate was adjourned, but on the 21st 
of October the following resolutions were adopted by 
twenty-two votes against those of the five heads of 
departments : 

"1. That this colony is prepared to accept the responsi- 
bilities of the government of Zululand and the reserve. 

" 2. That a respectful address be presented to the 
governor, praying his Excellency to be pleased to send 
down a bill during the present session to give effect to 
the resolution, and that his Excellency will be pleased 
to communicate the resolution by telegraph to the secretary 
of state for the colonies." 

The council then suspended its sittings until the 27th 
of October, pending the receipt of a reply from the 
secretary of state. It came on the 27th, and was to 
the effect that as negotiations had been opened with 

1887] Revolt of Dinizulu. 27 

the farmers in Zululand, and subsequently resumed, the 
proposals of the legislative council could not be entertained. 
This was a great disappointment to the people of Natal, 
and some of the elected members of the council felt 
the rebuff very keenly, but nothing further could then 
be done in the matter. 

On the 19th of May 1887, however, Zululand was 
formally annexed to the British dominions, and a com- 
mission was issued to the governor of Natal appointing 
him also governor of that territory, but not other- 
wise incorporating it. Under this arrangement Zululand 
was made to comprise the former reserve and all 
the remainder of the territory once governed by 
Ketshwayo except the district of Vryheid or the New 
Eepublic, and that, being too small to maintain an 
independent government, on the 11th of September 1887 
was incorporated in the South African Eepublic. The 
territory was divided into six districts, named Etshowe, 
Nkandhla, Nqutu, Entonjaneni, Ndwandwe, and Lower 
Umvolosi. To each of these on the 21st of June a 
European magistrate was appointed, with a strong body 
of police to support his authority. The Natal native code 
was proclaimed by the governor as supreme chief to be 
the law in force. 

Not unnaturally Dinizulu, Ndabuko, Tshingana, and 
some others objected to these measures, and they rose 
in arms against them and gave so much trouble that it 
became necessary to hunt them down and put them 
upon their trial for high treason before a special 
court that sat at Etshowe for the purpose. They were 
all found guilty, and were sentenced to imprisonment 
for a long term of years. This was commuted by the 
authorities in England to banishment to the island of 
Saint Helena, where they were treated with the utmost 
consideration, were provided for in a very liberal manner, 
and were at liberty to go about as they pleased. Their 
banishment was followed by perfect order in the 

28 Histojy of South Africa. [1S97 

territory, where everything went on so smoothly that 
on the 30th of December 1897 Zululand and the district 
between it and the Portuguese possessions* were annexed 
to Natal. 

In this manner the most formidable of the military 
powers that had their origin in the early years of the 
nineteenth century was overthrown, to the great gain not 
only of Natal, which colony was now able to make a great 
bound forward in prosperity, but of every black man in 
South Africa. 

* That is Tongaland, bounded on the north by a line following the 
parallel of the confluence of the Pongolo with the Maputa river to 
the Indian ocean, on the east by the Indian ocean, on the west by the 
Pongolo river, and on the south by Zululand, over which a British 
protectorate had been proclaimed on the 30th of May 1895 by Mr. C. R. 
Saunders, resident magistrate of Etshowe, acting under instructions from 
the governor of Natal. 



While hostilities with the Zulus were being carried on, 
the Cape Colony was engaged in two petty but harassing 
wars : one with various little clans living along the 
central course of the Orange river, the other with the 
rebel Baputi chief Morosi, near the head waters of the 
same stream. 

The first of these — known as the Northern Border 
war — was very closely connected with the disturbances 
in Griqualand West that have been related in another 
volume, and may be considered as a continuation of 
them. The principal actors in it were : 

1. Donker Malgas, a Xosa, and captain of a band of 
vagrants who had wandered away from their own tribe 
and country and roamed about in the territory along 
the southern bank of the Orange river. The government 
had tried to induce them to lead a settled life, and 
allotted to some of them ground at Schietfontein, now 
Carnarvon, but with few exceptions they preferred to 
live as nomads. Their grievance was that farms were 
being sold to white men in what was called Bushman- 
land, and they could no longer move about wherever 
they pleased. Donker Malgas had taken part in the 
disturbances in Griqualand West, and after the capture 
of his stronghold in the Langeberg by Major Lanyon in 
June 1878 he had taken refuge on the islands in the 
Orange river with those of his followers who had 
escaped. There he remained quiet for a time, while he 
was gathering strength again, and might have been for- 


30 History of South Africa. [1878 

gotten if he had not renewed the career of a marauder 
on the first favourable opportunity. He was one of 
those exempted from the amnesty granted to the 
Griqualand West rebels and their associates on the 15th 
of November 1878. 

2. Klaas Pofadder, captain of a Korana clan. In the 
war of 1869 Pofadder had assisted the government, but 
it was because some rival captains with whom he was 
at feud were fighting against the colony. In such cases, 
however, the causes of the conduct of a supporter of 
the government are seldom analysed, and it was 
sufficient for the white people to know that Pofadder 
was a staunch ally, who was exerting himself to the 
utmost to destroy their enemies. He was regarded as 
another Andries Waterboer, and an agreement was made 
with him that he should be supplied yearly with a 
quantity of powder and lead, in order that he should 
be the strongest captain on the border and maintain 
there peace. He drew his allowance regularly, but got 
tired of being so long on one side, and in 1879 turned 
against his former friends. He had no particular griev- 
ance except that colonial law was too strict in taking 
notice of any little mistake, such as appropriating other 
people's cattle, committed by a zealous partisan like 

3. Jacobus Afrikaner. This man was head of a section 
of the Afrikaner clan of Hottentots that had separated 
from Jonker when the latter went to reside on the 
border of Hereroland. He and his people had lived by 
making periodical raids upon the clans to the northwest, 
but after the Herero war of liberation they could do 
so no longer. As he observed, they had to eat, and 
so they turned their attention to the European farmers 
and the mixed breeds on the south, or indeed to any 
one and every one that they could plunder. This was 
their normal way of obtaining the wherewithal to eat, 
and as they were extremely conservative in their ideas, 

1878] The Northern Border War. 31 

a change to what the Europeans termed honest industry 
never once occurred to them. Naturally they and the 
Cape government were on terms of enmity. 

4. Klaas Lukas, the petty Korana captain who has 
been mentioned in another volume. His followers as well 
as those of Pofadder had Bushmen living with them, 
who had a good cause of complaint against the colonial 
government, if they had known how to express it, in 
that the land occupied by their ancestors from time 
immemorial was being parcelled out and sold without any 
provision being made for them. They and the Koranas 
were hereditary enemies, but they were now reduced 
to such a condition that their only means of obtaining 
food was by serving their pitiless foes as dogs and 
receiving such refuse as might be cast to them. The 
vast majority had perished, some few were still striv- 
ing to live as their ancestors had done, though the 
game — their cattle — had nearly all been destroyed, and 
others had sunk to this most wretched condition. Klaas 
Lukas and Pofadder were recognised by the colonial 
government as the owners of a strip of land forty or 
fifty miles (sixty-four or eighty kilometres) wide along 
the northern bank of the Orange river, extending from 
the great falls eastward to the Griqualand West border, 
and Jacobus Afrikaner claimed the territory west of the 
falls to Schuit drift as having been given to him by the 
captain of the Bondelzwarts clan of Namaquas. 

5. Gamka Windwai, a Griqua who was at the head 
of a little band of the most disaffected men in Griqua- 
land West, men who preferred to live as outlaws rather 
than submit to the government under the conditions of 
the amnesty of the 15th of November 1878. They were 
of very little account, however, and shortly after the 
commencement of operations against them sank out of 
sight altogether. 

If all South Africa — possibly all the world — had been 
searched, a more utterly worthless collection of human 

32 History of South Africa. [1878 

beings could not have been got together than these 
ragamuffin vagabonds who refused to submit to the 
restraints of law and order, and set the colonial govern- 
ment at defiance. The only grievance that any of them 
had was that part of the ground they roamed over was 
being occupied as farms, but the Xosas, Koranas, and 
Afrikaner Hottentots would have had ample locations 
assigned to them if they had consented, as other members 
of their tribes had done, to lead settled lives. That they 
would not do, and there is no longer room, even in the 
most arid part of South Africa, for nomad barbarians to 
eke out a miserable existence, nor could a civilised 
government permit them to live by plundering graziers 
on their borders. As for the Bushmen, they could not 
cease from being wanderers, and were therefore doomed 
to perish. 

The whole of these bands together formed but a puny 
force, and from a military point of view would have 
been utterly contemptible if they had not occupied a 
position where it was exceedingly difficult to grapple 
with them. They had their strongholds on the islands 
in the Orange river, but they moved about from one to 
another, and when they were found could nearly always 
elude an attack upon them. In the last extremity they 
could usually retreat into the Kalahari desert, where they 
were almost safe from pursuit. 

At first the disturbances caused by these robbers were 
regarded by the colonial government as being a mere 
matter for the police to settle, but it soon became 
evident that they were assuming a serious form, though 
Klaas Pofadder was still believed to be friendly. 

In May 1878 Mr. Joseph Sissison, an officer of volun- 
teers who was then serving against the rebel Gaikas, 
was directed to raise a force of one hundred horsemen, 
and proceed to the northern border to restore order. 
Soon after his arrival there some cattle thefts on an 
extensive scale took place, and were traced to Klaas 

1878] The Northern Border War. 33 

Lukas. Captain Sissison followed the marauders, and 
on the 12th of July was so fortunate as to come up 
with them at Wilgenhout Drift, where he was able to 
make one hundred and thirteen of them prisoners and 
to retake most of their booty. Klaas Lukas himself 

The other insurgents were not intimidated by this loss, 
so on the 29th of August Colonel Zachary Bayly, who 
was then in command of the duke of Edinburgh's 
volunteer corps, was sent up from Capetown with Lieu- 
tenant S. Jones and a small party of men. On the 24th 
of September the Capetown volunteer artillery followed, 
it being supposed that the guns would be of great use 
in operations against the islands. They probably would 
have been if the marauders' exact position at any 
given time had been known, but as that position might 
be anywhere along a line of over a hundred kilometres 
in length, they proved to be quite useless. Colonel Bayly's 
services being required elsewhere, he remained on the 
northern border only a few weeks, during which time he 
could do nothing, and on the 25th of October he arrived 
in Capetown again. 

In November Mr. Edward Judge was sent up as 
special commissioner, and made several recommendations, 
but could not devise a plan for suppressing the disturb- 
ances speedily. Captain Sissison was now stationed at 
Kenhart with his northern border horse to patrol the 
country and keep open the line of communications. 
Lieutenant Jones was encamped at Olievenhout Drift 
with a few volunteers and a number of mixed breeds 
recruited in the territory to the south, and patrolled the 
country in that neighbourhood. Upon the two centres 
thus occupied the marauders kept a vigilant watch, and 
were careful never to expose themselves to an attack. 

Captain Nesbitt, of the Cape mounted rifles, was 
acting as special magistrate, but as his health broke 
down, Mr. Maximilian Jackson, who had filled a similar 

vol. 11. 4 

34 History of South Africa. [ l8 79 

post ten years previously, was appointed special com- 
missioner and commandant-general, and on the 17th of 
December 1878 arrived at Kenhart, where the office was. 
He then proceeded to Olievenhout Drift, and according 
to his instructions at once sent messages to Donker 
Malgas, Klaas Lukas, and Gamka Windwai, offering to 
all of them free pardon for the past if they would 
desist from robbery and settle down peaceably, but they 
declined to meet him or to entertain the proposal. 

Mr. Jackson then raised a mixed force of over six 
hundred men, with whom he tried to capture the 
robbers, but could do nothing beyond protecting the 
colony from their inroads. It was very difficult to obtain 
supplies of food for the men and horses, as only meat 
was to be procured in the neighbourhood, and it was 
oppressively hot in midsummer, so that every one was 
thoroughly weary of the duty and longed to get away. 
Add to this that it was easier to discover jackals than 
to find the men wanted when they did not wish to be 
seen, and the condition of things can be faintly realised. 
The disturbance was costing the colony £10,000 a month, 
and no advance was being made towards ending it. 

The attorney-general, Mr. Upington, accompanied from 
Capetown by Commandant McTaggart and a party of 
volunteers, then went to the scene of operations, and 
tried to expedite matters by taking possession of some 
of the islands and scouring them, upon which Mr. 
Jackson, who felt that he could do no more than he 
had been doing, resigned his post. A little later it was 
accidentally discovered that Klaas Lukas's people were on 
a particular island, and by a rapid and unexpected move- 
ment on the 27th of April 1879 a division of the 
colonial forces under Commandant McTaggart got posses- 
sion of the place after a sharp skirmish, in which six 
of the attacking party were wounded. Several of the 
robbers were killed, and three men, thirty-six women, 
and thirty-nine children were made prisoners. These 

1879] The Northern Border War. 35 

were sent to a distant part of the colony, where they 
were detained. The spoil in cattle was not large. Most 
of the men who had been there had made their escape, 
and went farther down the river to the great falls, 
where Pofadder's clan was then lurking. 

On learning this, Commandant McTaggart followed 
them, and by skilful strategy succeeded in surrounding 
and surprising them at their camping place. Without 
any loss of life he captured there one hundred and 
forty-six men and two hundred and seventy-eight women 
and children, and then took possession of thirty-two 
horses, four hundred and twenty-one head of horned 
cattle, three hundred sheep and goats, five waggons, one 
cart, and one hundred and seven stand of arms. Klaas 
Pofadder and Jacobus Afrikaner escaped with a few men. 
Klaas ]jukas and Gamka Windwai were not there at 
the time. Jacobus Afrikaner fled to the Bondelzwarts 
Hottentots* in Great Namaqualand, and claimed protec- 
tion from them, but they surrendered him to Com- 
mandant McTaggart, who sent him to Capetown with 
the other prisoners. 

On the 22nd of June Captain George Back with thirty 
men of the Griqualand West border police fell in with 
a party of the insurgents trying to make their way from 
the islands to the Barolong country, and had a sharp 
engagement with them. Twenty-five of them were 
killed, and the others, thirty-eight in number, among 
whom was their leader Gamka Windwai, were made 
prisoners. Things were now looking decidedly brighter on 
the government side. 

Pofadder and Malgas were still at large, as was also 
Klaas Lukas, but all of them were closely followed up, 
so with the remnants of their bands they retired into 
the Kalahari desert. On their spoor went Captain 
Alexander Maclean, of the Cape mounted rifles, who was 

* The Bondelzwarts' country was from Schuit Drift on the Orange 
river nearly to the coast, and ran back about 150 miles. 

36 History of South Africa. [1879 

perhaps the best man in the country for this kind of 
work, and who had with him men who would follow 
him anywhere. After the water carried with them was 
exhausted, men and horses alike had no other liquid 
nourishment than the juice of wild melons, but with 
that they managed to exist. On the 1st of July Maclean 
surprised and captured Pofadder's whole gang, consisting 
of Pofadder himself, twenty-five men, and forty women and 
children, with four horses and fifty head of horned cattle. 

The pursuit of Donker Malgas was a long one. He 
doubled again and again, and gave a lot of trouble, but 
Maclean followed him steadily, and at length, on the 
20th of July, drove him to a position from which he 
could not escape. He attempted to resist, but was shot 
dead with eight of his adherents, when one hundred and 
fifty others surrendered. Klaas Lukas managed to escape, 
but with only seven followers left he was powerless to 
do more harm. 

In these operations Dirk Philander, petty chief at Mier, 
about one hundred and fifty miles or two hundred and 
forty kilometres farther north, who had two hundred men 
under him, gave much assistance to the colonial force. 

The disturbances were now ended, and as care was 
taken by the government that none of the prisoners 
should return to the northern border, there was no 
danger of the trouble being renewed at any future time. 
In July 1879 Mr. John H. Scott was appointed special 
magistrate, and he was shortly able to report that the 
territory was as quiet and safe to live in as any other 
part of the colony. 

An event of a painful nature in connection with this 
disturbance remains to be related. That the lives of such 
degraded beings as those who gave so much trouble on 
the northern border should not be esteemed as much 
more sacred than those of jackals by men undergoing 
toil, privations, and great discomfort in hunting them 
down is scarcely to be wondered at, but the whole 

l8 79] The Northern Border War. ' $y 

colony was shocked when it became known that four 
men on their way to prison had been shot down in 
cold blood by their escort, and a fifth had been badly 
wounded, but managed to conceal himself ; and in 
another case that a number of wounded prisoners, among 
whom were some women and children, had been similarly 
put to death. It was exceedingly difficult to get correct 
information upon these occurrences, as those who pro- 
fessed to know the particulars stated that in the first 
case the men who were shot were attempting to make 
their escape, and in the second case that the victims 
were severely wounded and could not recover, so that it 
was an act of pity to put them out of their misery. 
There were discrepancies in these statements, however, 
which caused them to be disbelieved. 

After much investigation five men were arrested and 
put upon their trial for wilful murder before the circuit 
court sitting at Victoria West, the seat of magistracy 
that furnished the largest number of burghers that had 
taken the field. Two of these men were Europeans, 
and were charged with the murder of prisoners under 
their care. The evidence was strong against them, but 
they were acquitted by the jury, the verdict being re- 
ceived with applause by a large body of excited men 
who had assembled to listen to the proceedings. The 
trial of the other three — two of whom were Europeans 
and the other a black — then came on for participation 
in what had become known as the Koegas atrocities. 
The evidence in this case also appeared to be clear, but 
the two Europeans were acquitted and the black was 
found guilty only of assault with intent to do grievous 
bodily harm, for which he was sentenced to five years' 
imprisonment with hard labour. 

It was not only throughout South Africa, but in 
England and Scotland, that indignation was aroused by 
what was held to be a gross miscarriage of justice. The 
attorney-general, Mr. Upington, was generally blamed 

38 History of South Africa. [1879 

for not removing the second trial from Victoria West 
when the verdict in the first showed that impartiality 
could not be expected from a jury there, owing to the 
prevailing excitement, and the Cape Argus in particular 
contained some very scathing remarks upon his conduct. 
In consequence, Mr. Upington brought actions for libel 
against Mr. Saul Solomon, the proprietor of the Argus, 
and Mr. Francis Joseph Dormer, the editor of that 
paper, fixing the damages in each case at £10,000. 
Since the celebrated trial of the reverend Dr. Philip for 
libel, no case had excited such widespread interest 
throughout South Africa as this. It was not only the 
character of the attorney-general that was involved in 
the issue, but the extent of the liberty of the press to 
criticise the conduct of a public official. 

The cases came on together, but with different 
advocates, on the 16th of December 1879 before the chief 
justice, Sir Henry de Villiers, and Mr. Justice Stocken- 
strom, and on the 22nd judgment was delivered. The 
attorney-general was pronounced not to have been guided 
by improper motives, but he was not freed from all 
blame. Mr. Solomon was adjudged to pay one shilling 
as damages, each party to defray his own costs, and 
Mr. Dormer was made to pay £5 and the costs on both 
sides. Newspapers were pronounced to have the right of 
fair criticism, but their statements must be based on 
facts and be free of malice. 

A wonderful change has taken place since 1879 in the 
part of South Africa where the disturbances here related 
occurred. The haunts of the untamable robber clans, 
where neither shelter nor food other than flesh was to 
be had, within a quarter of a century became a busy 
hive of industry, where grain, and fruit, and vegetables 
were grown in abundance for the supply of the graziers 
and others to a great distance around. A missionary, the 
reverend Mr. Schroder, designed a plan of a canal to 
lead the water of the Orange out to irrigate a large 

1879] The Kakamas Labour Colony, 39 

tract of rich land on the northern side of the stream, 
and induced a number of the mixed-breeds from the nearest 
colonial districts to carry out the scheme under his super- 
vision. The government supplied the necessary tools and 
powder for blasting, and the largest work of its kind in 
South Africa at that time was successfully completed. 
The ground below the canal was divided into agricultural 
plots, and each family of the mixed-breeds had one 
assigned to it. A marvellous transformation then took 
place. The rich soil was cleared and planted, and very 
shortly Upington, as the place was named, was produc- 
ing all that was needed for the comfortable maintenance 
of men and domestic animals. 

Then the question of what could be done to improve 
the condition of the poor landless white people in the 
country became a prominent one, and the synod of the 
Dutch reformed church resolved, as one means, to 
establish a labour colony on the banks of the Orange, 
where the falls or rapids offer facilities for irrigation, 
and where the flats of deep alluvial soil along the banks 
are capable of producing almost anything. Large sums 
of money were needed, but were raised, and the Kaka- 
mas labour colony was founded, which has steadily grown 
in usefulness until now (in 1918) some hundreds of 
Christian families live there in comfortable homes and in 
a modest and frugal way enjoy the reward of honest 
industry. The only drawback is great heat in the 
summer months, November to April, but this is endured 
with the reflection that there is no longer a flawless 
paradise anywhere on earth. 

Note. — My friend the reverend G. A. Maeder, retired minister of the 
Dutch reformed church, has kindly supplied me with the following 
information t " The reverend Christian Schroder was formerly a 
missionary of the Ehenish society, who after labouring for a dozen 
or twenty years at Olievenhout Drift joined our church, and went as 
my successor to Witzi's Hoek. After a few years he returned to his 
old field of work, and having seen the benefit of a water furrow I had 
caused to be made for Moperi's people, he planned the construction 

40 History of South Africa. t 1 ^ 8 

of a furrow to lead out the water of the Orange on the northern 
bank from a higher level to cultivable land below at the place now 
called Upington. The people he worked with were mixed-breeds, the 
offspring of degraded white men and Korana women. These people 
obtained the land along the Orange in the neighbourhood of the 
islands from the thoughtless Koranas for a mere song, especially 
from De Neus, where the rapids are (at present utilised by our 
synod both on the south and north sides of the river for the labour 
colony), up to Pof adder, a small village on the colonial side of the 
river. The falls are about half way between De Neus and Pofadder, 
the latter place being twenty hours on horseback or one hundred 
and twenty miles from Kenhart. On account of his success Mr. 
Schroder was invited before the British-Boer war broke out to give 
the church the benefit of his experience with our labour colony under 
a committee consisting of the reverend Mr. Marchand, who had 
studied labour colonies in Germany, as chairman, of which committee 
I was then a member as minister of Victoria West. He succeeded 
so well that at a cost of JE30,000 we had three hundred families of 
poor whites labouring on plots of seven morgen each, to whom the 
synod as landlord let the plots at from JE2 10s. to j£12 according to 
their respective vajues. This had been accomplished on the south 
side of the Orange river for a length of eight to ten miles, on an 
extent of land measuring in all about one hundred thousand morgen 
properly transferred to the Dutch reformed church. During the boer 
war Mr. Schroder got into trouble, and was confined to Tokai for 
a year. After his release he returned to Upington, but found a little 
remnant of his mixed-breed congregation taken possession of, church, 
parsonage, and all, by the Wesleyans, from whom we regained our 
property by appealing to the supreme court. During that war the 
mixed-breeds having joined the British forces dwindled away, and 
Mr. Schroder was in such distress on account of their disappearance 
that he worked with half a heart as our superintendent, but for all 
that he brought the furrow on the southern side farther on to the 
mouth of the Hartebeest river, a distance of twelve to fifteen miles, 
before he resigned. Since that time the work has been carried on 
by the reverend Messrs. De Bruyn, Hofmeyr, and Shaw, and Mr. 
Conradie. The result has been that our labour colony now possesses 
one hundred and ten thousand morgen of ground, and has another 
furrow on the north side of a length of not less than twenty-five 
miles, and all the islands between De Neus and near to Upington 
are irrigated also. The whole colony north and south of the river 
has cost up to the present between £140,000 and £150,000, and now 
consists of over three thousand souls. We have a good market 
among the neighbouring sheepfarmers, to whom we sell a muid of 
corn at j£2 to £2 10s., and quickly dispose of all our vegetables and 
fruit. The railway has now brought us into close contact with what 

1918] The Rebellion of Morosi. 41 

was German South-West Africa, which supplies us with another 
market. We have no anxiety about the future, except that the river 
may dry up again for a month or two at Kakamas." Heavy floods 
were not taken into account by the writer of this paragraph, but on 
one occasion recently much damage was caused by them. 

Of the Baputi chief Morosi an account has been given 
in preceding volumes, in which his career was briefly 
traced from his accession to the leadership of his clan 
until he became a British subject.* He was of mixed 
Bantu and Bushman blood, as were many of his fol- 
lowers, and the colour of his skin approached more 
nearly to yellow than to blackish brown. When the 
Bantu invaded the territory they destroyed all the Bush- 
man males and all the females except young girls that 
they could hunt down, classifying them as wild animals, 
not as human beings. Yet they preserved the girls as 
concubines, and a mixed progeny was the result, just as 
the Masarwa had arisen in earlier times on the border 
of the Kalahari desert. In general these mixed-breeds 
were not regarded by the pure blacks as their equals 
socially, but occasionally instances occurred, as in the 
case of the family of Mokuane, in which they filled 
leading positions. The remarkable obstinacy that Morosi 
displayed, and his refusal to agree to any terms of sur- 
render that did not include his absolute freedom were 
characteristics of his Bushman rather than of his Bantu 
blood. Nevertheless as he spoke a Bantu dialect, and 
was associated with Bantu mainly, he was always classi- 
fied with them. 

Morosi was in one way the most important of all 
Moshesh's vassals, because it was only through the 

* Any one who may wish to know more about the adventures of 
Morosi and his father Mokuane during the dispersion in the time 
of Tshaka than I have related will find many little details in the 
reverend D. Fred. Ellenberger's volume History of the Basuto 
Ancient and Modern, published in London in 1912, a volume that 
displays the most intimate acquaintance with the people among 
whom the venerable missionary lived and laboured, 

42 History of South Africa. [ l8 79 

Baputi having occupied the territory south of Thaba 
Bosigo, or perhaps roamed over it would be a more correct 
expression, that the Basuto could claim any ground there 
as an inheritance of their tribe. The Baputi were not 
of Bakwena origin, their siboko being the little bluebuck, 
not the crocodile, and they differed in language as well 
as in some other respects from the great bulk of the 
Basuto. They admitted allegiance to the family of 
Moshesh, but it was more nominal than real, for their 
captains very rarely took part in the counsels of the 
tribe, and moved about as they chose, without any 
reference to their overlord. They certainly had not the 
inclination, it may be even the capacity, for improve- 
ment that the Kwena and Hlubi sections were then dis- 
playing, and were content to remain like their ancestors 
pure barbarians. Among them were many desperadoes 
from other parts of South Africa, who had been encour- 
aged by the lawless chief to place themselves under his 

Morosi drew an allowance of £50 per annum in recog- 
nition of his being a chief, but for several years after 
the annexation of Basutoland to the British dominions 
he was almost free of guidance or control, as there was 
no government official stationed near him. In May 1877, 
however, Quthing, where he then resided, was cut off 
from Kornet Spruit and created a separate district, and 
Mr. Hamilton Hope was stationed there as magistrate. 
Naturally the chief, who was of a turbulent and arrogant 
disposition, chafed under the restraint to which he was 
thereafter subject, and a trial of strength soon took place 
between him and Mr. Hope. Morosi asserted that he 
was supreme in his own country and the magistrate was 
subordinate, but in Mr. Hope he had a firm man to 
deal with, who made allowances for his position and 
the barbarism in which he had been trained, but who 
required him to observe something like order. On more 
than one occasion the chief set the magistrate at de- 

1879] The Rebellion of Morosi. 43 

fiance, but a scene of this kind always ended by his 
temporary submission and making an apology. 

The last trial of strength between Morosi and Mr. 
Hope took place in March 1878. One Makela refused to 
pay his hut-tax, and set the magistrate's messenger 
at defiance, upon which Mr. Hope sent some policemen 
to summon him to appear before the court. Morosi's son 
of highest rank, Doda by name, on learning this, inter- 
cepted the policemen and forced them to return, and 
when Mr. Hope called upon the chief to surrender his 
son for trial he refused to do so. The matter was then 
referred to the chief magistrate, who applied to Letsie 
for assistance, and he sent his son Lerothodi to compel 
Morosi to submit. A fine of £100 or twenty-five head 
of cattle was imposed upon Doda and one of £25 or 
five head of cattle upon Makela, both of them to be 
imprisoned until the fines were paid. Morosi then apolo- 
gised and said he would abide by the judgment, so 
that matter ended. 

Mr. James Henry Bowker, who acted as governor's 
agent in Basutoland from March to June 1878, thought 
that an older and more experienced man than Mr. Hope 
might succeed better with the Baputi, as all Bantu pay 
deference to age, and by his advice in April 1878 Mr. 
John Austen was sent to Quthing, and Mr. Hope was 
transferred as magistrate to Qumbu, the district below 
the mountain range occupied by the Pondomsi clan 
under Umhlonhlo. 

In November 1878 Doda was arrested and tried by 
Mr. Austen for participation in horse stealing some 
months before, when he and a band of his followers were 
living in a cave, and were keeping away from obser- 
vation as much as possible. He was proved guilty of 
the crime, and was sentenced to imprisonment for four 
years. On the 28th of January 1879 his father caused 
the frail building used as a prison at Quthing, in which 
he was confined until he could be sent to a place of 

44 History of South Africa. [ l8 79 

greater security, to be broken open, and set him at liberty. 
In doing this Morosi knew that he was committing an 
act of hostility to the government, but he believed that 
he would have the sympathy of the whole Basuto tribe, 
and that there was a stronger power than that of England 
in South Africa, whose favour he would gain by 

For tidings had reached Quthing that six days before, 
on the 22nd of January 1879, Ketshwayo's forces had 
utterly annihilated a combined English and colonial army 
at Isandhlwana, and it seemed to Morosi to be good 
policy to be on the Zulu side. The whole of the 
Basuto tribe was at the time in a state of excitement, 
owing to an announcement made by Colonel Griffith, 
the governor's agent, at the pitso held in the preceding 
November, that the peace preservation alias the dis- 
armament act had been passed by the Cape parliament, 
though he did not say it would be applied to them. 
He had been instructed by the colonial secretary to 
mention it as a kind of feeler, and he had done so in the 
most cautious way. But every Mosuto without exception 
became alarmed, for a gun was to him an emblem of 
manhood, and among them all no one felt more anxiety 
on the subject than Morosi. He must have realised 
that he and his clan would be the first to be called 
upon to surrender their guns, and rather than do that 
he would go into rebellion. 

There was a station of the frontier armed and mounted 
police at Palmietfontein in the district of Herschel, close 
to the border of the Quthing district of Basutoland. 
The position was an excellent one in a military point 
of view, and roads led from it in almost every direction. 
As soon as intelligence of the forcible release of Doda 
from prison reached Capetown, six hundred yeomanry 
and some police were sent to Palmietfontein as a rein- 
forcement, but with instructions not to cross the Telle, 
the boundary stream, for the present. 

1879] The Rebellion of Morosi. 45 

For some weeks nothing further was done on either 
side, and as little notice as possible was taken of Mr. 
Austen by the Baputi. Then the second act of defiance 
of the European authorities took place. A few men of 
the clan were desirous of remaining loyal to the colonial 
government, and these endeavoured to get to Palmiet- 
fontein and solicit protection, but on Morosi's learning of 
the movement, he sent a stronger party to intercept 
them. They were followed up, arrested, brought back, 
and punished by ha'ving all their property confiscated, in 
the expressive Bantu way of putting it, by being eaten 
up. Everything looked so threatening that on the 21st 
of February Mr. Austen sent his family to Palmiet- 
fontein, and two days later he and his clerk Mr. Maitin 
thought it prudent to retire to the same place. The 
residency was then plundered by the Baputi, who also 
destroyed the records in the office, and wrecked every- 
thing connected with it. The traders in the district 
were next ordered by Morosi to leave at once, and the 
contents of two shops belonging to a man named Thomas 
were plundered. 

The missionary * with the clan, the reverend Mr. 
Ellenberger, of the Paris evangelical society, was using 
his utmost endeavours to bring about the submission of 
the people to the government, but was unsuccessful, 
though he managed to prevent open resistance to the 
law from spreading be3 7 ond the district of Quthing. 

The desire of the colonial government was, if possible, 
to suppress the insurrection by a force of loyal Basuto, 
and with this object Colonel Griffith called upon Letsie 
to supply two thousand men. No promise was made 
that if they acted as desired, they would not be dis- 
armed, but there is no doubt that they believed this to 
be an opportunity of enabling them to retain their guns. 
Among themselves they spoke of the matter in this 

* Of the station Masitisi, founded in 1867, after Morosi moved 
south of the Orange river from Bethesda. 

46 History of South Africa. [i 8 79 

way : only a foolish person would take arms from those 
who were fighting for him or her, let us then fight for 
the queen, she is wise, and will not perform a foolish 
act. So two thousand Basuto took the field under Lero- 
thodi, great son of Letsie, with the intention rather of 
overawing the Baputi by their presence than of crushing 
them in battle. Those living in Griqualand East, how- 
ever, when requested to furnish a contingent, declined to 
do so. 

On the 6th of March the first encounter took place. 
By way of bravado Morosi sent about a hundred and 
fifty men across the Telle, when some yeomen from 
Jamestown, who were on picket duty, opened fire on 
them. A skirmish followed, and on the Queenstown 
yeomanry and a troop of the Cape mounted rifles hasten- 
ing to the support of their comrades, the Baputi were 
driven back with a loss of some twenty men, against 
two wounded on the European side. 

Just at this time Colonel Griffith arrived with Lero- 
thodi's Basuto, who formed a camp about three kilo- 
metres distant from the police station. He wanted to 
follow up the Baputi at once, but Colonel Southey, who 
was in command of the yeomanry, objected to cross the 
Telle until an order to that effect should reach him 
from Capetown. War in real earnest had now, however, 
commenced, and very shortly the principle was in full 
force of attacking the enemy wherever it could be done 
with a prospect of success. 

The Baputi retired to a distance of ten or twelve 
kilometres from the Telle, where they were attacked by 
strong patrols, but nothing decisive could be effected 
against them. The first of these patrols consisted of the 
Basuto under Lerothodi, who on the 21st of March fell 
in with a party of Baputi posted in a very strong 
position. As they would not yield, Lerothodi was obliged 
to attack them, and he succeeded in driving them back 
with a loss of thirty killed* among whom were three 

1879] The Rebellion of Morosi. 47 

sons of Morosi. On his side, a near relative of his own 
and nine other men lost their lives, which caused him 
thereafter to feel no reluctance to attack them. He was 
able to capture about fifteen hundred head of horned 
cattle and some sheep and goats, which he retained as 
legitimate spoil of war. 

Two days later Colonel Griffith with the yeomanry 
attacked a party of the enemy who were posted in 
a position capable of being defended against vastly superior 
numbers, and succeeded in expelling them from it. On 
this occasion also about thirty of the rebels were killed. 
On the colonial side Sergeant Muldoon of the second 
regiment of yeomanry was shot dead, and three others 
were wounded. The only spoil was eighty-five horses 

On the 29th of March the Grahamstown yeomanry, under 
Captain Wood, went out on patrol, and returned with 
seven hundred head of horned cattle, about three thousand 
sheep and goats, and one hundred and fifty horses. 

Another yeomanry patrol went out on the 1st of April, 
and returned on the 3rd with two thousand two hundred 
head of horned cattle, three hundred and forty horses, and 
three thousand sheep and goats. And still another a few 
days later captured fifty horses, seven hundred head of 
horned cattle, and a thousand sheep. Morosi was thus 
losing the accumulated wealth of his clan, in addition to 
many of his retainers who lost their lives when endea- 
vouring to protect their herds, but he was resolved not to 

He was residing on a natural fortress of great strength, 
and had laid up a large supply of grain there, so he sum- 
moned his best warriors to defend the stronghold, and 
believed that he could hold out until his enemies were 
exhausted. The open country was now abandoned by 
the rebels, and the history of the war becomes a nar- 
rative of the efforts made to get possession of the 

48 History of South Africa. [i 8 79 

It was a crag about two hundred and thirty metres 
in height, something like Thaba Bosigo, but not quite 
so large, situated in a curve of the Orange river. In 
places it rose almost perpendicularly from the base to 
the summit, in others it formed a series of steps, each 
too high for a man to climb over, and only at one spot, 
on the south-eastern side, was there a passage in a gorge 
to the top. Across this passage rough stone walls were 
built, and on the heights above it quantities of boulders 
large and small were collected, that could be hurled down 
upon an enemy attempting to advance up it. The top 
was a rough plateau, about five hundred and fifty by 
three hundred metres in extent, and on it was a natural 
reservoir affording an ample supply of water. With a 
garrison armed with guns, some of them excellent 
rifles, and with no want of ammunition, Morosi may 
well have thought that his mountain stronghold was 

On the 8th of April the first attempt to take it by 
storm was made by Colonel Griffith with the Cape 
mounted riflemen and the detachments in the field of the 
second and third regiments of yeomanry. The passage 
in the gorge was first bombarded with seven-pounder guns 
until it was thought all obstructions must be broken 
down, and then the troops charged up it. But it was 
found that the cross walls were almost undamaged, and 
from behind the first of them a hot fire was opened, 
which, though unsteady, could not be silenced. Two 
officers, Captain James Surmon, of the Cape mounted 
rifles, and Lieutenant Keid, of the yeomanry, and three 
men were killed, and fourteen riflemen and six yeomen 
were wounded. The troops then retired, so the attack 
was a complete failure. 

It was then resolved to invest the mountain, in the 
hope that the Baputi on it might be starved out, and 
with this object the colonial forces were stationed in 
positions commanding the only way up it. Hardly any 

1879] The Rebellion of Morosi. 49 

service could be more dispiriting than this to such troops 
as the yeomanry, who soon became weary of doing nothing 
but watching day after day, like a cat lying in wait for 
a mouse to come out of a hole, as they remarked, and 
after a few weeks the government found it necessary to call 
out three hundred burghers in the frontier districts to 
relieve them. Thereafter there was frequent changing of 
the forces in the field, so that four hundred and fifty 
Europeans could be kept constantly on sentry without 

On the 30th of April Doda sent to Colonel Griffith to 
ask for a guarantee that his life would be spared if he 
gave himself up, to which a reply was made that he must 
surrender unconditionally. This he declined to do, though 
a good many of the Baputi who had lost all their cattle 
were then coming in and professing submission. They 
were required to give up their guns, ammunition, and 
even their assagais, when they were provided with passes 
to enable them to settle down quietly. 

At this time Colonel Brabant succeeded Colonel Griffith 
in the general command of the forces. The investment 
of the mountain went on, and was regarded as the chief 
operation, but some other efforts were made to harass 
the enemy. 

On the 23rd of May a strong patrolling party went 
out, and succeeded in surprising the temporary kraals of 
two petty captains, who were made prisoners with about 
three hundred men. They had no cattle that could be 
discovered, so there was nothing that could be taken 
possession of except their arms, which they were required 
to surrender. 

Another patrol, consisting of forty-eight men of the third 
yeomanry regiment, under Captain Chiappini, that went 
out to scour the country, was encamped for the night at 
the junction of the Quthing and Orange rivers. At half- 
past two o'clock in the morning of the 29th of May it was 
attacked by a party of the enemy that had been watching 

vol. 11. 5 

50 History of South Africa. [i 8 79 

its movements, and although after an hour's fighting the 
assailants retired, they left behind them six dead yeomen 
and fifteen wounded, or nearly half the whole number killed 
or disabled. 

Many of the Baputi were living in caves, from which 
they could make sallies and attack small parties of the 
colonial forces should their scouts inform them that they 
could do so with a likelihood of success. They had only 
been able to do any damage on the occasion just 
mentioned, and Colonel Brabant was determined that they 
should not do so again. Strong patrols were sent out, 
the caves were visited, and their occupants were called 
upon to surrender, when, if they would not do so, their 
retreats were destroyed with dynamite. It was cruel work, 
and many of the wretched creatures lost their lives, but 
there was no other way of putting an end to the trouble 
they were capable of causing. 

A twelve-pounder cannon having been borrowed from 
the Free State government, the pathway up Morosi's 
mountain was heavily bombarded with it and the seven- 
pounders, and on the 5th of June another attempt was 
made to take the stronghold by storm. The lowest 
cross wall had been battered down, and the storming 
party got beyond it, but was then driven back by the 
fire from above. As on the former occasion, the attack 
was an utter failure. The casualties were one man of 
the second yeomanry regiment killed and two wounded, 
one of the Fort Beaufort burghers killed and one wounded, 
and three Cape mounted riflemen, three of the first, and 
two of the third yeomanry regiment wounded. 

The blockade was then resumed, and continued with- 
out intermission. On the 10th of July a white flag was 
hoisted at the top of the pathway, and on Colonel Brabant 
sending to ascertain what it implied, Morosi stated that 
he wanted peace. He proposed as terms of his surrender 
that he should be guaranteed against punishment for 
what he had done, and should be permitted to reside 

l8 79] The Rebellion of Morosi. 51 

wherever he chose. He was informed that nothing but 
the unconditional surrender of himself and all the men on 
the mountain with him would be agreed to. He declined 
to do anything of the kind, but kept the white flag flying 
for many days afterwards, as if to show that the fault of 
continuing the war was not his. 

The food on the mountain was by this time so reduced 
in quantity that it became necessary to practise great 
economy in its use, and everything that could be eaten 
was turned to account. There were many hides of oxen 
put by to make women's clothing of, and these were now 
by some peculiar process converted into fragments that 
could be ground like maize between two stones and then 
be boiled to form a nourishing soup. Every kind of plant 
was also used as food. There were no children on the 
mountain, and only six or seven women, while the garri- 
son was reduced to between two and three hundred men, 
the smallest number that could defend it successfully. 
So the food, scanty as it was, enabled the indomitable old 
chief to hold out for months still to come. 

Week after week passed away, and no advance was 
made in the effort to starve the rebel chief to 
submission. The yeomanry and the burghers who were 
called out could no longer be kept in the field, as they 
were beginning to desert, preferring to run the risk of 
punishment for leaving without permission to the monoto- 
nous and dreary duty of keeping guard over a ravine 
in the wild land of the Baputi. There was not an animal 
left to make a prize of, nothing whatever to be gained 
by remaining, and much discomfort to be endured. There 
was danger of all of them abandoning the post, so the 
government decided to recall them, and to carry on the 
war with the Cape mounted riflemen assisted by any 
volunteers who might offer their services and by Bantu, 
chiefly Fingo, levies. Colonel Bayly, of the Cape mounted 
rifles, was appointed to the chief command, and on the 
27th of October took over the duty from Colonel Brabant 

52 History of South Africa. [ l8 79 

Mr. Sprigg, the prime minister, at the same time visited 
the scene of operations, and arranged for a meeting with 
Morosi, whom he hoped he would be able to persuade 
to submit on reasonable terms. On the 25th of October, 
at a spot about half way up the gorge, the meeting took 
place. Mr. Sprigg was accompanied by five attendants, 
and Morosi by fifteen, all unarmed. For three hours a 
conversation went on between them, but the chief would 
not abate one jot of his pretensions. He was told of 
the complete suppression of the Zulu power and of the 
captivity of Ketshwayo, but he betrayed no sign of being 
disturbed by the information. That the Basuto tribe, of 
which he was a vassal, had assisted the colonial forces 
against him he of course knew, and also that there were 
still some Basuto in the colonial camp, though he did 
not seem to attach much importance to that. He was 
told that he could not hold out much longer, but he evi- 
dently thought that was a matter of mere opinion. It 
was impossible for Mr. Sprigg to accede to his conditions, 
and as he would listen to no other, the interview ended, 
leaving matters as they were. 

Every part of the outer face of the mountain was now 
well known, and it was believed that there were several 
places where it could be scaled with ladders. It would 
of course be hazardous work getting up it in this way, 
step by step, with an enemy on the top, but Colonel 
Bayly determined to try it. Ladders twenty-one feet in 
length were procured from Aliwal North, and at three 
o'clock in the morning of the 20th of November the 
assault was commenced. For three days and three nights 
previously the mountain had been continuously shelled 
by the cannon, so that the garrison on it was supposed 
to be pretty well worn out through want of sleep. As 
afterwards ascertained, it consisted of about two hundred 
men. The storming parties were five in number, com- 
prising Captain Bourne, of the Cape mounted rifles, with 
one hundred and seventy-five men, Captain Montague, of 

1879] History of South Africa. 53 

the same regiment, with one hundred and seventy-five 
men, Lieutenant Muhlenbeek with the Wodehouse border 
guard and forty Fingos, Captain Allan Maclean with two 
hundred Fingos, and Captain David Hook with two 
hundred Fingos and Tembus. 

Ledge after ledge was gained, and in less than an 
hour the top was reached. Lieutenant Springer, of the 
Cape mounted rifles, was the first man on the crown 
of the mountain, for which he was rewarded by being 
made a captain. The Baputi tried to resist, but were 
driven back, and no fewer than seventy were killed. 
By a quarter past four all was over, and the mountain 
was in possession of the colonial forces. The casualties 
were two riflemen badly wounded, and two Fingos killed 
and two wounded. Morosi had been wounded in the 
neck by a bullet during the fight, but had strength 
enough left to creep away to a rock shelter, where his 
dead body was found soon afterwards. Every man of 
note in the Baputi clan had perished, and the war was 

On the 2nd of February 1880 an amnesty to the sur- 
vivors was proclaimed, from which only Doda and a few 
others were excepted. But after the storming of the 
mountain Doda was never seen alive or dead, so he 
probably avoided capture by hurling himself over a 



Since the annexation of Basutoland to the Cape Colony 
its people had become prosperous, though some of the 
chiefs, notably Masupha, Eamanela, and Joel, right hand 
son of Molapo, chafed under the restraint imposed upon 
their actions by the magistrates. It was as natural 
that they should do so as it was for a powerful baron 
in feudal times in Europe to resent any interference by 
his superior with his jurisdiction over his dependents. 
But in both instances it was for the benefit of the people 
that the power of the heads of clans should be reduced, 
and in Basutoland for seven or eight years after the 
annexation this was being done gradually and with as 
much tenderness towards the chiefs as was possible. 
It was recognised that the position was a delicate one, 
and that every precaution should be used to avoid irri- 
tation of any kind or exposing the government to the 
risk of resistance. The attitude of Mr. Molteno is illus- 
trated in his letters of the 13th and 21st of January 1874 
to the governor's agent, in the first of which he 
authorised the release from prison of a chief named 
Sekaki, who had caused the murder of a woman, upon 
payment of a fine of £75, which was to be divided 
between the relatives of the woman and the principal 
chief Letsie, in order to calm the unrest caused by the 
trial of a chief. And in the second he regretted to hear 
of the disloyalty of some of the chiefs, and observed 
that it would not be prudent to arm the Basuto police 
with breechloaders or to have snider rifles stored at the 
magistracies, as they might fall into disaffected hands. 


i88o] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. 55 

From the condition of extreme poverty in which the 
tribe was ten years earlier it had risen to be wealthy, 
as in 1879 it owned many thousands of horses, great 
herds of horned cattle, flocks of sheep and goats, more 
than three thousand ploughs, and many waggons. Over 
twenty thousand of the adult males were armed with guns, 
a large proportion of which were of a superior kind, 
they possessed good saddles, and wore European clothing. 
In 1879 they sold wool to the value of £75,000, and 
grain to the value of £400,000. They were earning 
about £100,000 a year as labourers, principally at the 
diamond mines, and as transport riders. The public 
revenue, chiefly derived from hut-tax, had risen from 
£16,000 in 1874 to £18,000 in 1879. In 1880 there 
were three hundred and forty-five educational institutions 
and mission schools in the country, with twenty-five 
thousand one hundred and forty-seven pupils on the 
books. No other Bantu tribe in South Africa could show 
such progress as this. 

Every European in the country will admit that the 
danger of disturbance would be greatly diminished if 
no uncivilised men were in possession of firearms. A 
barbarian with a gun in his hands which he does not 
know how to use properly, as he never thinks of 
acquiring skill in firing by practice, may really be less 
dangerous as an enemy than one armed with assagais, 
in the use of which he is proficient, but the possession of 
a gun makes him believe that he is the white man's 
equal in strength, and tends greatly to make him unruly. 
At the diamond fields guns and ammunition were sold 
as openly as any other merchandise, and the tribes far 
and near were enabled to arm themselves. To a Mosuto 
the ownership of a gun was a proof of manhood, and 
it became a point of honour with him to possess one. 

Under these circumstances disarmament, however 
desirable from a European point of view, was not an easy 
matter to carry out, nor was it altogether honest. The 

56 History of South Africa. [1878 

act provided that compensation at the appraised value 
of the gun surrendered should be paid, but in many — 
perhaps nearly all — cases the owner had paid much more 
than the ordinary market value for it. He had bought 
it openly, under the eye and with the sanction of an 
English magistrate, and naturally he considered himself 
defrauded when he was required to surrender it for less 
than he had paid for it to a shopkeeper at the diamond 

The act was first put into force with people who were 
so entirely dependent upon the government that they 
were obliged to submit. Thus in the division' of King- 
Williamstown two thousand six hundred and twenty- 
eight guns were surrendered, it was officially announced 
voluntarily, but the willingness displayed may be ex- 
emplified by an instance that came under the eye of the 
author of this volume. A middle-aged Fingo, having 
parted with his gun, excitedly threw his jacket on the 
ground, and almost tearing open his shirt, showed some 
scars on his breast. "Look at these scars," he said to 
the magistrate, " they are all in front, and all were 
received fighting for the government ; there will never 
be another, for I am no longer a man." 

On the 10th of October 1878 Colonel Griffith, who 
had been on military service in the Galeka war and 
Rarabe rebellion, arrived again at Maseru and resumed 
the duty of governor's agent in Basutoland, which had 
been performed during the greater part of his absence 
by Mr. Emile S. Holland. On the 24th of the same 
month the annual pitso or general assembly of the people 
was held, when an announcement was made that a dis- 
armament act had been passed by the Cape parliament, 
but it was not stated that it would be applied to the 
Basuto. From that time, however, general uneasiness 
on the subject was felt, though it was hoped that by 
assisting the government to suppress the rebellion of 
Morosi they would be exempted. 

1879] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. 57 

On the 16th of October 1879 another pitso was held, 
when the prime minister, Mr. Sprigg, was present, and 
the matter was fully gone into. He announced first 
that the hut-tax would be increased from ten shillings 
to twenty shillings a year, in order to obtain money for 
the construction of roads and public buildings in the 
country. No people like to hear of increased taxation, 
but in this case there was not so much demur as might 
have been anticipated. The payment of hut-tax, it must 
be remembered, confirmed a man's right not only to 
a particular plot of ground on which to build a residence 
with a small yard, but to a garden and a right to pasture 
cattle on the waste lands. Lerothodi, however, pointed 
out that it would fall heavy on a man like himself with 
ten wives, who would consequently have to pay £10, 
as each wife required a separate hut. 

But when it was stated that the guns would have to 
be surrendered, general opposition was shown, though 
neither Mr. Sprigg nor Colonel Griffith thought it would 
be carried as far as open resistance. There were, how- 
ever, many men who were well acquainted with the 
Basuto, traders as well as missionaries, who warned 
the government that an attempt to disarm the tribe 
would almost certainly lead to a general revolt. 

There was still another matter that was causing un- 
rest. After the suppression of Morosi's rebellion, the 
government resolved to reserve sufficient ground in the 
district of Quthing for the use of those Basuto who had 
taken no part in it, and to dispose of the remainder to 
Europeans. It was the only way of recovering a portion 
of the expense to which the colony had been put, and 
besides it was considered necessary to show to other 
tribes that rebellion would not go unpunished. But 
the Basuto objected to the alienation of a single square 
metre of the ground that, according to their statements, 
Moshesh had transferred to the British government, 
and asserted in the strongest language that the country 

58 History of Sotdh Africa. [1880 

was already too small for them to expand in. Thus 
there were three causes of irritation operating at the 
same time, but disarmament quite overshadowed the 
other two. 

With regard to the district of Quthing, the plan of the 
government was never carried out. Letsie sent a petition 
to the Caps parliament against it, which was presented to 
the house of assembly by Mr. Joseph M. Orpen on the 
14th of May 1880, but did not meet with a favourable 
reception. The authorities in England, however, objected 
to the plan of the local government, and on the 30th of 
December 1880 the secretary of state issued instructions 
to the governor not to proclaim any part of the country 
confiscated. The events that followed prevented further 
action in the matter, and so Quthing remained intact as 
part of Basutoland. 

On the 22nd of December 1879 Colonel Griffith, acting 
by instructions from the ministry in Capetown, issued a 
notice that disarmament would be carried out, and inviting 
the people to surrender their guns voluntarily, when com- 
pensation in money would be paid to them within a month. 
Only a few individuals did so, however, so few as to show 
that opposition to the measure was practically universal. 

On the 21st of January 1880 two petitions against dis- 
armament were signed by Letsie, acting for all the chiefs 
and people, one of which was directed to her Majesty the 
queen and the other to the high commissioner. To the 
first a reply was sent that her Majesty did not desire to 
interfere in the matter, and to the second an answer was 
given explaining the principles of responsible government. 

The hope of voluntary delivery of the weapons having 
been disappointed, on the 6th of April 1880 a proclamation 
was issued by the governor requiring the surrender of all 
guns, other implements of war, and ammunition in Basuto- 
land before the 21st of May, under penalty of imprison- 
ment with or without hard labour for any period not 
exceeding seven years or a fine not exceeding £500. Com- 

1880] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. 59 

pensation would be made for weapons delivered within the 
time fixed, but not for those kept back after that date. 

Letsie and his advisers then resolved to send a deputa- 
tion to Capetown with petitions addressed to the house of 
assembly against disarmament and the confiscation of land 
in Quthing, and on the 29th of April six of the cleverest 
men in the tribe, accompanied by the reverend Mr. 
Cochet, of the French evangelical mission, left Matsieng 
for that purpose. The deputation was well treated in 
Capetown, and listened to the debates in the house of 
assembly on the subjects of their mission, though some 
of the members were disappointed at not being permitted 
to plead their case by word of mouth. 

The question of disarmament was brought before the 
assembly on the 20th of May by Mr. Fuller, who moved : 
"that this house is of opinion that the recent action of 
the government in proclaiming a law requiring the Basutos 
to surrender their arms, weapons, and ammunition, and 
promising compensation for the same within one month, on 
the eve of the meeting of parliament, and without any 
emergency having arisen necessitating the same, is arbitrary 
and unconstitutional, involving as it does the expenditure 
of a large amount of public money unauthorised by parlia- 
ment, and committing the colony to a policy which, under 
the peculiar circumstances of the case, required the very 
greatest consideration at the hands of the legislature." 
When, after prolonged discussion, on the 2nd of June this 
motion was put to the vote, it had only twenty-eight 
supporters against thirty-seven, though some of the very 
ablest men in the house favoured it. 

The ministry extended the date of surrender of the arms 
to the 21st of June, and later to the 12th of July, to 
enable the deputation to return to Basutoland and deliver 
their report upon what they had heard in ample time 
before the day fixed. On the 3rd of July there was a big 
meeting at Thaba Bosigo, when they gave an account of 
their mission and recommended compliance with the law. 

60 History of South Africa. [1880 

Letsie announced that he would give up his guns, but 
the people believed that he was not in earnest and that 
he intended to play the part of the bush, that is profess 
to be obedient to the government while really opposing 
it. His sons Lerothodi, Bereng, and Mama declared they 
would resist, as did his half-brother Masupha, his sister's 
husband Kamanela — the most turbulent man in the 
country, — and many other chiefs. On the 28th of June 
1880 Molapo died, and his sons Jonathan and Joel were 
so opposed to each other that if one decided to obey the 
other would certainly resist. Jonathan was the higher in 
rank, as he was the second son of the great wife of 
Molapo, and his elder brother was insane, while Joel was 
the heir of the right hand house. Jonathan announced 
that he would give up his guns, and Joel took sides with 

Before the day fixed, those Basuto who were in the 
service of the government, most of the converts at the 
mission stations, Jonathan's clan, and a few others gave 
up their arms, but a little later they were attacked, mal- 
treated — some even murdered, — plundered of everything they 
possessed, and driven from their homes by Masupha and 
Joel. Most of them fled to Maseru and claimed protection 
from Colonel Griffith, the governor's agent, who was for- 
tunately able to supply them with food. The men were 
enrolled for defence, Maseru was barricaded, and the 
government was applied to for immediate assistance. In 
all haste men were sent forward, the first despatched, two 
hundred of the Cape mounted rifles, leaving King- Williams- 
town on the 23rd of July. 

It was hoped, however, that the presence of these troops 
on the border would awe the disaffected, and with the 
consent of the Free State government, they halted and 
formed temporary camps beyond the boundary while Mr. 
Sprigg was making a final effort to induce the insurgents 
to submit. Taking with him Mr. Joseph M. Orpen, the 
old and tried friend of the tribe, and Commandant 

1880] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. 61 

Frederick Schermbrucker, he hastened to Basutoland, but 
found it impossible to restore order. He had gone too 
far now to retreat, so on the 6th of September a detach- 
ment of the Cape mounted rifles under Colonel Bayly 
crossed the border to Maseru. 

Seven days later the first encounter took place. On 
the 13th of September Colonel Carrington, with two 
hundred men of the Cape mounted rifles who had just 
arrived, left Wepener to occupy Mafeteng, where some 
of those who had given up their guns had taken refuge, 
and when about two miles or a little over three kilo- 
metres from his destination, was attacked by six or seven 
hundred Basuto under Lerothodi, son of Letsie. A 
skirmish followed, in which one rifleman was wounded 
and two Basuto were killed, and which ended in the 
flight of the insurgents and their pursuit for a couple of 
hours. While this was taking place, some of Molitsane's 
Bataung attacked the kraal of a captain who had given 
up his guns, but Colonel Carrington sent some mounted 
riflemen against them, who drove them off and killed five 
of them. 

On the 17th of September a patrol of seventy men of 
the Cape mounted rifles was sent out from Mafeteng to 
make a reconnaissance towards Lerothodi's kraal, and was 
surrounded on the march by some twelve hundred Basuto, 
when it was obliged to cut its way through the circle, 
which it did with the loss of an officer — Lieutenant 
Clarke — and two men killed. 

Four days later Mafeteng was attacked by a Basuto 
force estimated to be fully five thousand strong, that 
during the whole day endeavoured to get possession of 
the place, but at nightfall was obliged to retire dis- 

It was now evident that a very large force would be 
needed to suppress the insurrection, and yeomanry, volun- 
teers, burghers, and Bantu and Hottentot auxiliaries were 
sent forward as rapidly as possible. Brigadier- General 

62 History of South Africa. [1880 

Charles M. Clarke was appointed commandant-general, and 
Commandant F. Schermbrucker was directed to equip the 
"loyal Basuto," that is those who had surrendered their 
guns, and add them to the forces in the field. The 
difficulty of obtaining and forwarding food and other 
necessaries was very great, the nearest railway station 
being at Queenstown. At the same time also there was 
a widespread rebellion in Griqualand East and Tembuland, 
an account of which has already been given, so that the 
resources of the colony in men and money were strained 
to the utmost. 

Mr. William Henry Surmon, the magistrate at Mohali's 
Hoek, who with only ten or twelve white men and a 
few loyals had defended his post gallantly against repeated 
attacks, being surrounded by the enemy and in urgent 
need of assistance, on the 4th of October Colonel Southey 
was sent to his aid with a strong party of yeomen and 
volunteers, supported by a few Cape mounted riflemen, 
that succeeded in reaching and relieving him with a loss 
of two men killed and ten wounded. 

On the 10th of October Maseru was attacked by about 
five thousand Basuto under Masupha. It was defended 
by Colonel Bayly with two hundred and thirty-nine Euro- 
peans and two hundred and fifty-six Bantu under Com- 
mandant Schermbrucker, among these being Nehemiah, 
Georgo, Tsekelo, Sofonia, and some other sons of Moshesh 
of minor rank. Masupha's force was formed in three 
columns, which attacked in a desultory way from early 
morning until four o'clock in the afternoon, when real 
fighting commenced. The military camp, which was named 
Fort Gordon, the residency, the public offices, Irvine's 
store, and Trower's store were the points specially aimed 
at. The public offices with Trower's store and several 
detached buildings were taken and burned, but the other 
places managed to hold out, and before midnight the 
insurgents retired, having suffered, it was believed, con- 
siderable loss. Three Europeans were wounded, and two 

1880] Resistance of the BasiUo to Disarmament. 63 

men of Commandant Schermbrucker's force were killed 
and two others wounded. 

A heavy loss was sustained on the 19th of October, 
when a column of over sixteen hundred men under 
Commandant-General Clarke was marching from a camp 
near Wepener in the Orange Free State to the relief of 
Mafeteng. At Kalabani, on the way, it was attacked by 
surprise by a strong band of Basuto horsemen armed 
with assagais, commanded by Bereng, son of Letsie, when 
thirty-seven men were killed and nine others were wounded. 
Of the killed thirty-one were yeomen. After making a 
sudden dash and causing this loss, the enemy retired as 
hastily, when the march was resumed, and Mafeteng was 

On the 22nd of October Colonel Carrington occupied 
Lerothodi's kraal, but in doing so had eight troopers of 
the Cape mounted rifles killed and one officer and ten 
volunteers wounded. 

On the 28th of the same month Maseru was attacked 
again, bat was not taken, though forty-five horses and 
forty-two slaughter oxen were captured. Two Europeans 
and a loyal Mosuto were killed on this occasion, and 
three Europeans and three loyal Basuto were wounded. 

Three days later a disaster took place in another part of 
the country. A strong patrol was sent from Mafeteng to 
occupy Molitsane's kraal at Makwaisberg, and succeeded in 
reaching it, but found the enemy in such force that it 
was obliged to retreat with eight men killed and eleven 

In November the principal events were an attack by a 
colonial force on the Kolo mountain on the 13th, which 
was unsuccessful, and in which an officer and five men 
were killed, and an attack on Jonathan's camp by Joel on 
the 15th, when he was beaten off. 

President Brand had given permission to the colonial 
forces to march through the Free State and even to form 
a temporary camp on a farm near Wepener, which Masupha 

64 History of South Africa. [iSSi 

regarded as inconsistent with the neutrality that he hoped 
the republic would observe. On the 23rd of November he 
wrote to the president, asking permission to purchase 
ammunition in the Free State, to which Mr. Brand replied 
on the 9th of December, through the governor's agent, 
refusing to comply with his request, and stating that he 
could not be regarded as a lawful belligerent, but only as 
a rebel in arms against his government. 

The colonial authorities were now engaging large num- 
bers of Fingos and Hottentots to assist against the insur- 
gent Basuto, who were proving themselves very much 
stronger and more daring than any one before the rebel- 
lion had believed them to be. At the end of the year 
there were in the field in Basutoland and below the moun- 
tains, between Cape mounted riflemen, yeomanry, burghers, 
and volunteers, seven thousand four hundred and eighty- 
five cavalry and one thousand three hundred and fifty 
infantry, with as auxiliaries nine thousand three hundred 
and twenty Bantu and three hundred and forty-eight 
Hottentots. Yet it was found impossible to secure a firm 
footing in any part of Basutoland beyond a short distance 
from the seats of magistracy and the military camps. 
Attacks by the insurgents on fortified posts were always 
failures, but so were attacks by the colonial forces on 
Basuto strongholds, which were thickly scattered over the 

The burghers and the yeomanry were already weary of 
the war and anxious to get back to their homes. They 
could see no prospect of the subjugation of the insurgents, 
many of them said no advantage to the colony com- 
mensurate with the loss of men and money if they were 
subdued. The expense of the war was startling. By the 
end of the year it was known to have cost the colony 
over a million and a half pounds sterling, and there was 
no way of reducing the expense in future. The loyals 
had lost property to the value of £131,000, and traders 
property valued at £81,000, for which the government 

i88i] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. 65 

was expected to make compensation. Burghers and yeo- 
men began to desert. On the 12th of January 1881 
there was in the Gazette a list of seventy-six names of 
men who had left without permission, and the govern- 
ment was reduced to such straits to keep up the force 
that even convicts of a special class were released from 
prison if they would take service. 

At five o'clock in the afternoon of the 6th of January 
1881 the camp at Thlotsi Heights, the seat of magistracy 
of the district of Leribe, where the Kimberley horse was 
stationed to protect Jonathan's people, was suddenly sur- 
rounded by a great army of Basuto, who attacked it on 
all sides. It was, however, so well prepared for defence 
that the enemy could not force an entrance into it, 
though they attempted again and again to do so, and 
did not withdraw until after midnight. Two of Jonathan's 
men were killed and four were wounded on this 

On the 14th of January an engagement took place 
between some five thousand Basuto and a colonial force 
of nine hundred and sixty men, mostly burghers, under 
Colonel Carrington. For five hours the Basuto horsemen 
persevered in charging on different points, notwithstanding 
the very heavy losses which they sustained. All of Colonel 
Carrington's artillery was disabled. At length the enemy 
retired, after twenty-two burghers and three blacks had 
been killed and twenty-five burghers had been more or 
less severely wounded. 

In the engagements that have been mentioned and 
many others of less importance during the four months 
in which hostilities had been carried on, the loss of life 
by the Basuto had amounted to several hundreds, and a 
much larger number had been wounded and disabled. 
The property destroyed had been considerable, and many 
thousands of women and children had abandoned their 
homes and taken refuge in the Maluti mountains, where 
they were suffering great discomfort. Under these circum- 

vol. 11. 6 

66 History of South Africa. [1881 

stances most of the insurgent leaders were desirous of 
peace, and to obtain it were willing to submit to moderate 
terms, though not to the loss of their weapons. 

On the 10th of January 1881 Lerothodi and Joel, for 
themselves and the chiefs under them, caused a petition 
to the queen to be drawn up, praying for peace, but 
asking to be allowed to retain their arms and their country. 
The petition was sent to Mr. J. W. Sauer, member of 
the Cape house of assembly for Aliwal North, with a 
request that he would forward it to Sir George Strahan, 
who was then the head of the Cape government. Before 
it reached Capetown Sir Hercules Robinson had assumed 
duty as governor and high commissioner (22nd of January 
1881), and he at once sent a summary of it by telegraph 
to the secretary of state for the colonies, who replied on 
the 31st of January, instructing the governor to " press 
earnestly upon the ministry to enable him to take 
advantage of the opportunity to arrange terms by which 
the war might be brought to a close." 

Sir Hercules Robinson then offered to mediate and 
obtain lenient terms for the chiefs, if they would lay 
down their arms and submit to the authority of the law. 
They in reply were profuse of thanks, and asserted that 
they were loyal and obedient subjects of the queen, but 
declined to lay down their arms until they were informed 
of the terms that would be granted to them. To bar- 
gaining with insurgents the governor could not descend, 
but Mr. Sprigg forwarded to Colonel Griffith the follow- 
ing conditions, and granted an armistice from sunrise on 
the 18th to sunset on the 26th of February, to give % 
ample time to the chiefs to discuss them and announce 
their decision : 

" 1. Submission to the authority of the law means sub- 
mission to the colonial law and government. 2. Arms to 
be surrendered immediately. 3. An amnesty will be 
granted to all who have taken part in rebellion, except 
Masupha, Lerothodi, and Joel Molapo, who will have 

1881] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. 67 

to stand their trial, but whose lives will be spared. 
4. Basutos will have to pay such fine as parliament may 
determine. 5. No portion of Basutoland proper will be 
taken, except such small allotments as may be required 
for any magisterial station that parliament may consider 
it expedient to establish. 6. Quthing district, commonly 
known as Morosi's country, will be dealt with as parlia- 
ment shall determine. 7. These terms to be accepted or 
rejected within twenty-four hours of their being handed 
to Lerothodi. They will not be open to discussion with 
the government, and if not accepted absolutely within the 
time mentioned hostilities will recommence at close of 
armistice. 8. If these terms are not accepted, and 
hostilities recommence, government will not be bound by 
present offer." 

The Basuto took advantage of the armistice to gather 
their crops and fortify some hills, and when it expired 
took no notice of the terms offered to them. They were 
elated by two events that had recently occurred to their 
advantage. On the 28th of January Mr. John Austen, 
magistrate of Quthing, with a strong body of Fingos went 
on a patrol to learn the exact condition of his district, 
which was supposed to be free, or nearly free, of in- 
surgents, and when close to Morosi's mountain was 
suddenly attacked by a much more powerful force. In 
the action that followed Mr. Austen and about fifty 
Fingos were killed. 

From a military point of view this disaster was not 
very serious, but it was soon followed by an event of 
a most untoward nature. The burghers in the field never 
had any heart in the war, and from the first questioned 
the justice of compelling the Basuto to surrender guns 
that they had been allowed openly to purchase. The 
trade at the diamond fields should have been prohibited, 
they maintained, but as it had not been, the blacks 
were justified in what they were doing. The circum- 
stance of great discomfort and loss through absence from 

68 History of South Africa. [i88x 

their ordinary occupations gave force to this line of 
reasoning, and early in February 1881 some five hundred 
men left Basutoland without notice or permission and 
returned to their homes. As this act did not meet with 
disapproval from their fellow burghers, it was evident to 
the Basuto that the colonial government could not raise 
a force strong enough to conquer them. 

They would not yield therefore, and so matters went 
on, each side worrying the other, but neither gain- 
ing a decided advantage, until the 17th of April, when 
Lerothodi, who had become jealous of Masupha, informed 
Colonel Griffith that he placed himself unreservedly in 
the governor's hands and promised to order his people 
to cease fighting and return to their homes. This was 
confirmed in writing on the following day by Lerothodi 
and Joel, and was communicated by express rider to the 
nearest telegraph station, which was at Bloemfontein, 
for transmission to Sir Hercules Eobinson, who thereupon 
on the 29th of April issued the following award : 


" The chiefs and people should clearly understand that 
the law with reference to disarmament remains in force, 
and while such is the case its conditions must be main- 
tained, but a liberal construction will be put upon the 
provisions with respect to the issue of licenses for possess- 
ing and carrying guns. The magistrates will be instructed 
to issue licenses to all who, in their opinion, can be 
safely entrusted with arms. With this explanation the 
following are the conditions which I prescribe under this 
head — 

" Guns shall be surrendered. Any person desiring to 
retain his gun may, with the approval of the magistrate, 
have it registered and returned to him on payment of a 
license fee of £1. Such fee shall thereafter be payable 
annually, in advance, and shall be applied to the cost 
of registration and licensing ; and the balance, if any, 

1881] Resistance of the Dasuto to Disarmament. 69 

shall be appropriated towards defraying the interest on 
the colonial debt incurred through the recent war. The 
licenses first issued shall not expire until the 1st July 

"All persons preferring to surrender their guns abso- 
lutely, or who may be refused licenses, or who may 
desire, at any future time, to surrender the guns for 
which they had obtained licenses, shall be paid the 
full appraised value of their guns in the manner pre- 
scribed by the eighth section of the proclamation of 
6th April 1880. The valuators shall be named by the 
governor's agent, and shall consist of the. headman of 
the village, a trader, and the magistrate. 

" II. — Compensation to be made by the Tribe. 

" The property taken from the loyal people shall be 
restored, and all loss or damage made good. Com- 
pensation shall be given to traders for loss of property. 
All government property, namely arms, horses, and 
cattle captured during the rebellion, shall be returned. 

"III.— Fine. 

" The tribe shall pay a fine of five thousand head of 
cattle for having taken up arms against the government. 

" These conditions being complied with, there shall 
be a complete amnesty for all acts committed during 
the recent rebellion, and no confiscation of territory." 

The ministry agreed to the terms of the award, and 
undertook to be responsible to parliament for it. Both 
houses were at this time irritated by the action of the 
imperial authorities, who were disposed to favour the 
Basuto, as was believed, unduly, and there was a strong 
feeling in support of severing the tie that connected 
Basutoland with the Cape Colony. This led to the 
downfall of Mr. Sprigg's ministry, and on the 9th of 

jo History of South Africa. [&&i 

May Mr. (later Sir) Thomas Charles Scanlen became 
attorney-general and prime minister and Mr. Jacobus 
"Wilhelmus Sauer secretary for native affairs. In this 
cabinet Mr. J. C. Molteno, who declined to take the 
first place again, accepted office temporarily as colonial 
secretary, Mr. John X. Merriman was commissioner of 
crown lands and public works, Mr. Charles William 
Hutton was treasurer, and Mr. Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr 
minister without portfolio. It was a cabinet that the 
Basuto and all other Bantu in South Africa could im- 
plicitly rely on to be treated with moderation and 

Three days after its formation Lerothodi and Joel 
announced that they accepted the governor's award, 
and they registered their own guns and some of those 
of their people and set about collecting cattle to pay the 
fine. For a long time Masupha stood aloof, but after Mr. 
Sauer had made a tour through the country and had 
held a great number of meetings, at each of which the 
chiefs and people professed to be the most loyal and 
devoted subjects of the queen, on the 10th of September 
1881 he too signed a document accepting the award. 
If he and the other chiefs had been in earnest, the 
restoration of order would now have been easy, but 
nothing was further from the intention of most of them 
than to keep their promise. To them falsehood and duplicity 
entailed no disgrace, rather, if successful, they were proofs 
of cleverness. Letsie even surpassed his father Moshesh 
in this respect, though in everything else infinitely below 
him in ability. And so the fine of five thousand head 
of cattle was paid as a blind to obtain relief from war, 
but the restoration of the gardens and confiscated 
property of the loyals was almost neglected, and only 
a few guns were either surrendered or registered. Very 
little hut-tax too was paid, and in addition to keeping 
up the civil establishments, it was necessary to provide 
food for the loyals at the cost of the colonial treasury. 

1 882] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. 71 

The European part of the force in Basutoland had 
been dwindling away by desertion, and as hostilities 
ceased when the award was issued, the burghers, yeo- 
manry, and most of the volunteers that were left were 
allowed to return to their homes. The yeomanry indeed 
had so far from fulfilled the expectations of the govern- 
ment concerning them that on the 31st of October 1881 
they were finally disbanded. 

As Colonel Griffith wished to retire on the ground of 
ill health, on the 25th of August 1881 he was succeeded 
by Mr. Joseph Millerd Orpen as acting governor's agent. 
Mr. Orpen was regarded by the Basuto as their friend 
and champion, and it was generally believed that he 
had great influence with them. He was a man of 
ability, but being thoroughly honest and truthful himself, 
he did not make allowances for the defects in the char- 
acter of the people he had to deal with, and was deceived 
by the plausibility and apparent candour of that wily 
diplomatist Letsie. With the approval of the ministry, 
he endeavoured to induce Letsie to assert his authority 
as paramount chief to enforce compliance with the 
governor's award and restore order, and for several months 
he really believed that he would be successful. Even 
after Masupha, the most straightforward of all the 
chiefs, threw off the mask and declared that he would 
neither register his guns, nor tolerate a magistrate 
independent of his control, nor restore the property 
of the loyals, nor pay taxes, Mr. Orpen firmly believed 
that Letsie was in earnest, and accepted as truths the 
frivolous excuses made for the failure of sham attempts 
at coercion. 

Meantime the people were certainly deteriorating 
morally. Great quantities of brandy were brought into 
the country by unprincipled traders, and sold openly, 
some chiefs, instead of preventing it, purchasing it by 
the cask themselves. There were also numerous canteens 
along the Free State side of the border, to which the 

J 2 History of South Africa. [ l882 

Basuto could now resort, as they were able to cross the 
Caledon without a pass. The magistrates were power- 
less, for there were no means of enforcing the law. 

What was to be done in the matter now became the 
most important question before the colonial ministry. 
There was an opinion generally expressed throughout 
the country that the best thing to do would be to abandon 
Basutoland altogether, as the colony had no voice or 
part in receiving the tribe as British subjects, and should 
not be burdened with the expense of trying to restore 
order there. But to this the imperial authorities were 
opposed, and they pointed out that the policy from 
which the trouble had arisen had been objected to by 

On the 29th of December 1881 the ministers laid 
before the governor a minute in which they stated that 
they were " prepared to appeal to parliament to provide 
means to enforce the authority of the colonial govern- 
ment, but did not feel justified in doing so unless an 
assurance could be given that her Majesty's government 
would leave the local government unfettered in the ultimate 
settlement of the terms upon which peace was to be 
concluded." On the 6th of January 1882 Earl Kimberley 
sent a reply by telegraph that " her Majesty's ministers 
had no desire to place difficulties in the way of the 
colonial government, but it would be impossible for 
them to pledge themselves beforehand to assent to 
measures of the nature of which they were uninformed." 
From this it can be seen that home rule was then very 
limited in the Cape Colony. 

On the 24th of January 1882 another minute was laid 
by Mr. Scanlen before the governor, in which it was 
stated that " without a definite understanding that the 
settlement of Basutoland would be left in the hands of 
the colonial government, it would be useless to submit to 
parliament any proposal which would involve the possible 
renewal of hostilities. Ministers could not acquiesce in 

1882] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. 73 

the continuance of the present state of affairs, believing 
that the interests of the colony would not be served by 
continuing the attempt to assert a rule in Basutoland 
which the executive was unable to enforce. They were 
therefore prepared to recommend to parliament the with- 
drawal of colonial authority from British Basutoland north 
of the Orange river, to give grants of land in Quthing to 
those who had adhered to the colonial side, and to com- 
pensate them liberally for all their losses, Quthing to 
form thereafter an integral part of the colony. The 
colony could not maintain its authority as long as the 
rebels believed they were protected from the natural results 
of their contumacy." 

Such was the attitude of the prime minister, the leader 
of the party accused by its opponents of " negrophilism," 
the head of a cabinet in which Mr. J. W. Sauer, who 
was known to study the interests of the black people as 
much as those of the Europeans, was secretary for native 
affairs, a cabinet supported by Mr. Saul Solomon, the 
leading philanthropist of his day in South Africa. Surely 
it could be trusted to deal tenderly and fairly with the 

This was forwarded to the secretary of state, who 
replied on the 3rd of February : "If in consequence of 
the persistent refusal of a portion of the tribe to abide 
by the award which they accepted, the Cape government 
and legislature should be of opinion that for the punish- 
ment of the offenders confiscation is necessary, within 
reasonable limits, and that for the future security of the 
country some parts of Basutoland should be opened for 
colonial settlement, her Majesty's government would not 
regard such measures as inadmissible. On the other hand 
they cannot sanction the partition of Basutoland in the 
manner described. They are not prepared to undertake 
to restore order in the country north of the Orange river, 
disturbances in which arose originally from measures 
taken by the late colonial administration on their own 

74 History of South Africa. \\^2 

responsibility, contrary to the opinion of the home govern- 
ment, and while any other course is practicable, so grave 
a step as the withdrawal of all civilised government from 
that district should not be contemplated." 

On the 6th of February the colonial ministry laid down 
their position as follows : " Ministers propose that an 
intimation be conveyed to the Basuto people that unless 
the award be fully complied with before a day to be 
named, it will be held to be finally cancelled. In the 
event of non-compliance they repeat their proposal regard- 
ing Quthing, namely to provide land for the loyal Basuto 
there and to dispose of the surplus ground as crown 
lands. To undertake the enforcement of law and order 
in Basutoland north of the Orange river, and in the 
event of resistance to authority the colonial government 
to have liberty to confiscate the property and land of those 
who continue in rebellion, due regard being paid to 
the rights of all who respect the law. Abandonment 
would involve their neighbours in hostilities with the 
Basuto, which would result in much misery, bloodshed, 
and loss to the Orange Free State and the ultimate destruc- 
tion of the Basuto people. They are prepared to advise 
the legislature to undertake the necessary measures for 
the establishment of law and order, if a distinct assurance 
is given to the Basuto that if they disobey a punishment 
will be inflicted which will adequately mark the offence." 

The absolutely free hand which the colonial government 
asked for was not conceded by the imperial authorities, 
and without it there was no possibility of compelling the 
Basuto to comply with the award. Consequently on the 
6th of April 1882 a proclamation was issued repealing 
the application of the disarmament act to Basutoland, 
which carried with it the withdrawal of the award. 

Meantime a commission, of which Mr. Cecil John 
Khodes was a member, had been engaged investigating 
and appraising the losses of the loyals and European traders 
and others in Basutoland that had not been made good 

1883] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. 75 

under the terms of the award, and had sent in a report 
that £104,156 would be needed to compensate one thousand 
five hundred and sixty-seven Basuto and £42,316 to com- 
pensate eighty-two Europeans. 

And now another actor came on the scene, a man who 
had won renown in China and in another part of Africa, 
and who, it was hoped, might be able to put matters 
right in Basutoland. This was Major-General Charles 
George Gordon, commonly known as Chinese Gordon, 
the man whose death at Khartum on the 26 th of January 
1885 caused widespread sorrow throughout the British 
realm. He had once before been offered an appointment 
in South Africa, which he had declined, but in March 
1882, when he was at Mauritius, he accepted the offer 
of the post of commandant-general of the colonial forces. 
In June he arrived, and set about the reorganisation of 
the different corps, which occupied his attention until 
September, when he proceeded to Basutoland. Mr. Sauer, 
the secretary for native affairs, was there at the time, 
and a force was being collected under command of Lero- 
thodi, which it was hoped would compel Masupha to 
submit. If Lerothodi was in earnest, as owing to his 
jealousy of Masupha he may have been, other chiefs 
with him were not, and the whole thing was a complete 
failure. But while the so-called army was advancing 
upon Thaba Bosigo, on the 26th of September General 
Gordon of his own accord went up that mountain and had 
an interview with Masupha. Such action seems exceed- 
ingly rash, but he was utterly without fear, and believed 
that he might be able to prevent bloodshed. 

His solution of the difficulty was that Masupha should 
be practically independent in the Berea district, should 
pay the magistrate stationed with him, who was to be 
a mere adviser, and should collect the taxes for that 
purpose. He said that he — the commandant-general of 
the colonial forces — would not fight against the Basuto, 
for he admired them. A more conscientious man than 

j6 History of South Africa. C l88 3 

General Gordon never lived, he spoke what he believed to 
be right, but it is not surprising that after this the 
government at once accepted the resignation of his 
office, which he tendered. On the 16th of October he 
wrote to Mr. Scanlen: "in my communication to Masupha 
I did not even attempt to follow the wishes of the 
government, or did I in the least weigh my words with 
a view to suit the government. I acted entirely upon 
my own responsibility, and was and am perfectly con- 
vinced that what I said was and is the best thing that 
could be done, therefore instead of regretting it I do not 
do so." 

Mr. Orpen still continued his efforts to induce one sec- 
tion of the tribe to coerce the other, but without any 
good result, for at heart they were one in opposing the 
government. He was well liked by the great body of the 
Basuto, and if any one could have succeeded in such a 
scheme, he was the man, but it was simply impossible. 

A special session of the Cape parliament — 19th January 
to 7th February 1883 — was held purposely to consider 
what should be done with regard to Basutoland, when it 
was resolved that unless an immediate improvement was 
effected colonial rule should be withdrawn. 

The cancellation of the award having released the 
Basuto from its obligations, parliament voted the amount 
of money necessary, in accordance with the report of the 
commission, to compensate those whose property had been 
taken from them or destroyed by the rebels. And all this 
time the establishments in Basutoland had to be kept up, 
and very little revenue could be collected. From the 
1st of July 1830 to the 28th of February 1883— a period 
of thirty-two months — the total receipts were £9,778, while 
the expenditure was £57,779. As the war, from its com- 
mencement to the acceptance of the governor's award had 
cost a little over £3,000,000, the colony had reason to rue 
the day that Sir Philip Wodehouse interposed to save the 
tribe from destruction. 

1883] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. JJ 

On the 17th of March Mr. Orpen was succeeded as 
acting governor's agent by Captain Matthew Smith Blyth, 
a change which was decidedly objectionable to Letsie, but 
which seemed to the ministry necessary on account of the 
new policy they had resolved to adopt. 

As soon as they could get away from Capetown after 
the prorogation of parliament, Messrs. Scanlen and Sauer 
proceeded to the disturbed district to make a final attempt 
to obtain a settlement. Meetings were called at Matsieng 
and at Thlotsi at which the two ministers endeavoured to 
ascertain the real views of the Basuto, but as Masupha and 
his adherents did not attend, they learned little more than 
that Letsie and his partisans were dissatisfied with the 
loss of power by the chiefs, that they objected to being 
abandoned and left without protection, and that they would 
prefer to be ruled directly by the imperial government 
rather than by the Cape Colony. 

A project of a new form of government was then 
submitted for their consideration, in which they should 
practically rule themselves. There was to be a council of 
sixty or seventy chiefs and headmen, to be termed the 
council of advice, which should largely control legislation, 
and the chiefs were to have power to try all civil and all 
criminal cases except those of the very gravest kind. It 
was an offer of almost complete home rule, modified only 
by advice. 

Messrs. Scanlen and Sauer then returned to Capetown, 
leaving the Basuto to talk the matter over and come to 
some decision. It was arranged between Captain Blyth 
and Letsie that there should be a meeting of the tribe on 
the 24th of April at Matsieng to give a reply, and special 
invitations were sent by Letsie to Masupha, Ramanela, and 
Joel to attend it. The invitation to Joel miscarried, the 
others took no notice of the matter. They would consent 
to nothing short of absolute independence, and they con- 
trolled at least one-third of the tribe. On the day appointed 
only about two thousand of Letsie's immediate adherents 

78 History of South Africa. [1883 

were present, so this attempt to arrive at a settlement, 
like all those preceding it, was a failure. 

The ministry now urged the imperial authorities to 
relieve the colony of the intolerable humiliation of its 
position, and Mr. J. X. Merriman was sent to England to 
represent matters more clearly than could be done by 
correspondence. Just at this time open war broke out 
again between Jonathan and Joel concerning a herd of 
cattle, that the former claimed as his by inheritance, while 
the latter asserted that they had only been lent by Molapo 
to Jonathan under the mafisa* system, and were really the 
property of the right hand house. Joel was the victor on 
this occasion. Some of Jonathan's men were killed, others 
defended themselves in a lager, many hundreds of his 
women and children took refuge in the Orange Free State, 
their huts were burnt, and fifteen thousand head of their 
cattle, among which were many with lung sickness, were 
driven over the Caledon. Masupha, who took part with 
Joel, threatened to send an army to bring them back, so 
on the 12th of May 1883 President Brand wrote to the 
earl of Derby, who was then secretary of state for the 
colonies, requesting him to restore tranquillity on the border 
in accordance with the terms of the second treaty of Aliwal 

The secretary of state tried to ignore some of the 
responsibility under that treaty, but on the 14th of June 
he wrote to the high commissioner consenting to take over 
the control of Basutoland under certain conditions, the prin- 
cipal of which were the consent of the Basuto themselves 
and a pecuniary contribution by the Cape Colony towards 
the cost of administration, in lieu of the customs duties on 
goods sold there. 

* The Basuto custom of mafisa is for a chief to lend cows to men, 
often of his own family, on condition of personal service being given in 
return. The increase belongs to the person to whom the cows are lent. 
If they die or are lost they must be paid for by the person to whom they 
are lent. 

1883] Resistance of the Basuto to Disarmament. 79 

The Cape parliament met in ordinary session on the 
27th of June 1883, and showed itself only too glad to get 
rid of the Basuto trouble on the imperial government's 
terms. It passed an act to sever Basutoland from the 
colony, and agreed to contribute a sum not exceeding 
£20,000 a year towards the cost of the new administra- 
tion. Parliament was prorogued on the 28th of September, 
and the act was reserved for her Majesty's pleasure. 

The next thing done was to try to ascertain the views 
of the Basuto themselves. Letsie, as paramount chief, was 
requested to convene a general assembly of the tribe, 
which he did for the 29th of November, but Masupha and 
his partisans did not attend. To those who were present 
the question was put : " Do you desire to remain British 
subjects under the direct government of the queen, and if 
so, do you undertake to be obedient to the laws and 
orders of her Majesty's high commissioner, under whose 
authority you would be placed, and to pay a hut-tax of 
ten shillings in aid of the administrative expenses of your 
country ? " The answer was in the affirmative, and 
Letsie, Lerothodi, and thirty-three other chiefs and headmen 
signed a document to that effect. Joel and several others 
subsequently gave in their adherence, but Masupha refused 
to do so. The imperial authorities, however, expressed 
themselves satisfied, and the final arrangements were then 
made with Sir Hercules Eobinson and Mr. Scanlen, who 
were in London, Mr. Merriman having returned to the 

On the 18th of March 1884 an order of the queen in 
council was published confirming the act severing Basuto- 
land from the Cape Colony, and on the same day 
Lieutenant-Colonel Marshall James Clarke, who had been 
appointed resident commissioner, relieved Captain Blyth of 
the disagreeable duty he had been performing, and direct 
imperial rule was established in the territory. 

The Basuto were of course elated by the change, as it 
relieved them of all fear of compulsion of any kind being 

So History of South Africa. [1884 

employed against them if they did not choose to obey 
every regulation that might be made by the repre- 
sentative of the queen. To Masupha it meant the con- 
firmation of independence of all control by Europeans 
that he had long asserted he was striving for. The 
imperial administration in Basutoland employed moral 
force alone, which would have been of very little value 
but for the fear of the chiefs and the people that they 
might be abandoned if they did not at least profess to 
be loyal. British protection they valued, because they 
knew that if it should be withdrawn they would soon 
be again in the condition in which they were when Sir 
Philip Wodehouse came to their relief. They were under 
no delusions as to their having beaten the colonial 
forces, though it is not probable that any of them fully 
comprehended the cause of the abandonment of the field 
by the burghers. So they realised the advantage of pro- 
tection, and this feeling gave the new authorities a lever 
to work with. To this, to time, and to missionary 
teaching the future of the Basuto was now committed. 

The defeat of the Cape Colony in the contest with 
this tribe was certainly a stigma upon European prestige 
in South Africa, but it is easily explained. The burghers 
left the field of action and returned to their homes 
without permission, which caused the collapse of the 
effort of the government to enforce disarmament. Why 
did they do so? It was certainly not cowardice that 
was the cause, nor was it too great a love of home 
comfort or too great an aversion to the hardships of 
camp life. It was simply because they believed the war 
was not a just one on the side of the colony, and when 
no one reproached them for desertion of duty the govern- 
ment realised that any further effort to prosecute the war 
would be useless. 



The history of the Transvaal at this period is a narra- 
tive of little else than a continuous effort to recover 
their independence by the people who had brought the 
country within the domain of civilisation, and the com- 
plete suppression of the revolt of the Bapedi tribe under 
Sekukuni. The population was slowly increasing by an 
influx of English land speculators, traders, and professional 
men, all of whom naturally favoured the retention of the 
British flag, and to them may be added a very few 
Dutch-speaking commercial men from the Cape Colony. 
The villages were thus mainly English in sentiment, 
while the country people were intensely attached to 

Behind the public opinion in England that permitted 
the government to cancel the Sand River convention and 
assume control over a previously independent state in 
opposition to the remonstrances of its people, was a 
strong conviction that the Transvaal farmers were slave- 
holders and that their treatment of all coloured people 
was cruel and oppressive. The calumnies of Barrow and 
many later writers, in which the acts of a few borderers 
were represented as the prevalent misdeeds of the entire 
community, had this pernicious result. Many well- 
informed writers had described matters in their true light, 
but their statements were altogether disregarded. One 
calumny at last was dissipated : the Transvaal farmers 
were not slaveholders. The British authorities after annex- 
ing the country had not released a single slave, because 

VOL. II. 7 8l 

82 History of the Transvaal. [1879 

there was not one to release. But the belief that the 
farmers and their government treated all coloured people 
harshly and unjustly remained until a much later date, 
when it too was dispelled in a manner that admitted 
of no contradiction. Then it was recognised that though 
the great majority of the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of 
the country did not treat coloured people after the 
English manner, nor regard them as being socially, politi- 
cally, or ecclesiastically upon an equality with themselves, 
their mode of dealing with barbarians was well adapted 
to the condition of those people. Blacks were prohibited 
from holding laud under individual tenure, for instance, 
because that would not only give them burgher rights 
and subject them to the performance of burgher duties, but 
it would enable them to supplant Europeans, as was the 
case in the Cape Colony. In the reserves, which were 
secured to them as long as they remained peaceful, how- 
ever, they could follow their own customs as to holding 
land without any interference, and in no part of South 
Africa were there Bantu to be found possessed of more 
movable property or cultivating more ground than some 
of those in the Transvaal. 

But at the time here treated of the old belief was 
still prevalent in England, and was sufficiently strong to 
cause most people there to consider that it was justi- 
fiable to deprive the farmers of the Transvaal of their 

There was another motive also for what was being 
done. The party then dominant in England was bent 
upon effecting the confederation of the different South 
African communities under one government, believing, and 
rightly, that it would be for their own good, and further 
would relieve the British treasury of such charges as 
that for the Zulu war, which had cost £5,138,000 above the 
ordinary military expenditure in this country; and Lord 
Beaconsfield's ministry thought this could be more easily 
accomplished by keeping the Transvaal as it then was 

1879] The Struggle for Independence. $$ 

than by restoring its independence. It was a tremendous 
mistake, for a forced union could never have been a 
successful one, and in reality it was this treatment of the 
Transvaal that prevented the Cape Colony from taking 
part in the confederation movement. A majority of the 
colonists might have been willing to take upon themselves 
the chief share of the burden of defence of the other 
communities, but they resented the coercion of men of 
their own race north of the Vaal. 

The main hope of the farmers now rested upon Sir 
Bartle Frere. In December 1878 he wrote from Maritz- 
burg to Messrs. Kruger and Joubert, informing them that 
he intended to visit the Transvaal as soon as possible, and 
promising them to do everything in his power to promote 
the welfare of the country. 

Thereupon a mass meeting was held on a farm near 
Pretoria on the 10th of January 1879, when it was 
resolved without a dissentient voice that they would ask 
for nothing and wanted nothing but a reversal of the act 
of annexation of their country to the British dominions. 
A strong committee, consisting of seventy of the leading 
men in the community, was appointed, with Mr. Marthinus 
Wessel Pretorius as chairman and Mr. W. Eduard Bok 
as secretary, to take such measures as they might con- 
sider advisable or necessary in accordance with this 

The committee requested Mr. Pieter J. Joubert to 
proceed to Natal and seek an interview with Sir Bartle 
Frere, in order to give him an account of the existing 
state of matters and particularly of the proceedings of 
the mass meeting, and endeavour to get his assistance. 
Mr. Joubert accordingly rode to Maritzburg, where he 
found every one panic-stricken, owing to the recent terrible 
disaster at Isandhlwana. On the 3rd and 4th of February 
he had interviews with Sir Bartle Frere, who informed 
him that he had no power to restore the independence of 
the Transvaal, but short of that was prepared to do 

84 History of the Transvaal. [i g 79 

everything possible for the good of the country. He urged 
that the farmers should assist the British forces against 
the Zulus, who were a menace to them as well as to 
Natal, and repeated his promise to visit the country as 
soon as possible and confer with the people as to their 
wants. Mr. Joubert replied that nothing but indepen- 
dence was wanted, and if that was conceded the people 
would work most cordially with the British government. 
He then returned to Pretoria, and on the 9th of February 
reported to the committee the unfavourable result of his 

At this time Sir Theophilus Shepstone ceased, except 
in name, to be administrator of the Transvaal. His 
presence in England had been required by the secretary 
of state for the colonies, who had directed that Colonel 
William Owen Lanyon should act as administrator at 
Pretoria. Colonel Lanyon took over the duty on the 4th 
of March 1879, and held only an acting appointment 
until Sir Theophilus Shepstone retired with a pension of 
j£900 a year, when he was confirmed in office and on 
the 5th of June 1880 took the necessary oaths. There 
had been no love thrown away on Sir Theophilus Shep- 
stone, to whose misrepresentation of facts the farmers 
attributed much of their trouble, but towards Colonel 
Lanyon the feeling was even more bitter. He was a 
military man, whose habits were reserved, who was 
accessible only during office hours, and who did not 
speak a word of Dutch. There was no more sympathy 
between him and them than between inanimate objects. 
To support his authority two companies of infantry and 
a few artillerymen with two Krupp guns were stationed 
at Pretoria by Colonel Kowlands, who was in military 
command of the Transvaal. His power of action was 
very limited, as by order of Sir Michael Hicks Beach, 
dated 21st of September 1878, all communications with 
the colonial office were thereafter to be sent through 
Sir Bartle Frere, who would exercise greater general 

l8 79] The Struggle for Independence. 85 

supervision over the affairs of the Transvaal than had 
previously been the case. 

One of the last acts of Sir Theophilus Shepstone was 
an endeavour to secure the adhesion of Mr. Paul Kruger 
to the British cause by offering him the appointment of 
commandant, in the hope that many farmers would be 
willing to serve with him against the Zulus, but the offer 
was at once (21st of January 1879) declined. At this 
time the anti-English feeling among the farmers was 
running higher than ever, owing to the award which 
gave to the Zulus a large tract of land they held to be 
honestly and rightfully theirs. 

To leave nothing undone in their effort to obtain a 
peaceable solution of the matter, the committee requested 
Colonel Lanyon to grant them an interview, and he 
consented to meet a deputation on the 24th of March at a 
farm belonging to a man named Strydom fourteen miles or 
a little over twenty-two kilometres from Pretoria. Twenty- 
two members with the secretary Mr. Bok were there 
at the time appointed. He asked them what they wanted, 
to which they replied that they claimed independence on 
behalf of the people. He answered that what had been 
done had been approved of by her Majesty the queen and 
the parliament of England, and he had no power at all in 
the matter. He then spoke of the benefits they would 
derive from English rule if they would only submit unre- 
servedly to it, and of the great prosperity to the country 
that would follow. They listened with attention to his 
remarks, but answered that material advantages could not 
weigh against independence. So all that was gained by 
the interview was that each party thereafter thoroughly 
understood the position of the other. 

On the 16th of March the lull in the operations in 
Zululand enabled Sir Bartle Frere to leave Natal, and he 
set out from Maritzburg to Pretoria. Travelling slowly in 
order to meet and converse with people on the way, more 
than three weeks passed by before he reached Kleinfontein, 

86 History of the Transvaal. [1879 

where several thousand farmers had assembled and had 
been waiting four weeks to hear from him whether there 
was any hope of their desire being gratified. On his visit 
to their camp he went almost alone, as there was some 
talk in Natal that he might be seized and detained as a 
hostage, and he wished to show his fearlessness and his 
confidence in them. He was of course not molested in 
any way, but he was received coldly and in perfect silence 
as he rode to the large tent prepared for his use. As 
calm discussion was impossible after it became generally 
known that the annexation proclamation would not be can- 
celled, it was arranged that the committee should meet his 
Excellency at Erasmus' Spruit, about six miles or ten kilo- 
metres from Pretoria, on the 12th of April. There, in 
answer to a request that a written statement of exactly 
what was wanted should be given to him, Mr. Pretorius 
handed in a document as follows : 

"1. The great majority of the population is against the 

" 2. The people have of their own free will united in a 
meeting for four weeks, in order to express their wish to 
his Excellency, from whom they desire the restitution of 
their right. 

"3. The people desire the annexation to be annulled. 

"4. The people are not content with anything except the 
complete restoration of independence as recognised in the 
Sand Kiver convention of 1852. 

"5. That if the convention of 1852 be restored, the 
people abide by the resolution of the volksraad of 1877, to 
enter into a closer union with her Majesty's colonies for 
the benefit of South Africa." 

A long discussion took place, in which Sir Bartle Frere 
explained what he meant by freedom and independence, 
such as it was in his power to offer them. They consisted 
of freedom of speech, freedom of action within the law, 
protection for life and property, the franchise, and that all 
who paid taxes should have a voice in making their own 

l8 79] The Struggle for Independence. 87 

laws. His desire was that the committee should advise 
him as to the best manner of securing these privileges 
under the British crown, but they declined to do so. They 
would have absolute independence, meaning by that separate 
existence as a nation free from connection or dependence 
on any other nation, or nothing. What he offered, they 
admitted, was of great value, but it was of no weight 
compared with what they had a right to. Condensed, their 
remarks implied that what they desired was the power to 
shape their destiny in any way that they chose, while what 
he held out was only liberty to follow a line laid down by 
others. At length it was arranged that a petition to the 
queen should be drawn up, which the high commissioner 
undertook to forward, and to represent occurrences faith- 
fully, but he declined to support the petition, and expressed 
his belief that there was a considerable party of Dutch- 
speaking burghers in favour of British rule, and that 
intimidation had been used to bring together so many 
people to the mass meeting. 

The petition that was drawn up was as follows : 

" To her Majesty Victoria, queen of Great Britain and 
Ireland, &c, &c, &c. 

" The undersigned, your Majesty's humble petitioners, 
lay their humble petition at your feet, with all the earnest- 
ness of men who for two years have fought for their 
rights with weapons of order and passive resistance, and 
who still persevere therein. 

" They now look to your Majesty as the source of jus- 
tice, and request of you their right, they implore this with 
a humility well-nigh equal to that with which we bow our- 
selves in the dust before Almighty God. 

" Two years ago, on the 12th of April 1877, our free 
independent South African Republic was annexed, in the 
name of your Majesty, by Sir Theophilus Shepstone ; this 
terrible fact, this trampling down of a poor, weak, but quiet 
people is without a parallel in history, this fact is in direct 
conflict with the solemn promises of your Majesty's govern- 

88 History of the Transvaal. [1879 

ment, in conflict with the sacred faithfulness due to treaties 
mutually made between the representatives of your Majesty 
and the representatives of our people, which took place at 
Sand Kiver in 1852. Your Majesty's government itself 
more than once, and expressly, instructed your Majesty's 
representatives in South Africa to respect the letter and 
the spirit of the treaty of 1852. 

" We have since had quiet and peace during twenty-five 
years, and have lived in perfect friendship with your 
Majesty's representatives in South Africa, and with the 
colonists. When, for instance, your Majesty's colony of 
Natal was in trouble with the Kaffirs through the rebel 
Kaffir Langalibalele, the republic did not withhold its aid, 
so that in the parliament of that colony thanks were 
expressed to the republic for its help and support. 

" And yet more, when Sir Theophilus Shepstone was 
staying in Pretoria, the government and the people of the 
South African Eepublic declared by solemn resolution that 
they were willing to cooperate with your Majesty's govern- 
ment and the colonies in everything that could tend to 
the unity and the welfare of South Africa. 

"Your Majesty ! we were weak, and two years ago weaker, 
because we had just waged war against a rebellious Kaffir 
chief, a war that had just been brought to a close. At 
that moment Sir Theophilus Shepstone annexed the 
republic. He had been sent out by your Majesty's govern- 
ment under different circumstances ; untrue and erroneous 
accounts transmitted to England had given the secretary 
of state for the colonies an incorrect impression of the 
situation here. 

"Instead of informing your Majesty's government faith- 
fully, and in accordance with the truth, as to what he 
found here, Sir Theophilus Shepstone sent untrue accounts 
to England, and made it appear as if the people were in 
favour of annexation ; the truth is that crafty deceivers led 
many to sign addresses who did not understand it; they 
are people whom we cannot better describe than in the 

1879] The Struggle for Independence. 89 

words of the high commissioner : foreign fortune-hunters 
who neither feel nor have any interest in the country. 
They betrayed the country. 

" How far Sir Theophilus Shepstone exceeded his powers 
appears from the wording of his instructions, in which 
it was expressly said that he was to act in harmony 
with the legislative council of the country. Well, the 
volksraad solemnly intimated that it would not give 
up the independence of the country, but, as already 
stated, were ready for anything that could lead to 
the unity and welfare of your Majesty's colonies in South 

" Now, how was Sir Theophilus Shepstone able to get 
your Majesty's government to approve of the annexation ? 
By the untruthful reports that the very great majority of 
the people were in favour of annexation. The contrary is 
now so evident that it needs no further proof. 

" How was Sir Theophilus Shepstone able to annex the 
country without the burghers offering any armed resistance 
to it ? 

"Your Majesty, it grieves us deeply to have to say it, 
but we cannot do otherwise than speak the truth : he did 
it by craft, deceit, and threats. After he had entered 
the country with the solemn declaration that, as the 
representative of your Majesty, he came as a friend to 
friends for the purpose of removing grievances, and in 
that sacred capacity had been overwhelmed with kindness 
by us, he shortly afterwards, in the executive council, 
threatened the country and the people with the savages 
against whom your Majesty's brave troops are now waging 
a bloody war in Zululand.* In the same place and on 

* The farmers believed that Sir Theophilus Shepstone had threatened 
to cause Ketshwayo, who was supposed to be under his influence, to 
invade the Transvaal if they resisted ; but he indignantly denied the 
charge. What he did state was that Ketshwayo had been restrained 
by his influence from making war on the Transvaal, and that the 
republic was in danger of a Zulu invasion. The farmers did not 
believe this, and put an incorrect interpretation upon his words. 

90 History of the Transvaal. [1879 

the same occasion he threatened us with the armed power 
of your Majesty's troops already collected by him on the 
border, and to whom he gave orders on the day of the 
annexation to enter the country ; and yet he wrote to 
your government that he had strictly refrained from 
everything that had the least appearance of a threat. 
Thereupon our government resolved not to draw the 
sword, so as to prevent those horrors of bloodshed with 
which Sir Theophilus Shepstone threatened them. 

"Your Majesty, we bitterly regret this, for instead of 
having strengthened our cause thereby, it appears that we 
are now looked upon as so weak that anything may be 
done to us, to us who would not draw the sword just 
in order to prevent the bloodshed and misery of Kaffir 
wars ; we are reproached with being the cause of those 

"In. the mean time, during two years, much light has 
arisen, and on this matter too. We know that ere long 
the last obscure point will be cleared up, and your 
Majesty will see by what persons or by whom the native 
tribes have been incited. 

" But no, your Majesty, we continue to cherish the 
confident hope that by our expectant attitude we have 
rather gained than lost in your Majesty's eyes, that your 
Majesty will be grateful to us for having by our passive 
resistance kept your government from shedding innocent 
blood, kept it from the abomination of, after having 
murdered the liberty of a people, persecuting that people 
by fire and sword. Two years long have we now pro- 
tested. The first protest was taken to London by two 
officers of the republic, but the secretary of state for the 
colonies «at that tiirie at once informed the deputation that 
he would not hear a single word about the annexation. 

" When this deputation returned and communicated its 
negative result, the people arose as one man, and imme- 
diately sent a second deputation with a memorial, signed 
by thousands upon thousands, in order to show the spirit 

l8 7S>] The Struggle for Independence. 91 

of the people. To this deputation, in like manner the 
secretary of state for the colonies at that time would 
not listen. On the return of this deputation the people 
were deeply grieved, and instead of submitting, resolved 
to persevere. They thought the coming of your Majesty's 
high commissioner would be the means of their obtaining 
justice. Here was for the first time, they said, a high 
official, the only representative of your Majesty, in South 
Africa who can now by his own observation convince 
himself on which side right and truth lay. But the first 
meeting of the delegate of the people, Mr. P. J. Joubert, 
with the high commissioner in South Africa at Pieter- 
maritzburg, on the 4th of February 1879, was fruitless. 
Mr. P. J. Joubert notified in the newspapers that he 
would give a report of his proceedings at a certain 
indicated place, and without any persuasion, without any 
compulsion, thousands of men appeared there, and waited 
one month for your Majesty's high commissioner. 

" When at length his Excellency appeared, the people 
intimated their unanimous will, but his Excellency 
declared that he had no power to undo the annexation, 
but promised to give your government a true represen- 
tation of our wishes. And this has been fulfilled by his 

"What his Excellency offered us in your Majesty's 
name may be expressed in one word, they are priceless 
liberties, but they do not constitute liberty, and this we 
desire to have restored. They are priceless liberties 
without which even a free people is still unhappy, but 
they are just the liberties which we possessed up to the 
12th of April 1877, and of which Sir Theophilus Shepstone 
deprived us. No people having any self-respect can allow 
its liberty to be bought for a partial return of that which 
it once possessed. We appeal to the report of this 
interview with your Majesty's high commissioner in 
order to show the earnestness, the sacred will of the 

9 2 History of the Transvaal. [i 8 79 

"What else can we do? Must we draw the sword? 
Your Majesty, we cannot conceal from you what is 
happening at the present moment in Pretoria, the old 
capital of our republic. It is an open town, full of 
families, women and children. A handful of your 
Majesty's troops is there. Your representatives there 
have given orders or permission that in the open streets 
barricades and breastworks should be erected ; private 
residences are pierced with loopholes. Why? and against 
what enemy? Against us, the true people of the South 
African Republic. Is there any clearer evidence needed 
that the annexation is contrary to the will of the people, 
if, after two years, the capital of the country must be 
protected in such a way against the people ? It would 
seem as if men would mislead us into bringing about a 
massacre ; and we are sure that just as much as this 
grieves us, it will also call forth your Majesty's displeasure, 
and all the more when your Majesty learns that among 
the means of defence dynamite also is employed. We 
will not decide whether to this measure there is not 
applicable the disapproval of the use of explosive bullets, 
of which the secretary of state for the colonies at the 
time, in 1876, suspected the republic, though unjustly. 
The noble lord called it a savage mode of warfare. 

"Must it then, your Majesty, come to war? It can- 
not be your will, just as it is not our wish. 

"Your Majesty cannot desire to rule over unwilling 
subjects. Unwilling subjects, but faithful neighbours, we 
will be. We beseech you, put an end to this unbearable 
state of things, and charge your high commissioner in 
South Africa to give us back our State. 

" Three years ago it was the South African Republic 
that intimated its readiness to attend a conference for 
the purpose of discussing common interests in South 
Africa, which was invited by Lord Carnarvon, in order 
to discuss confederation. Two years ago our volksraad 
resolved as stated above, and in the name of the people 

1879] The Struggle for Independence. 93 

of the South African Bepublic we solemnly repeat the 
assurance in everything that can conduce to the unity 
and welfare of the several states in South Africa we 
will cooperate now and ever. 

" In conclusion, should your Majesty have any doubt 
whether we actually represent the very great majority, 
we are happy to state to your Majesty that nothing 
would please us better than to have this decided by 
the votes of the burghers." 

In forwarding this petition to the secretary of state on 
the 17th of April, Sir Bartle Frere observed : 

" By independence they understand the same entire 
freedom from all control in choosing their own form 
of government, and their own administrative machinery, 
as was guaranteed to them by the Sand Kiver conven- 
tion of 1852. In making this demand they claim to 
represent the wishes of the very great majority of the 
Boer population of the Transvaal. They consider that 
the Boers now assembled represent the very great majority 
of that population. 

" In proof of this they give me the strongest assurance 
that, besides those whom I saw there on the occasion 
of my visit to the camp, and who, I may state, un- 
doubtedly represented a strong party, there had been 
from time to time many more, fully five thousand burghers 
of the land, who they state all cordially agree with their 
expressed wishes and views, and that such a number 
would be a decided majority of the burghers of the 
land, as estimated by the latest official authority. How 
far this is the case I have, of course, no opportunity of 
judging personally, but there can be no doubt that I 
may say, as the result of my own observations in the 
camp and elsewhere, that it certainly is a very strong 
party that has kept up this movement to the present time. 
As a proof of their earnestness, I can confirm the fact 
that they have been in an open camp for four weeks 
waiting my arrival. 

94 History of the Transvaal. [1879 

"And looking to the bearing and the temper of the 
members of the committee whom I met, who are men 
of position in the country and respected, and leaders who 
have since the earliest establishment of the republic taken 
a prominent part in the government of the country, I 
think I may say that their representations are worthy of 
your earnest consideration. 

" They maintain that they are voluntarily assembled, 
and that what the committee state is the voice, not of 
delegates or representatives, but of the very great majority 
of the people. They therefore pray that her Majesty's 
government, taking these facts as herein represented into 
consideration, will restore their independence." 

The view of the British government was summarised 
in a despatch from Sir Michael Hicks Beach to Sir 
Garnet Wolseley, dated 20th of November 1879, which 
contains the following paragraphs : 

" I had hoped that the explanations which I had been 
able to give to Messrs. Kruger and Joubert, on the 
occasion of their visit to this country in 1878, of the 
views and intentions of her Majesty's government with 
reference to the future constitution of the Transvaal, might 
have led to a more favourable reception by the malcontent 
boers of the arguments placed before them by Sir Bartle 
Frere, and that they would have been prepared to unite 
with the other inhabitants of the Transvaal in discussing 
with the high commissioner the best remedies for any 
particular grievances which might be felt by them, and the 
definite provisions of the constitution to be established. 
But Sir Bartle Frere found it impossible to elicit from this 
portion of the population any public statement beyond 
the repetition of the demand that the act of annexation 
should be rescinded, and their views on this subject were 
again urged in the memorial of the boers' committee 
which was enclosed in his despatch of the 17th April. 
This demand has been substantially replied to in the 
formal announcement which you were authorised to make 

1879] The Struggle for Independence. 95 

on your arrival in the Transvaal that her Majesty's 
sovereignty must be maintained ; but you can assure 
the committee that though their request has not been 
complied with, careful and attentive consideration has 
been accorded to their memorial. 

" I will not dwell upon the reasons which necessitated 
the annexation ; for it will be obvious, even to the memo- 
rialists, that the question cannot now be discussed as 
if that step had never been taken. It would not be 
possible, and if possible would be injurious to the country, 
to reestablish the form of government which existed before 
the 12th of April 1877. The interests of the large native 
population who now (with the exception of Sekukuni and 
those associated with him) are quiet and contented ; of the 
European settlers who have acquired property in the 
province in the full belief that the annexation will be 
maintained ; and of the peaceful and industrious residents 
in and about Pretoria and other centres of population, 
in whose hands is nearly all the commerce of the country, 
have apparently been entirely disregarded by those who 
would deprive them of the advantages which they desire 
to retain under the authority of the crown. And this is 
the more remarkable as those who are most opposed to 
the present government of the Transvaal appear unable to 
define the precise arrangements which they would propose 
to substitute for it. 

" Indeed, I cannot but hope that upon a calm con- 
sideration of the prospects of the Transvaal even the 
boers themselves may yet see that their natural desire 
for self-government will most surely be realised by 
that cordial cooperation with her Majesty's government 
which I have so often invited, rather than by per- 
sisting in demands which cannot be complied with, 
for the restoration of an isolated independence which 
has already failed to ensure the peace of the country 
and the security of its inhabitants. For it would seem 
that the sentiment of opposition to the supremacy 

96 History of the Transvaal. [1879 

of the queen must, in a great degree, be based upon 
a misapprehension of circumstances which have long 
existed in South Africa. The power and authority of 
England have for many years been paramount there, and 
neither by the Sand River convention of 1852, nor at any 
other time, did her Majesty's government surrender the 
right and duty of requiring that the Transvaal should be 
governed with a view to the common safety of the various 
European communities. It has long been obvious that the 
largest measure of freedom which the country could enjoy, 
consistently with the fulfilment of this condition, would be 
found in that union which seems to have been contem- 
plated by the volksraad in 1877, when by a resolution 
quoted and adopted in the memorial of the boer com- 
mittee, dated April 16th, and again in their memorandum 
of the same date, they declared their readiness to enter 
into a closer union with her Majesty's colonies for the 
benefit of South Africa. 

" As there has never been any reason for doubting that 
her Majesty's government would continue to be supreme 
in South Africa, the union provided for by the South 
Africa Act 1877 is practically that which the people of the 
Transvaal have professed to desire ; and it is obvious that 
as a member of a South African confederation, the 
country might receive a constitution which would confer 
upon the people, under the paramount authority of the 
British crown, the fullest independence compatible with 
that thorough unity of action which the common welfare 
demands ; and would enable them practically to govern 
themselves according to their own views in all matters 
except those as to which an independent power, unless 
determined to be hostile, would be obliged to cooperate 
with its neighbours. 

"I do not believe that the great majority of those who 
have been represented as desiring the reversal of the 
annexation have intended to demand more than this; and 
those who have persuaded them to distrust and to resist 

1879] The Struggle for Independence. 97 

the friendly proposals of her Majesty's government have 
misled them. If the people of the Transvaal will but act 
in the spirit of those resolutions and assurances which I 
have quoted, they will aid the government in 'giving 
them back their State,' by securing to them in a South 
African confederation that constitutional form of self- 
government which is now possessed by their brethren in 
the Cape Colony; and they will then find themselves 
in possession of as full independence as their position in 
South Africa enables them to enjoy." 

The Transvaal people had the fullest sympathy of the 
burghers of the Orange Free State and of a very large 
proportion of those of the Cape Colony. They requested 
the latter to support their petition to her Majesty, and 
a memorial praying for the annulment of the annexation 
was signed by seven thousand two hundred and fifty-six 
individuals and forwarded to England. But it had no 
effect there, nor was any direct reply to the Transvaal 
petition ever made. Sir Garnet Wolseley indeed issued 
a proclamation that the queen's sovereignty would never 
be withdrawn, and asserted that as long as the sun shone 
the British flag would wave over the country, but the 
burghers were disinclined to put his authority upon 
an equality with that of the sovereign of the British 

So matters wore on, the farmers waiting anxiously for 
a reply from England, and the attention of the remainder 
of South Africa being diverted for a time to the Zulu 
war. As soon as that was over, the trouble caused 
by the annexation again became the leading topic, and 
most men felt that the interests of the entire country 
required its settlement without further delay. To impress 
their views upon Sir Bartle Frere " that for the peace 
and good government of South Africa in general it is 
desirable that the government of the Transvaal should be 
settled upon some basis that would secure permanent 
tranquillity to that country, that with the view of ascer- 

vol 11. 8 

98 History of the Transvaal. [ l8 79 

taining the real state of feeling among the inhabitants 
a convention should be summoned to discuss the question 
of the present and future position of the constitution, and 
that in the event of the majority being against the 
retention of British rule the independence of the country 
should be restored under such guarantees as would secure 
its future good government and the maintenance of 
peaceful relations with their neighbours," a large number 
of members of parliament and of the leading men of the 
western districts, English and Dutch, waited upon Sir 
Bartle Frere in Capetown on the 8th of November, and 
discussed the matter. Among them were Mr. Saul 
Solomon, Mr. J. H. Hofmeyr, Mr. J. X. Merriman, 
Mr. P. J. Stigant, and others representing every shade 
of political opinion in the colony, all of whom would 
have rejoiced to see the farmers of the Transvaal 
accepting the new position with cheerfulness, but who 
were decidedly opposed to their being forced to become 
British subjects against their will. Sir Bartle Frere of 
course could do nothing except report to England, and 
there the high authorities evinced no disposition to make 
any change. 

There was some talk among the burghers of emigration, 
but where were they to go to make new homes? The 
terrible suffering and loss of life of those who had crossed 
the Kalahari deterred them from moving in that direction* 
and northward the way was barred by the Matabele, 
with whom they were at peace, so the idea of migrating 
had to be abandoned. Many then made up their minds 
to take up arms, but to do so ammunition was needed. 
There was a large supply of cartridges, percussion caps, 
and gunpowder in the hands of traders, which they were 

* About five hundred persons in all left the Transvaal, and in 
February 1881 two hundred and thirty of them reached Humpata, 
about sixty miles or ninety-six kilometres from Mossamedes, where 
they settled. The others perished on the way. They were very 
kindly received and treated by the Portuguese authorities. 

l8 79] The Struggle for Independence. 99 

not permitted by law to sell except upon the production 
of permits specifying the amounts and signed by a 
landdrost. In many places now parties of farmers visited 
the traders' shops and took forcible possession of all the 
ammunition on hand, in nearly every instance, however, 
leaving on the counters the full value in money, and doing 
no other damage. 

Soon after the meeting with the leading Zulus at 
Ulundi, Sir Garnet Wolseley proceeded to Pretoria. He 
reached that town in the evening of Saturday the 27th 
of September, and on the 29th he took the oaths of 
office as governor of the Transvaal. He announced that 
the annexation would never be cancelled, that all the occu- 
pied farms on the eastern border were restored to the 
country, and that law and order would be enforced. The 
indications that active resistance might be expected were 
not to be mistaken. In addition to the seizure of ammu- 
nition, the 26th of October had been appointed by the 
farmers as a day of prayer throughout the land that God 
would be pleased to bless the righteous efforts of the 
people to regain their independence, and on the 10th of 
December a mass meeting was to be held near Pretoria 
to decide upon the course to be adopted. As a pre- 
cautionary measure therefore Sir Garnet Wolseley caused 
defensive works to be constructed at Marthinus-Wessel- 
stroom, Standerton, Middelburg, and Heidelberg, and 
stationed detachments of troops in these villages, and 
also in Pretoria, Luneburg, and Utrecht, as well as 
keeping a reserve force at Newcastle in Natal. The 
troops selected for this purpose were the first dragoon 
guards, the second battalion of the fourth regiment, part 
of the second battalion of the twenty-first, the fifty-eighth 
regiment, part of the eightieth, and the frontier light 
horse. But there were frequent changes in the different 
garrisons, and a few weeks later some of those mentioned 
above were withdrawn to take part in the operations 
against Sekukuni, which will presently be related. 

ioo History of the Transvaal. [1879 

On the 6th of May 1879 Sir Bartle Frere had author- 
ised Sir Owen Lanyon to constitute an executive 
council, and on the 2nd of October Sir Garnet Wolseley 
issued a proclamation to the same effect, but the letters 
patent necessary for this purpose were not issued until 
the 8th of November. The executive council then created 
consisted of the governor, the lieutenant-governor or 
officer administering the government, the officer command- 
ing her Majesty's troops in the territory, the colonial 
secretary, the attorney-general, the secretary for native 
affairs, and three non-official members to be appointed by 
the head of the government and to hold office during 
pleasure. The non-official members were to receive salaries 
of £300 a year. 

At the same time, 8th of November, a legislative council 
was created, consisting of the head of the government, 
the chief justice, the members of the executive council, 
and six members to be nominated by the head of the 
government and to be summoned by him at the beginning 
of each session. Any member could use the English or 
the Dutch language at his option. Such a council was 
a sad contrast to the freely elected volksraad of former 
years, but it was impossible for the British authorities at 
that time to grant one more liberal, nor would the people 
have been satisfied with even full responsible government. 

On the 10th of March 1880 the legislative council thus 
constituted met. It was presided over by Sir Owen 
Lanyon, though Sir Garnet Wolseley was still in the 
country. It passed several useful measures, and unani- 
mously adopted a resolution in favour of confederation 
with the other European communities in South Africa, 
but its proceedings attracted very little notice, and the 
great bulk of the burgher population refused to be bound 
by its enactments. The English element in the country, 
which it might be regarded as representing, — though 
some of the most stalwart repudiated it, — was increasing, 
though so slowly that only five hundred and fifteen 

1879] Suppression of the Bapedi Rebellion. 101 

names could be obtained to a petition to Mr. Gladstone 
requesting him not to renounce her Majesty's sovereignty 
over the Transvaal. 

When the British troops under Colonel Bowlands 
retired from the Bapedi country, some forts in the neigh- 
bourhood were garrisoned partly by soldiers and partly 
by volunteers, with the object of preventing Sekukuni 
from, sending out raiding parties, but for that purpose 
they were not sufficiently strong. Early in February 
1879 two Bapedi bands went out, and in the evening 
of the 8th of that month attacked some Swazi kraals, 
where they killed every individual except the young 
women. They collected all the cattle, and commenced 
to retreat, but the Swazis farther in advance, on learn- 
ing what had occurred, followed them up and attacked 
them, when fully three-fourths of their number were killed 
and the girls and the cattle were recovered. 

In June raids were made by the Bapedi into the Lyden- 
burg and Zoutpansberg districts, and a good many cattle 
were driven off from farms, but the Europeans who 
were plundered managed to escape. Colonel Lanyon then 
raised a force of one hundred and fifty-seven Europeans, 
sixty-four half-breeds, and one hundred and two blacks 
at Kimberley, fifty-one Europeans and a thousand blacks 
in the district of Zoutpansberg, and six hundred and 
eight blacks in the district of Kustenburg, with whom, 
in addition to seventy-five men of the eightieth regiment, 
nineteen artillerymen, and a Swazi contingent, he in- 
tended to attack Sekukuni. But Sir Garnet Wolseley 
instructed him not to do so, as the force collected was 
not strong enough to be certain of success, and in case 
of defeat English prestige would suffer with all the tribes 
in the country. The greater part of the force was there- 
fore disbanded to save expense. Fort Weeber had been 
rebuilt, and the volunteers who occupied it had suc- 
ceeded in capturing five hundred head of cattle and 
killing sixteen Bapedi, 

102 History of the Transvaal. . [ l8 79 

Early in September the ninety-fourth regiment, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Baker Russell, a detachment of mounted 
infantry, and Ferreira's horse, one hundred strong, were 
sent to Lydenburg, and in the posts on Sekukuni's 
border there were then stationed one hundred and forty- 
three men of the eightieth regiment, two hundred and 
ninety volunteers, and nine hundred and fifty-seven 
Bantu. It was supposed that Sekukuni would be over- 
awed by this force, which to him would appear too for- 
midable to be resisted, and on the 30th of September 
Captain Clarke was sent to him to offer peace on the 
following terms : 

" 1. That he should for ever acknowledge the sovereignty 
of her Majesty, and should pay taxes to the Transvaal 

" 2. That he should preserve peace and order in the 
district under his control, and should surrender any per- 
sons offending against the government, or make reparation 
for what they had done. 

"3. That he should pay immediately a fine of two 
thousand five hundred head of cattle. 

"4. That he should permit the establishment within 
his territory of military or police posts." 

These terms were rejected by the rebel chief, who 
regarded his stronghold as impregnable, so there was no 
other course left than to commence military operations 
against him. 

For this purpose a very strong force was assembled, 
consisting of eight companies of the ninety-fourth regi- 
ment, six companies of the second battalion of the twenty- 
first, two companies of the eightieth, the frontier light 
horse, Ferreira's horse, two hundred and twenty-five 
mounted infantry, a hundred and fifty engineers, some 
artillerymen with four field guns, several small corps of 
volunteers, one hundred and twenty-five mounted Batlokua, 
one thousand Transvaal Bantu on foot, and eight thousand 

18793 Suppression of the Bapedi Rebellion. 103 

On the 25th of November, two columns, one under Major 
Carrington, the other under Major Bushman, seized two 
positions, which they named Forts Alexandra and George, 
one on each side of Sekukuni's stronghold, and about 
three miles or five kilometres from it. There the final 
preparations were made, and at daybreak in the morning 
of the 28th three columns advanced to the attack of the 

Colonel Murray led the central column, which consisted 
of all the troops and the artillery. It was considered 
necessary to set an example of courage to the Bantu 
auxiliaries, and so Colonel Murray led the attack and 
the soldiers were the first to charge up the hill after 
it had been bombarded by the cannon. The Swazis, 
who with Ferreira's horse formed the right-hand column, 
seeing the white troops acting so gallantly, rushed on with 
a yell, determined not to be outdone, and thirsting for 
vengeance upon their old enemies. They were soon in 
possession of the rebel chief's residence, from which, 
however, he had escaped to a cave, and though they 
met with a most stubborn resistance and many of their 
own men fell, they did not cease for an instant to 
push on. 

The left-hand column consisted of the Transvaal Bantu 
and the whole of the irregular corps except Ferreira's 
horse, which was with the right column. It was com- 
manded by Major Carrington, but did not take so active 
a part in the assault as either of the others. 

About seven o'clock some of the Swazis, who were 
almost as agile as baboons, and who were in high spirits 
over the enterprise, reached the crest of the mountain, 
but the resistance was not yet over. There were caves 
to be cleared, and a hill, which formed a kind of citadel, 
to be taken. By ten o'clock, however, this was accom- 
plished, and nothing more remained to be done. 

The loss of the Europeans was three officers and five 
men killed, and seven officers and thirty-nine men 

104 History of the Transvaal. [1879 

wounded. How many of the Bantu auxiliaries, especially 
of the Swazis, lost their lives or were wounded cannot be 
stated with any pretence to accuracy, and of the Bapedi 
loss nothing more can be said than that it was very 
heavy. It was indeed commonly stated a few days later 
that fifteen hundred unburied corpses were polluting the 
air, but that number rested solely on guesswork. 

Sekukuni escaped when his stronghold was taken, but 
he was so hemmed in that four days later, on the 2nd 
of December, he was obliged to surrender to Commandant 
Ferreira. He was sent a prisoner to Pretoria, where he 
was kept in confinement for many months. An act was 
passed by the Cape parliament authorising his detention 
as a prisoner of state in the Cape Colony, but it was 
never made use of. He represented himself as having 
only daughters left, all of his sons, eight in number, as 
well as three of his brothers, having been killed by the 
Swazis when his stronghold was taken. 

After the capture of Sekukuni and the death of the 
leading men of his immediate clan, all of the petty chiefs 
who had been his vassals tendered their submission to the 
Transvaal government, and as a proof of their good faith 
surrendered his cattle. They were then permitted to retain 
the land they were occupying, upon condition of paying 
taxes and each admitting the supremacy of the European 
authorities. To these conditions they agreed without 
demur, and the troops and auxiliary forces were then 
withdrawn from the locality. 

After the overthrow of Sekukuni by Sir Garnet 
Wolseley, there was peace between white men and blacks 
throughout all Africa south of the Limpopo, and the 
supremacy of the Europeans was unquestioned. That this 
happy condition of things might be lasting was the 
strong desire of everyone, a desire unfortunately doomed 
to disappointment through a blunder on the part of the 
Cape government that led before another twelvemonth 
passed away to a reversal in one important locality of 

l8 79] Tke Struggle for Independence. 105 

the position as regards the two races. And even worse 
than any war with Bantu was the impending calamity 
of a war with men of European blood, who might have 
been standing shoulder to shoulder with all other white 
men in South Africa in the effort to promote the prosperity 
of the country and to carry the blessings of Christianity 
and civilisation to the interior of the continent. 

On the 10th of December a meeting of the farmers 
took place at Wonderfontein, at which six thousand 
three hundred and five men were present. The greatest 
unanimity prevailed, all the differences which in ordinary 
circumstances tended to promote discord among them 
having disappeared in the intense desire of all to preserve 
their nationality. During seven days they deliberated 
calmly, with the republican flag flying above them, for 
they maintained that as they had never consented to the 
abolition of the Sand River convention the republic was 
de jure in existence. The following resolutions were 
adopted as expressing the desire of the people : 

"As it has been shown that her Majesty's high com- 
missioners and ministers are deaf to justice and right, 
and it thus becomes clear that we will never get back 
our independence by petitions and supplications, now 
therefore it is our decided and earnest demand : — 

"1. That the vice-president shall at once come forward 
as president and take up his position as such. 

" 2. That the president shall at once convene the 
volksraad, according to the constitution. 

"3. We hereby proclaim that we will never submit 
to the British government, and that we continue to 
emphatically protest against all proclamations. 

"4. We desire nothing else than our independence, and 
solemnly declare to be prepared to sacrifice our life and 
shed our blood for it. 

"5. We demand to have our government reinstated as 
soon as possible according to the constitution of the 
South African Republic. 

106 History of the Transvaal. [1879 

"6. It is therefore the humble but earnest wish of 
the people that our national committee shall, as soon 
as possible, take the requisite steps for the recovery of 
our independence. 

"7. Should, however, the committee know of a better 
method, it is our humble but earnest wish that the 
committee should at once submit such method to the 

These resolutions were afterwards amplified as follows : 

" The people of the South African Republic have made 
known their will last Friday, and now proceed to 
amplify the same by resolutions. The time for memorials 
to the English government is past ; in that way no deliver- 
ance is possible. The officials of her Majesty the queen 
of England have, by their untrue and false representa- 
tions, closed the door to her Majesty and to parliament. 
This is for their responsibility. The people have done 
what they could. Again and again would they approach 
the queen of England, for the people believe, as certainly 
as the sun shines, that if the queen of England and 
the English nation knew that a free people is oppressed 
here they would never allow it. England has been the 
protector of liberty everywhere, and would also protect 
our liberty, which is now being oppressed. But her 
Majesty's officials in South Africa, who continue to defend 
the necessity of the annexation, conceal the truth, and 
smother our voice. We cannot, therefore, address ourselves 
to England ; nobody there replies to us. It is therefore 
that we, the people of the South African Republic, proceed 
to resolve : 

"1. That the people of the South African Republic 
have never been and do not wish to be her Majesty's 
subjects, and that everyone who speaks of us as rebels 
is a slanderer. 

" 2. The people desire that the government of the South 
African Republic, whose functions have been stopped, 
shall resume the same as soon as possible. 

1879] The Struggle for Independence. 107 

"3. The people desire that the volksraad shall be con- 
vened as soon as possible. 

" 4. The people desire to show to friend and foe that 
they wish to avoid everything in the way of bloodshed 
and violence, and therefore expect from their volksraad 
to take such steps as will make possible a peaceable 
solution of the difficulties with the English government. 

"5. The people expect from the volksraad, in the 
furtherance of that object, in the first place a proclama- 
tion or law on the following points : — (a) That all rights of 
the present inhabitants of the Transvaal shall be under 
the protection of the laws of the country. (6) That the 
right of the English government to nominate a consul 
or other diplomatic person to look after the interests of 
British subjects continues to be recognised, (c) That the 
lawful expenditure legally made by the interregnum for 
the expenses of the country shall be recognised, (d) That 
differences as to boundary lines with natives shall be 
submitted to arbitration, (e) That for their native policy 
the government is prepared to adopt general rules in 
consultation with the colonies and states of South Africa. 
(/) That the republic is prepared, in consultation and 
concurrence with the colonies and states of South Africa, 
to enter into a confederation.* 

"6. The people declare that they will be forgiving 
towards all burghers of the South African Republic who 
through circumstances had been brought to temporarily 
leave the side of the people, but they cannot promise to 
extend this forgiveness to those burghers of the South 
African Republic who come forward as open enemies of the 
people and continue to deceive the English government 
by their false representations. 

"7. The people further declare that, until the time 
that the republic is restored, they will not, except under 
coercion, appear in the law courts of the country, and 

* JTor their meaning of the word confederation see page 185. 

108 History of the Transvaal. C l8 79 

that they will have all differences amongst themselves 
decided by arbitration. 

"8 and 9. (Of no importance.) 

" 10. The people declare that, by God's help, they desire 
to have a strong government for the South African 
Republic, respect for the law, the development and 
advancement of the country, and they promise, man for 
man, to cooperate for that purpose, and to defend their 
government till death." 

The following resolutions were subsequently adopted : — 

" The people, considering the circumstances in which 
the country has unfortunately been placed under the 
annexation, and the use which is being made of it by 
those persons (whom Sir Bartle Frere terms foreign ad- 
venturers) in order to enrich themselves, without regard- 
ing the true interests of the country, and who oppose 
themselves to the lawful people of the South African 
Republic, and also that they keep up the supplies for 
the troops and the government, who perpetuate disaffec- 
tion in the country, now therefore resolve : — 

"1. To bind themselves solemnly henceforth not to sell 
or supply to, and not to purchase from, those persons 
or their agents who cooperate with the British govern- 
ment here against the independence of the South African 

"2. The people resolve that if the British government 
continue to suppress the independence of the people, and 
refuse to remove the difficulties of the annexation in a 
friendly way before the 6th of April next, the people 
will then consider themselves bound (a) to burn or other- 
wise destroy all writings, books, or documents in the 
English language under their reach ; (6) to remove all 
their children from English schools ; (c) not to allow 
English speaking in their houses, and to oppose it as 
much as possible ; (d) to refuse hospitality to Englishmen 
or those in favour of the English, and not to give them 
any assistance or protection on the roads." 

i88o] The Struggle for Independence. 109 

"The people resolve that, in case the English govern- 
ment take a friendly course, the committee be instructed 
to work for the interests of the country, and that notice 
of this resolution be given to the English government." 

A declaration of their rights was sent to Sir Garnet 
Wolseley, who took no other notice of it than to cause 
Mr. Pretorius, the chairman of the meeting, and Mr. Bok, 
the secretary, to be apprehended and committed to prison. 
They were, however, almost immediately released on bail, 
and neither of them was ever actually brought to trial. 
Sir Garnet Wolseley indeed endeavoured to win over Mr. 
Pretorius by offering him a seat in the executive council, 
which carried a salary of £300 a year with it, but the 
offer was declined. 

In England there was a strong party, though a minority 
as yet both in the country and in parliament, opposed on 
principle to the treatment the Transvaal had received from 
Lord Beaconsfield's ministry. At the head of this party 
was the right honourable William Ewart Gladstone, who 
in his electioneering speeches in Midlothian in November 
and December 1879 and the early months of 1880 de- 
nounced the forcible annexation of a small, though free, 
republic against the wishes of its people in language as 
vigorous as any used in South Africa. The farmers in the 
Transvaal and their friends everywhere took heart on read- 
ing these brilliant speeches in the newspapers, and awaited 
the result of the election with anxiety mingled with hope. 
The liberal party was returned to power with a large 
majority, and on the 23rd of April 1880 Mr. Gladstone 
became prime minister of England. Five days later the 
earl of Kimberley became secretary of state for the 

So ended the control of the Beaconsfield ministry over 
South African affairs. Both Lord Carnarvon and Sir 
Michael Hicks Beach really desired the improvement of 
the country, but they were like an English landlord of 
the olden time, who wished to see his tenants prosperous, 

no History of the Transvaal. [1880 

only their prosperity must be due to him. Their federa- 
tion scheme — from which unification might have evolved — 
was well intended, and if they had not tried to force it 
on in their way it would probably in course of time have 
been carried out, as it was, they made it impossible. No 
one attempts now to justify their treatment of the Trans- 
vaal, such a system of violence is as dead and abhorrent 
to the England of to-day as is the death penalty for petty 

The farmers naturally thought that Mr. Gladstone would 
restore the independence which he accused his political 
opponents of having unjustly taken from them, now that 
it was within his power to do so. But new interests had 
arisen in the country since the annexation, which he 
thought it might be perilous to disturb, and besides it is 
opposed to custom directly to overturn an accomplished 
act of a preceding ministry. He was willing, even anxious, 
to give them all the liberty that was possible under the 
British flag, but independence he declined to restore. It 
came to this, that Mr. Gladstone would do no more for 
them than his predecessor was prepared to do, if they 
would only become loyal subjects of her Majesty the queen, 
but this they would not do. 

On the eighteenth of March, 'while there was still hope 
that occurrences in England would terminate in their 
favour, the independence committee met, and resolved to 
postpone indefinitely the mass meeting that was to have 
been held on the 8th of April, and to send Messrs. Kruger 
and Joubert to the Cape Colony to solicit the support of 
the people there. On their journey these gentlemen received 
the warmest sympathy, meetings were held to hear addresses 
from them, and resolutions were passed pledging moral 
support to their cause. They arrived in Capetown on the 
5th of May 1880, two days before the meeting of the Cape 
parliament, and had successful interviews with many 
members of both houses, who felt all that sympathy with 
them which the ties of blood could create. On the 14th 

1884] History of the Transvaal. 1 1 1 

of May Mr. Sprigg, the prime minister, announced in the 
house of assembly the receipt of a telegram from the 
secretary of state for the colonies that the queen's 
sovereignty over the Transvaal could not be relinquished, 
but this only made Messrs. Kruger and Joubert more active 
in prosecuting the object of their mission. 

On the 18th of June a petition from five thousand 
three hundred and eighteen inhabitants of the colony was 
laid before the assembly, praying the house not to take 
any step which might be considered to imply an approval 
of the policy pursued towards the Transvaal, by appoint- 
ing delegates to a conference to meet delegates from the 
existing government of the Transvaal, but rather to take 
steps to afford relief to the Transvaal people. After this 
the warmest supporters of confederation despaired of carry- 
ing the measure, but it did not have the effect of causing 
Mr. Gladstone to alter his decision. 

A prime minister of England possesses enormous power, 
but this is because he represents the views at the time 
of a majority of the electors, and if he acts contrary to 
those views his power at once ceases. Mr. Gladstone was 
termed the leader of the liberal party, but to a large 
extent he was as much influenced by it as it was by 
him. In this party were to be found most of the 
members of the great benevolent and philanthropical 
societies, whose power was not indeed as great in 1880 
as it had been fifty years earlier, but whose influence 
was still too considerable to be overlooked. Very well 
meaning they were, and they had certainly accomplished 
a great amount of good, but it cannot be denied that 
they had strong prejudices against any other methods of 
improvement of uncivilised races than their own. They 
had constituted themselves the champions of the coloured 
people everywhere, but especially of those in the British 
possessions overseas, and they professed to be horrified 
by the treatment of blacks by the South African farmers. 
Any tale of cruelty, however gross, was implicitly believed 

112 Influences of Benevolent Societies. [1880 

by these well-meaning people, and especially charges of 
dealing in slaves found strong favour with them. So the 
annexation of the South African Kepublic to the British 
dominions was justified by them, because they believed 
the farmers would now be restrained from practising 
oppression and the black people would be treated in 
accordance with their views. This condition of a large 
section of the liberal party must be taken into account 
when dealing with Mr. Gladstone's refusal to restore the 
independence of the South African Republic. It would 
have been much easier for Lord Beaconsfield than for 
his successor to do that. 

And so the most deplorable war that South Africa had 
ever known was brought on, and the whole country was 
agitated and split by it even before the commencement of 
active hostilities. 



Sir Garnet Wolseley's opinion of the military abilities 
of the farmers was not high, and before he left the Trans- 
vaal he withdrew some of the garrisons of the villages and 
sent them to Natal. There were then only five battalions 
of British troops in all South Africa, the second battalion 
of the twenty-first, the fifty-eighth, the third battalion of 
the sixtieth, the ninety-first, and the ninety-fourth. The 
ninety-first was in garrison in the Cape peninsula, and 
most of the others were weak from desertion on an almost 
unprecedented scale. In January 1880 the second battalion 
of the twenty-fourth left for Gibraltar, in February the 
second battalion of the fourth left for India, and in April 
the eightieth left for Ireland. The first dragoon guards 
were under orders to proceed to India, but were delayed 
for want of a transport until September. 

Sir Garnet Wolseley, having completed the duties he was 
sent to perform, embarked at Durban to return to England 
on the 27th of April 1880, and was succeeded as governor 
of Natal and high commissioner for South-Eastern Africa 
by Major-General Sir George Pomeroy Colley, who took 
the oaths of office on the 2nd of July. In the Transvaal 
there were some important changes in the personnel of 
various departments. Mr. Melmoth Osborn, having ac- 
cepted the office of British agent in Zululand in succes- 
sion to Mr. Wheelwright, who resigned, on the 7th of 
February 1880 was replaced by Mr. George Hudson as 
colonial secretary. On the 2nd of January Attorney- 
General Maasdorp resigned, and on the 7th of February Mr. 

VOL. II. q "' 

U4 History of the Transvaal. [1880 

Morcom, previously an official in Natal, was appointed to 
the vacant post. Sir Jacobus Petrus de Wet, previously 
recorder of Griqualand "West, was appointed chief justice, 
and Mr. Justice Kotze, who had been sole judge since 
the annexation, was obliged to take the second place. 
Mr. Steele, previously an official in India, was appointed 
revenue commissioner, and set about collecting the arrear 
taxes with great vigour. 

The extent of ground passing into the hands of specu- 
lators was becoming alarming, because it implied that the 
greater part would be lost for European settlement. Many 
of the farmers were willing to sell at very low prices, with 
a view of being able to move to the Free State, and 
Englishmen who were able to raise a little money were 
eager to purchase and let the ground at high rents to 
Bantu tenants, as in Natal. This they called bringing 
capital into the country and increasing the population of 
the towns, for very few indeed went to reside on the pur- 
chased ground themselves. Pretoria in this way more than 
doubled its population during the three years 1877-79, the 
newcomers, many of whom were artisans, being entirely 
English or German. This town was the first in the 
Transvaal to be accorded municipal institutions, which it 
acquired on the 31st of August 1880. 

Upon the return of Messrs. Kruger and Joubert from 
their mission to the Cape Colony it was resolved to hold 
another mass meeting on the 8th of January 1881, but as 
everything was in train for an appeal to arms, an event of 
minor importance precipitated the crisis. In November 1880 
Mr. Cellier, editor of the Volkstem, was arrested for pub- 
lishing in his paper what Colonel Lanyon deemed to be a 
seditious libel, namely that one hundred and ten burghers 
of Wakkerstroom announced that they would not pay taxes 
or have any dealings with Englishmen. This arrest, followed 
by his trial before the landdrost of Pretoria, who sentenced 
him to imprisonment for one month and to pay a fine 
of J925, caused some commotion among the few Dutch- 

1880] The War of Independence. 115 

speaking residents in the towns and villages, but would not 
have provoked a rising had it not been for an event that 
appealed more directly to the passions of the farmers. 

A man named Bezuidenhout having refused to pay the 
full amount of the taxes demanded from him, judgment 
was obtained against him in the court of the landdrost of 
Potchefstroom. His waggon was then attached, and was 
advertised to be sold at eleven o'clock in the morning of 
Thursday the 11th of November to meet the amount of 
the judgment, £27 5s., with the costs of the proceedings. 
A little before the time appointed an armed party of 
about three hundred men under Commandant Pieter 
Cronje rode into Potchefstroom, and in defiance of the 
landdrost and the sheriff took possession of the waggon 
and removed it. 

They then formed a camp not far from the village, 
where they were joined by others, until some fifteen 
hundred resolute men fully armed were assembled. On 
the 29th Mr. George Hudson, the colonial secretary, visited 
the camp with the view of inducing the burghers to 
surrender the leaders to be tried for sedition, but was 
informed by Mr. Kruger that the matter had become a 
national one. It was only owing to Mr. Kruger's influence 
that violence was not used towards him, but he was ordered 
to leave the camp at once. Soldiers were being sent to 
Potchefstroom, and before the end of the month three 
hundred and seventy men were in lager there. 

On the 8th of December there was a mass meeting on 
Mr. M. W. Pretorius's farm Paardekraal, near Pretoria, 
and a few days later a resolution was carried unanimously 
that the volksraad should resume its sittings, and that 
Messrs. Paul Kruger, Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, and 
Pieter Joubert should form a triumvirate to carry on the 
government provisionally. Mr. Joubert was also elected 
commandant-general. Each man of the five or six thousand 
present took the following oath, and deposited a stone as 
a witness on a heap which was afterwards covered by the 

Ii6 History of the Transvaal. [188© 

national monument close to Krugersdorp : " In the presence 
of Almighty God, the searcher of all hearts, and prayer- 
fully waiting on His gracious help and pity, we, burghers 
of the South African Republic, have solemnly agreed, as 
we do hereby agree, to make a holy covenant for us and 
for our children, which we confirm with a solemn oath. 
Fully forty years ago our fathers fled from the Cape 
Colony in order to become a free and independent people. 
Those forty years have been forty years of pain and suffer- 
ing. We established Natal, the Orange Free State, and 
the South African Republic, and three times the English 
government has trampled on our liberty and dragged to 
the ground our flag, which our fathers had baptized with 
their blood and tears. As by a thief in the night has our 
republic been stolen from us. We neither may nor can 
endure this. It is God's will, and is required of us by 
the unity of our fathers* and by love to our children, that 
we should hand over intact to our children the legacy of 
the fathers. For that purpose it is that we here come 
together and give each other the right hand as men and 
brethren, solemnly promising to remain faithful to our 
country and our people, and with our eye fixed on God, 
to cooperate until death for the restoration of the freedom 
of our republic. So help us Almighty God." 

The cause was then solemnly committed to the ruler 
of all things, and the farmers having formed themselves 
into three commandos marched away. One of the com- 
mandos, under Pieter Cronje, marched to Potchefstroooi 
to have the proclamation reestablishing the republic 
printed, another, under Frans Joubert, marched to the 
north-east to prevent reinforcements of troops reaching 
Pretoria, and the third, which was much the largest, 
proceeded to Heidelberg to instal the government. 

On the anniversary of the defeat of Dingana, the 16th 
of December 1880, the republican flag — the four-colour 
as it was termed — was hoisted again at Heidelberg, where 
* Meaning by this our unity with our fathers. 

i88o] The War of Independence. 117 

the provisional government established its head-quarters, 
and a notification that the republic had been restored was 
sent to Sir Owen Lanyon, with a request that he would 
retire at once from the country with the British troops. 

Sir Owen Lanyon had issued an order that no bodies 
of armed men were to approach any village nearer than 
a mile, but Commandant Cronje, who took the proclama- 
tion to Potchefstroom to be printed, treated the order 
with contempt. He entered the village with his men on 
the 16th, and was fired upon by the soldiers in garrison 
there, when a burgher named Frans Robberts was severely 
wounded, and the first blood in a most deplorable war 
was shed. 

The camp or lager at Potchefstroom was outside the 
village, and had been enclosed with an earthen wall for 
defence. In the village the courthouse, prison, and some 
adjoining buildings had been barricaded to form a kind 
of fort, in which were stationed as a garrison forty men 
of the second battalion of the twenty-first regiment under 
Captain Falls, twenty-six volunteers under Commandant 
Baaf, and sixteen local volunteers under the landdrost, 
Mr. Goetz. Major M. J. Clarke was in chief command. 
Commandant Cronje immediately took possession of all the 
surrounding houses and blockaded the fort, when firing 
commenced from both sides, but as all the combatants 
were under cover, the resultant casualties were not great. 
On the British side Captain Falls and a volunteer were 
killed and nine others were wounded. During the night 
of the 17th the farmers managed to break through the 
outer wall of one of the buildings, and to effect an 
entrance. They then set fire to the thatched roof of the 
courthouse, which made the whole place untenable, and 
in the early morning of the 18th Major Clarke was obliged 
to surrender. The only condition granted was that the 
lives of the prisoners should be respected. With this 
surrender the farmers obtained a small supply of ammu- 
nition, of which they were much in want. 

n8 History of the Transvaal. [ l88 ° 

Commandant Cronje then laid siege to the camp outside 
the village, which was garrisoned by three companies of the 
second battalion of the twenty-first regiment and a few 
artillerymen, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Winsloe. 
The defence of this camp, conducted under great diffi- 
culties, was the most gallant exploit of the British forces 
during the whole war. The quantity of provisions on 
hand was not large, and several families left their homes 
in Potchefstroom and took refuge under the protection of 
the troops, bringing hardly anything with them but the 
clothing they were wearing at the time. The only 
accommodation that could be provided for the women and 
children was a shelter underground. It was necessary to 
cut up the tents to make sandbags, and the soldiers were 
without protection from the weather in an unusually wet 
season. Yet no one thought of surrender while sufficient 
food remained to sustain life, and though the casualties 
were enormous, the fort held out for many weeks. 

The garrison of Pretoria consisted of four companies of 
the second battalion of the twenty-first regiment and one 
company of the ninety-fourth with a few artillerymen, 
and as it was considered necessary to strengthen it, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Philip Anstruther was instructed to 
march from Lydenburg for that purpose with most 
of the troops stationed there, leaving only fifty soldiers 
behind. On the 5th of December he set out with three 
companies of the ninety-fourth, altogether two hundred 
and fifty-seven officers and men, and a train of thirty- 
four waggons conveying camp equipage, ammunition, and 
provisions. No precautions were taken against surprise, 
except that some of the troops marched on each side of 
the waggons and some formed a rearguard. Only a single 
scout was sent on in advance to see that the road was 
clear, although Colonel Anstruther received a communica- 
tion on the way from Colonel Bellairs, who commanded in 
the Transvaal, informing him of Commandant Joubert's 
movements, and advising him to be cautious. On the 

1881] The War of Independence. 119 

14th he passed through Middelburg, where he was in- 
formed of what was taking place at Paardekraal, and a 
little after two o'clock in the afternoon of the 20th was 
close to the point where Bronkhorst Spruit crosses the 
road about thirty-eight miles or sixty-one kilometres from 
Pretoria. Colonel Anstruther and Conductor Ealph Egerton 
were riding in advance, the regimental band was playing, 
and a company of soldiers was marching in front of the 
waggons, when suddenly Joubert's commando from two 
to three hundred strong was seen at less than two hundred 
and fifty metres distance on the left on the crest of a 
swell in the ground. The band ceased playing and the 
column halted at once. 

A farmer, Paul de Beer by name, approached with a 
white flag, and presented a letter written in English, 
requiring the colonel to go no farther. After it was read, 
De Beer gave him two minutes in which to decide, 
when he replied that he would obey his orders to go to 
Pretoria. The farmer then rode back, and immediately 
a volley was poured in with deadly effect. It was returned 
by the soldiers who were unwounded, and for ten to 
twenty minutes firing on both sides continued, when so 
many soldiers had fallen that Colonel Anstruther, who 
was very severely wounded, directed Mr. Egerton, the 
transport conductor, to show a white flag, and sur- 
rendered. Four officers and sixty-two men had been 
killed, and four officers and eighty-six men had been 
wounded. (My one officer — Captain Elliott — and Mr. 
Egerton, the transport conductor, remained unhurt. Mr. 
Egerton and a sergeant were permitted to walk on to 
Pretoria to obtain medical aid for the wounded, and they 
reached that town before daylight the following morning. 
Mr. Egerton took with him the regimental colours, which 
were thus saved. Aid was promptly sent, and a hospital 
was improvised at Bronkhorst Spruit, from which the 
men were sent to Heidelberg as they recovered. The 
unwounded prisoners were first sent to Heidelberg, and 

120 History of the Transvaal. [ l8Sl 

then released on their parole not to serve against the 
republic in future. They were conducted to the Free 
State side of the Vaal river, and were there liberated and 
left to find their way as best they could to Natal. 
There were three women and two children with the 
troops, and of these one woman, the wife of Sergeant- 
Major Fox, and one child were wounded. On the 
farmers' side only two men were killed and four wounded, 
the great disparity between these numbers and those on 
the other side being accounted for by them as due to the 
righteousness of their cause, but by English chroniclers 
to the accuracy of their firing, to their knowledge of the 
exact distance, and to their being sheltered by bushes. 
The rifles and ammunition obtained on this occasion 
were regarded by the farmers as the most valuable part 
of the booty, though the tents and other camp equipage 
came in also useful to them. 

Sir George Colley, the commander-in-chief, was in Natal 
when tidings reached him that the farmers of the Trans- 
vaal had risen in a body, and that the English residents 
had retired to the seven garrisoned towns, — Pretoria, 
Potchefstroom, Bustenburg, Marabastad, Lydenburg, Mar- 
thinus-Wesselstroom, and Standerton, — which were closely 
besieged. He too altogether underestimated the military 
qualities of the men he had to deal with, and as drafts 
of recruits for the regiments in South Africa had just 
arrived and a naval brigade of one hundred and five men 
was obtained from her Majesty's ship *Boadicea, he 
collected all the forces available for the relief of the 
beleaguered garrisons, with which he formed a fortified 
camp at a place called Mount Prospect, about three 
miles and a half or five kilometres and three-fifths from 
the pass called Lang's Nek in the Drakensberg. Com- 
mandant-General Pieter Joubert with three or four hundred 
men occupied the crest of the pass, which was a very 
strong position and had been made easy to defend by 
the construction of breastworks along it. 

1881] The War of Independence. 1 21 

In the morning of the 28th of January 1881 Major- 
General Colley, leaving two hundred and sixty men to 
guard his camp, marched from Mount Prospect with five 
companies of the fifty-eighth regiment, fifteen officers 
and four hundred and seventy-nine men, five companies 
of the third battalion of the sixtieth rifles, thirteen 
officers and three hundred and twenty-one men, one 
hundred and eighty-five cavalry, eighty-eight men of the 
naval brigade, and a few artillerymen, to attempt to 
force his way through the pass. He had six field guns 
and two rocket tubes, with which he shelled the pass, 
inflicting considerable damage upon his opponents. He 
then attempted to charge up the long slope to the summit, 
but was met by a deadly storm of bullets from the rifles 
of the farmers under cover above, and though the troops 
pressed bravely on, the cavalry actually reaching the 
summit and engaging in a hand to hand contest, so 
many fell that the whole force was soon obliged to 
retreat. They left on the mountain side seven officers 
and seventy-six men dead and one hundred and eleven 
wounded, fully one-sixth of their whole number. The 
fifty-eighth suffered most. Colonel Bonar Deane, who 
commanded it temporarily, and most of the other officers 
were killed. On the farmers' side fourteen men were 
killed and twenty-seven wounded. 

General Colley retreated to his camp at Mount Prospect, 
where he resolved to wait until reinforcements could 
reach him from oversea. But a few days later he learned 
that a party of farmers was between him and Newcastle, 
and that his communications with Maritzburg were being 
cut off. To prevent this, on the 8th of February he left 
Mount Prospect with five companies of the third bat- 
talion of the sixtieth rifles, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Ashburnham, thirty-eight mounted men, and four field 
guns, and after a march of five miles or eight kilometres 
reached the Ingogo river where it crosses the road 
between his camp and Newcastle. Leaving a small 

122 History of the Transvaal. [1881 

detachment of his force here with two guns, he crossed 
the river to a small plateau called Schuins Hoogte on the 
opposite bank. Here he was confronted by a party of 
farmers according to their own account nearly two hundred 
strong, under Commandant Nicolaas Smit, and at noon 
an action commenced, which lasted until evening set in. 
The farmers were careful not to expose themselves, but 
took cover behind boulders that were thickly strewn on 
the plateau, and after a very short time the soldiers 
followed their example. 

Night fell gloomily, with occasional heavy showers of 
rain. The farmers had retired to seek shelter in houses 
at no great distance, and at nine o'clock Sir George 
Colley, who was without provisions, set out with what 
was left of his force to return to Mount Prospect. On 
the plateau lay the dead bodies of seven officers and sixty- 
nine men, and three officers and sixty-four men who were 
too severely wounded to be able to walk were of 
necessity left behind. It is seldom indeed that the 
casualties in a battle are so large in proportion to the 
number engaged. The farmers stated their loss as eight 
killed and six wounded. 

To Sir George Colley there seemed to be now a reason- 
able chance of getting possession of Lang's Nek before 
the arrival of a successor who, he felt sure, would be 
sent from England to supersede him. Already Sir Evelyn 
Wood had reached Natal as second in command of the 
troops, and strong reinforcements were at his disposal. 
On the 25 th of January the second battalion of the 
sixtieth rifles and the fifteenth regiment of hussars landed 
at Durban from India, on the 30th of January the eighty- 
third and ninety-second regiments, also from India, landed 
at the same place, and were followed on the 4th of 
February by the ninety-seventh from Gibraltar. A number 
of engineers and artillerymen with field guns had also 
arrived, and the naval brigade had been considerably 

1881] The War of Independence. 123 

Beside the farmers' camp at Lang's Nek rose a 
mountain peak called Majuba, and its basin-like summit 
was accessible by means of a ridge that ran down near 
Mount Prospect. If that was occupied the Nek would 
be commanded, and the farmers would be obliged to 
withdraw. During the night of the 26th of February- 
General Colley with two companies of the fifty-eighth, 
two companies of the third battalion of the sixtieth rifles, 
three companies of the ninety-second highlanders, and a 
detachment of the naval brigade, thirty-five officers and 
six hundred and ninety-three men in all, made his way 
up the mountain with great difficulty, in some places the 
men being obliged to scramble up on their hands and 
knees, and leaving two pickets on the slope, managed 
to reach the summit a little before daybreak. At dawn 
on Sunday the 27th the farmers two thousand feet below 
observed some of the soldiers on the top of Majuba, and at 
once realised that their position would be untenable unless 
the mountain could be taken by storm. For that kind 
of warfare they had never regarded themselves as qualified, 
but on this occasion they were moved — by divine guidance 
they afterwards said — to make the attempt. 

Led by Commandant Nicolaas Smit, a party of volun- 
teers, most of them men who had fled from Sekukuni's 
stronghold when President Burgers was at their head, 
commenced to make their way up the mountain in three 
differen places, creeping up from boulder to boulder 
without receiving harm from the fire above, until a little 
after midday seventy or eighty of them reached the rim 
of the hollow crest. Full of enthusiasm, and believing 
firmly that God was guiding them, they pressed on to 
an encounter with the troops, who had not recovered 
from the fatigue and want of sleep of the preceding 
night. The combat lasted from ten to twenty minutes, 
and then, as more farmers appeared at different points, 
the troops were seized with panic, and attempted to 
escape by the way they had gone up in the night. Sir 

124 History of the Transvaai. \\%%\ 

George Colley, who tried to rally them, was killed at 
the place where the last stand was made. Commander 
Romilly, the leader of the naval brigade, was mortally 
wounded, so that both branches of the service were with- 
out heads. The farmers fired upon the fugitives, but 
disarmed and made prisoners of as many as chose to 
surrender. Six officers and eighty-six men were killed, 
nine officers and one hundred and twenty-five men were 
wounded, and six officers and fifty-three men became 
prisoners. Only two farmers were killed and four were 

Major-General Sir Evelyn Wood succeeded Sir George 
Colley as commander-in-chief, administrator of Natal, and 
acting high commissioner. Further reinforcements of 
troops were on their way to South Africa, but Mr. 
Gladstone's cabinet was anxious to avoid a continuation 
of hostilities, which under no circumstances could redound 
to Great Britain's credit. There are two ways of looking 
at this question. One way is to consider it necessary 
to England's honour that opposition to her authority 
should be crushed by force of arms, and the reverses 
sustained be avenged. If the twelve thousand soldiers 
either in South Africa or on the way out were insuffi- 
cient for this, and Sir Frederick Roberts, who had been 
appointed to command them, should ask for more, that 
number should be doubled, or if necessary trebled. The 
other way is to regard England's honour as dependent not 
on the employment of military strength against a feeble 
opponent, but on following the principles of righteous- 
ness and justice. A man may consider that he can make 
better use of his neighbour's money than that neighbour 
is making of it, but that opinion would not justify him 
in taking it by force. And so with the Transvaal. Great 
Britain might believe she could govern it better than its 
own people, but was she therefore justified in forcing 
her rule upon them by means of her vastly superior 
strength ? 

iSSi] The War of Independence* 125 

Mr. Gladstone looked at the matter from the latter 
standpoint, but he was in a most unpleasant position. 
A division in the house of commons had just shown 
that only one-third of the members were in favour of 
restoring the independence of the Transvaal, and in the 
great liberal party, of which he was the head, its 
strongest opponents were found, the men who still 
believed, despite all evidence to the contrary, that the 
farmers were ruthless oppressors of coloured people. It 
was beyond his power to restore unqualified indepen- 
dence, much as at heart he may have been disposed 
to do so. The outbreak of war had shown him how 
deceived he had been by representations from the 
Transvaal administration that the great body of the 
farmers was becoming reconciled to British authority, 
and that agitation was kept up solely by a few 
ambitious men. He knew now that only a very small 
minority favoured British rule, and other circumstances 
were also perplexing him. 

In Holland naturally very strong sympathy was felt 
with the Transvaal people. A petition to the British 
authorities in favour of the restoration of their indepen- 
dence was signed by seven thousand men of position, 
and conveyed to England by an influential deputation. 
Of all the countries of Europe, Holland is the one that 
it is most to England's interest to conciliate, and this 
petition therefore could not be disregarded, though it 
was impossible fully to comply with it. 

President Brand was doing his utmost to keep the 
Orange Free State out of the contest, and had induced 
the volksraad to pass a resolution of neutrality, but some 
of the burghers in their strong sympathy with their 
kinsmen had taken the field, and many others could not 
be prevented from doing so much longer. In the Cape 
Colony too the strain upon the loyalty to England of 
many thousands of men and women was very great, for 
the Dutch-speaking section of the population was not 

126 History of the Transvaal. [1881 

alone in holding that the people of the Transvaal 
territory had a right to independence if they wished it. 
President Brand therefore, dreading a war of races, 
offered his services to the British authorities as a 
mediator, and begged for peace. 

On the 8th of February Earl Kimberley, in reply to 
the president's offer, sent a telegraphic message to Sir 
George Colley that if the farmers would cease from 
armed opposition, a scheme would be framed for the 
settlement of difficulties, but gave no intimation what 
the nature of the scheme would be. This was com- 
municated to the triumvirate, and on the 13th of 
February Mr. Kruger replied to General Colley that 
nothing more was wanted than the cancellation of Sir 
Theophilus Shepstone's proclamation, but he offered to 
submit the details of the retrocession to a royal com- 
mission. It is evident that he did not realise the 
impossibility of Mr. Gladstone's acting as he wished. 

The triumvirate and those they represented were fully 
cognisant of the enormous power of Great Britain, but 
they believed firmly that God was helping them, and 
would continue to do so as long as they fought for 
nothing but right. Or if it was His will that they 
should be punished for their sins and that a British 
army should subject their country, when resistance failed 
many of them had resolved to burn every building, to 
lay the land utterly waste, and to retire farther into the 
interior. The women particularly were determined upon 
this, and in the race of the sea beggars woman's 
influence is strong. Whether one feels inclined to con- 
demn or to praise them for this, it is indisputable that 
they were not degenerate kinsmen of those Nether- 
landers who cut their dikes and flooded the richest 
part of their country rather than see their foes in 
possession of it. 

President Brand, however, was able to get the 
Transvaal leaders to comprehend the condition of things 

1881] The War of Independence. 127 

in England and to accept the best terms that could 
be obtained, looking to the future for more complete 
redress. With his assistance an armistice was concluded 
on the 6th of March 1881 between Sir Evelyn Wood 
and Commandant-General Pieter Joubert, to enable them 
to discuss terms of peace. At this time not one of the 
seven towns — Pretoria, Potchefstroom, Bustenburg, 
Marabastad, Marthinus-Wesselstroom, Standerton, and 
Lydenburg — in which there were garrisons of British 
soldiers and volunteers, had been taken by the 
farmers, though they had all been closely invested, and 
in some of them there had been severe fighting. One of 
the conditions of the armistice was that General Wood 
should be at liberty to supply each of the garrisons with 
provisions for as many days as the armistice should last, 
and this was done with all except Potchefstroom. It 
was afterwards made a charge against Commandant 
Cronje that he had not communicated the intelligence 
to Colonel Winsloe, who was in such desperate circum- 
stances for want of food that on the 21st of March he 
was obliged to surrender. 

The discussion concerning terms of peace lasted until 
the 21st of March, and though some of the conditions 
were very objectionable to the Transvaal representatives, 
they were induced to consent to them, as the alter- 
native was renewal of war, and nearly every week 
brought more troops to oppose them. In February the 
sixth dragoons arrived, in the middle of March the four- 
teenth hussars landed at Durban, and before the end of 
the month were followed by the forty-first and eighty- 
fifth regiments of the line. On the 1st of April the 
seventh hussars were added to the force, and a very 
large number of artillerymen, engineers, and other 
branches of the service, with horses, mules, and vast 
quantities of munitions of war of all kinds had reached 
Natal. So on the 21st and 23rd of March conditions 
of peace were signed, and it was arranged that royal 

128 History of the Transvaal. [1881 

commissioners should be appointed, who should confer 
with the Transvaal representatives, and draw up a new 
convention. The burghers then returned to their homes, 
and peaceful occupations were resumed. Sir Frederick 
Koberts on his arrival at Capetown found instructions 
awaiting him to return to England at once, and left in 
the mail steamer the next day. The hundred and second 
regiment arrived, but did not disembark, and returned 

The commissioners appointed by the British govern- 
ment were Sir Hercules Eobinson, Sir Evelyn Wood, and 
Sir Henry de Villiers, chief justice of the Cape Colony. 
On the 30th of April 1881 Sir Hercules Eobinson, the 
chairman of the commission, proceeded from Capetown for 
Natal on this duty, leaving Lieutenant-General Sir 
Leicester Smyth to act as administrator of the government 
of the Cape Colony during his absence. Sir Evelyn Wood 
and Sir Henry de Villiers met at Newcastle on the 29th of 
April, where on the 10th of May Sir Hercules Bobinson 
joined them. The commission met first on a farm close to 
Newcastle, and thereafter in the village until some of the 
terms were arranged, when it proceeded to Pretoria, and 
on the 14th of June resumed its duties there. Its delibera- 
tions were necessarily slow, because a great number of 
points had to be considered, and when each had been 
discussed the resolution arrived at was submitted to the 
triumvirate representing the Transvaal, and their remarks 
upon it were then obtained. It was not a conference 
between two parties of equal authority, but a meeting of a 
commission representing one party appointed to decide 
upon the fate of the other. Its desire was to obtain 
the approval of its decisions by the other party, but it had 
power to act without that. 

There were frequent references to the secretary of state 
for the colonies in London, who had to decide upon what 
public opinion in England would allow him to grant, 
which in many instances was not what the triumvirate 

iSSi] The War of Independence. 129 

were disposed to accept. The arrangement regarding the 
Batlapin and Barolong tribes alone took up a great deal of 
time. Earl Kimberley felt bound in honour to maintain 
the independence of Mankoroane and especially of Montsiwa, 
who had given protection to a number of refugees during 
the war, and the triumvirate pointed out that the con- 
sequence could only be constant war with other Betshuana. 
On this point Earl Kimberley was firm, and the trium- 
virate could only submit. 

So time passed away in debate until at last on the 
3rd of August 1881 a document termed the convention 
of Pretoria was signed. It contained thirty-three articles, 
providing for the self-government, under certain conditions, 
of the European inhabitants of a territory whose boundaries 
were defined, and which, though it embraced land far 
beyond the Keate award line, was much smaller in extent 
than the old republic. It was to be under the suzerainty 
of her Majesty the queen of England, who was to have 
the right of appointing a resident, of moving troops through 
the country in time of war, and of controlling all the 
external relations of the state. The resident, besides other 
duties, was to guard the interests of the Bantu inhabitants, 
and no legislation affecting these people was to be in force 
until approved of by her Majesty's government. The 
Transvaal state was made liable for the debt of the old 
republic, amounting to £155,667, for the expense incurred 
by the British government in carrying on the civil adminis- 
tration from 1877 to 1881, amounting to £127,000, and for 
certain sums which would be advanced to meet legal claims 
for compensation, that were afterwards found to amount 
to £143,225. The government, under these and other less 
important conditions, was to be transferred to the trium- 
virate on the 8th of August 1881, and the convention was to 
be ratified by a duly elected volksraad within three months 
after that date, otherwise it was to be null and void. 

It is impossible to see in what respect a state created by 
such a convention could be regarded as more independent 

vol. 11. 10 

130 History of the Transvaal. \\Z%\ 

than a self-governing colony of the British empire. How- 
ever, Messrs. Kruger, Pretorius, and Joubert signed the 
document, and on the 8th of August the government was 
transferred to them by Sir Hercules Eobinson, the chair- 
man of the royal commission, the other members being 
with him. Sir Hercules, in presence of a large assemblage 
of Europeans and Bantu, formally annulled Sir Theophilus 
Shepstone's proclamation annexing the country to the 
British dominions, and delivered an address explaining the 
new condition of affairs. 

A volksraad was elected, and on the 21st of Septem- 
ber 1881 met at Pretoria, but for some time it was 
doubtful whether the convention would be ratified. The 
members realised that if they approved of it they could 
no longer appeal to the Sand Kiver convention, which 
they held to be still morally and legally in force, as they 
had never consented to its abolition. The condition of 
things which that document laid down was what they 
wanted and what they believed they had a right to, not 
such shackled privileges as were described in this conven- 
tion of Pretoria. 

But it was clearly explained to them by the triumvirate 
that their only choice was that or the renewal of war 
with Great Britain, for a preponderance of public opinion 
in England would not allow Mr. Gladstone to consent to 
entire independence. How could they tempt Providence 
then by renewing a war which they had no means of 
carrying on, and in which they would not have the strong 
sympathy of their kinsmen in other parts of South Africa, 
who were all of opinion that they should accept these 
terms as the best they could hope to obtain? The volks- 
raad then yielded, and on the 25th of October 1881 the 
convention was formally ratified, but to say that it was 
approved of would be incorrect. 



IN 1884. 

The Englishmen who had gone to live in the Transvaal 
territory between 1877 and 1881, or who had invested 
money there, were loud in denunciation of the imperial 
government for having abandoned them, and declared they 
would never be satisfied until British rule was restored. 
Many of them left the country altogether. The union 
jack was ceremoniously buried at Pretoria with demonstra- 
tions of grief, but on the epitaph was the significant 
word Resurgam, which clearly expressed the hope of the 
mourners. Unjustifiable acts, or what appeared as such, 
committed by some farmers during the period of hostilities 
were noised abroad, and among these was the murder of 
a British officer, Captain Elliott, who had been made a 
prisoner of war and released on parole, but was shot dead 
when attempting to cross the Vaal river. Two men who 
were charged with having committed this crime were 
brought to trial before the supreme court, but were ac- 
quitted by the jury. This, however, did not put an end 
to the clamour, it only changed the accusation to corrup- 
tion of Transvaal courts of law. 

On the other hand the farmers chafed under the restric- 
tions imposed upon their government, especially the vague 
power of suzerainty, which might mean anything or nothing 
according as Great Britain might choose to interpret it. 
Their view of the matter may be given, as it was once 
placed before the author of this volume, in the following 


132 History of the Transvaal. [1881 

Bimile, which does not differ in meaning from President 
Kruger's illustrations : 

" If you were ill and weak, and a very strong man 
were to knock you down, and take from you your watch, 
and purse, and clothing, leaving you naked, and afterwards 
offered you your clothing again, would you accept it?" 

"I think I should; that would be better than to remain 

" But would you be satisfied until your watch and purse 
were also restored?" 

"No, I should not be." 

" Well, that is exactly our case. In taking from us our 
independence, Great Britain took all that we valued : cloth- 
ing, and purse, and watch ; now Mr. Gladstone has returned 
the clothing, but we have not got the purse or the watch, 
and therefore we are dissatisfied still." 

When people who have dealings with each other are 
in these frames of mind matters cannot go on smoothly 
between them. The position of the British resident — 
Mr. George Hudson — under any circumstances a most 
delicate one, was a thorn in the side of the administra- 
tion, which felt itself hampered in a way and to an 
extent that no ministry in any self-governing colony is 
ever subject to. The state of warfare beyond the western 
border was also causing much trouble. The farmers in 
the territory cut off by the convention of Pretoria were 
theoretically under the rule of Bantu and Korana chiefs, 
but in practice any attempt to interfere with them was at 
once resisted, and in such events those within the border 
could not be restrained from assisting those without. The 
chiefs there were quarrelling among themselves, renegade 
white men living with them were constantly fomenting 
trouble, crimes of the greatest magnitude remained un- 
punished, and thus all was unrest and confusion. 

The western boundary line was surveyed and beaconed off 
for the British government by Lieutenant-Colonel Charles 
J. Moysey, of the royal engineers, in accordance with 

1883] Election of Mr. Kruger as President. 133 

the terms of the convention, but it failed to give satisfac- 
tion to the whole of the Betshuana. To people whose 
government had always been tribal, not territorial, 
boundaries, no matter where made, could not fail to give 
offence. The out-stations of three or four clans might be 
so mixed that each would have people living on different 
sides of a strip of territory, and this could not be divided 
to suit them all. The new Transvaal boundary therefore 
was from the time of its being laid down a cause of 
discord and strife. 

In other respects matters went on smoother after the 
transfer of the administration to the triumvirate. Mr. W. 
Eduard Bok became the state secretary instead of 
Mr. George Hudson, who was appointed British resident, 
and there were some changes in the other departments, 
owing to the resignation of English officials. The 
executive and legislative councils under the British 
administration of course disappeared, regretted by no one. 

On the 21st of September, when the volksraad assembled, 
an address by the triumvirate was delivered, in which an 
account of recent events was given, and it was stated that 
some fifty burghers had lost their lives in the struggle. 
Mention was also made of a burgher named Has, who 
had displayed great inventive ability in the construction 
of two good cannons. 

The administration was carried on by the triumvirate 
until 1883, when an election for a president took place. 
There were only two candidates, Mr. Stephanus Johannes 
Paulus Kruger and Mr. Petrus Jacobus Joubert, and as 
many of the burghers were indifferent as to which of 
them should be elected, they did not take the trouble to 
vote. The result was officially declared on the 16th of 
April 1883, when it was announced that only four thousand 
six hundred and two votes in all had been recorded, of 
which three thousand four hundred and thirty-one were 
for Mr. Kruger and one thousand one hundred and seventy- 
one for Mr. Joubert. On the 8th of May the volksraad 

134 History of the Transvaal. [1882 

met, when Mr. Kruger took the oath of office as president. 
Mr. Joubert remained commandant-general. 

There was a grievous debt for so small a state, the 
interest on which was a heavy burden upon the treasury, 
and there had not been time to get everything in perfect 
order, when an event occurred which compelled the 
government to undertake a costly war with a powerful 
Bantu tribe. When Sekukuni was captured and sent as 
a prisoner to Pretoria, Sir Garnet Wolseley appointed 
his half-brother Mampuru principal chief of the Bapedi, 
but subject to the Transvaal government like all the other 
heads of clans of the tribe. Between Sekukuni and 
Mampuru there had long been a feud, and when this is 
the case between brothers it is almost invariably carried 
on with great animosity. Mampuru had been obliged to 
flee from the Bapedi country, and take refuge in Swazi- 
land, where according to the general Bantu custom he was 
protected by Umbandeni the chief. Sir Garnet "Wolseley 
thought to create a rival power in the district, which 
would facilitate keeping Sekukuni's people in check, and 
so he invited Mampuru to return. This chief had a 
considerable number of adherents, though they were not 
so strong or so many as his brother's party, even after 
its defeat. Between these two factions there was ceaseless 
strife, but open war was prevented by the Transvaal 

By the twenty-third article of the convention of Pretoria 
Sekukuni was set at liberty. His people were rejoiced 
to receive him again, and Mampuru' s faction became even 
more hostile than before. Early in May 1882 it became 
necessary for the government to take proceedings against 
Mampuru, who was conducting himself in a seditious 
manner and openly refused to pay the hut-tax. A 
commando was called out for the purpose of compelling 
him to submit, but upon its approach he concealed himself 
and could not be found. He was then proclaimed deposed 
from his chieftainship, and a man named Magosi was 

1882] Revolt of Mampuru. 135 

appointed in his stead. But the clan, though it made no 
open protest, declined to submit to Magosi, and as soon 
as the commando retired the fugitive returned and resumed 
his authority. 

During the night of the 13th of August 1882 Mampuru 
fell by surprise upon Sekukuni, murdered him, one of his 
sons, and thirteen of his followers, and then burnt his 
kraal and drove off his cattle. He knew of course that 
this was an act that could not be overlooked by the 
government, so he and his retainers immediately abandoned 
their location and sought refuge with a chief named 
Mareshane, who was a vassal of the powerful community 
called by the Transvaal people the tribe of Mapoch. This 
was one of the composite tribes of recent formation, 
and had upon the whole more affinity with the Zulus 
than with the Bapedi or other people of the interior. 
Many of its members were Baputi by origin, that is 
they were of the original stock from which the ancestors 
of Morosi's clan had parted in days gone by. The 
tribe was much more warlike than the Bapedi, and it 
occupied the most difficult locality in all South Africa 
for Europeans to operate in. It was a succession of 
hills with precipitous sides, and abounding in caverns, 
some of unknown extent to the nearest farmers, within 
which large bodies of people could conceal themselves. 
The valleys between the hills were not extensive, but 
were fertile, and it was believed that the tribe had 
large quantities of grain stored up in the caverns. The 
locality was on the eastern side of the Transvaal, and 
only a short distance from the town of Middelburg. 
The old chief Mapoch had recently died, and his son, 
who was called Njabel by the Europeans, was now 
the head of the tribe. 

Under the Pretoria convention it was necessary for 
the boundaries of every Bantu location in the republic 
to be clearly defined and marked with beacons by a 
commission of three members, of which the British 

136 History of the Transvaal. [1882 

resident was to be one, and the commission now 
proceeded to Njabel's locality for the purpose of carrying 
out its duty. "When informed of the object of the 
visit the chief declared that he would not permit 
beacons to be erected anywhere in his neighbourhood, 
nor did he intend to pay hut-tax or admit dependence 
upon the government at Pretoria in any way. Mr. 
Hudson attempted to point out to him the impropriety 
of his conduct, but met with only abuse and insult. 
"When requested also by a Transvaal official to surrender 
Mampuru, he refused in the most determined manner 
to do so. 

There was thus no alternative to compelling him by 
force to submit, but it was with the greatest reluctance 
that the government called out a commando. It was 
fully realised that the struggle would be a long and 
difficult one, owing to the nature of the district and 
the fact that Sir Garnet Wolseley's plan of storming 
the principal strongholds could not be carried out in 
this case, because the republic could not afford to risk 
the lives of its fighting men as he had done. The 
cost too would be very great, for though the burghers 
would receive no pay, food and all the material needed 
in war would have to be provided at the public expense. 
Sir Garnet Wolseley's successful expedition against 
Sekukuni had cost the British treasury £383,000, an 
amount altogether beyond the power of the republic 
to expend upon any military adventure whatever, but 
which showed the necessity of using the utmost caution. 
Then too nothing short of absolute and complete victory 
would suffice, as upon the result of the campaign would 
largely depend the supremacy of the European race in 
South Africa. As several newspapers outside the republic 
pointed out, such another disastrous event as the failure 
of the Cape Colony to suppress rebellion in Basutoland 
would certainly rain the prestige of the white man in 
all parts of the country. 

iSSz] The Mapoch War. 137 

On the 30th of October 1882 two thousand burghers 
who had been called out and had assembled at Middel- 
burg marched from that town under Commandant- 
General Pieter Joubert to reduce Njabel to submission. 
It was found that he had strongly fortified the salient 
points of his position, and in particular two hills named 
by the farmers Boschkop and Vlugtkraal had been made 
almost impregnable. General Joubert and the council 
of war therefore resolved to surround the place with 
a chain of easily constructed earthen forts, to prevent 
all ingress or egress by constantly patrolling between 
them, and to close in whenever possible without running 
great risks. The Bapedi who had been adherents of 
Sekukuni, feeling it to be their duty to avenge the 
murder of their late chief, joined the commando, and 
did good service as scouts. Sometimes the besieged would 
make sorties, and at other times the burghers would 
press in too closely, when combats would necessarily 
take place, in which loss of. life was sustained on both 
sides. On the 24th of November Commandant Senekal, 
of Kustenburg, was killed, and several others fell about 
the same time. The line of forts was continually being 
drawn closer in, and many of Njabel's people had retired 
to caverns, from which the men would dash out when- 
ever they saw a chance of doing damage to the besiegers. 

It became necessary therefore to destroy the entrances 
of as many of these places as could be got at, and 
dynamite was used for the purpose. Mr. Nelmapius, 
who had obtained a concession from the government of 
a monopoly for the manufacture of spirits and who had 
established what was known as the Eerste Fabriek or 
First Factory, near Pretoria, took charge of these 
operations. He thoroughly understood what he was 
about, and the explosions of dynamite not only destroyed 
some of the caverns, but struck such terror into the 
enemy that they began to ask for peace. On the 19th 
of December five of Njabel's subordinate captains with 

138 History of the Transvaac. [ l88 3 

their people came out and surrendered. They were 
disarmed, and as they were not of much importance 
they were then permitted to go where they pleased. On 
the 2nd of January 1883 there was some skirmishing, 
when Boschberg was taken by the burghers. The enemy 
believed it was about to be blown up by dynamite, 
and in their fear failed to defend it as they might 
easily have done. On the 26th of February they 
abandoned Vlugtkraal in a panic, and General Joubert 
was able to take possession of that stronghold without 
firing a single shot. Two days later the commando 
sustained a loss that was much regretted in the death 
of Fieldcornet Stephanus Boos, of Pretoria, one of its 
ablest officers, who was shot by an unseen enemy inside 
a cavern. On the 8th of April the most important of 
Njabel's sub-chiefs, who was called Tappis by the 
burghers, surrendered. 

Njabel sent again and again to ask for terms of peace, 
to which General Joubert invariably replied that he 
must surrender unconditionally. This he would not do, 
and so the long struggle went on. Every two months 
the burghers in the field were relieved by others, so 
that a force of from fifteen hundred to two thousand 
men, besides the Bantu allies, was constantly acting. 
It was a very severe strain upon the resources of the 
republic, but the government and the people alike felt 
that it had to be borne. 

At length, after eight months of watching and waiting, 
with occasional fighting, and patient endurance of toil 
and hardships, the end in view was attained. On the 
8th of July 1883 Mampuru was delivered a prisoner to 
General Joubert. Njabel sent him in with his hands 
tied behind his back, in hope of obtaining peace for 
himself. But the general was inexorable. The rebel 
chief must surrender unconditionally, or the pressure 
upon him would continue. Next day five of his most 
important captains abandoned his cause, and tendered 

1883] Execution of Mampuru. 139 

their submission, which was accepted, and their arms 
were taken from them. Then, on the 10th of July 
1883, Njabel, who could hold out no longer, with eight 
thousand of his people came in and gave himself up. 

He was put upon his trial before the supreme court 
for rebellion, and on the 22nd of September 1883 was 
sentenced to death. But the British government interested 
itself on his behalf, considering the sentence too severe, 
and General Joubert, who was acting as head of the 
state during President Kruger's absence in Europe, com- 
muted it into imprisonment for life. Mareshane, who 
first gave protection to Mampuru, was tried for causing 
a tumult, and on the 23rd of January 1884 was sen- 
tenced to five years' imprisonment, but without hard 
labour. The tribe was completely broken up and 
dispersed, so that there could be no question as to its 
utter defeat. 

Mampuru was put upon his trial at the same time 
as Njabel, but in his case a charge of wilful murder 
was added to that of rebellion. He was found guilty, 
and was condemned to be hanged, which sentence was 
carried out on the 22nd of November 1883 in the prison 
at Pretoria. 

In the session of the volksraad in 1883 a resolution 
was carried which to many outsiders savoured strongly 
of ingratitude. On the 13th of July Dr. Jorissen, the 
state attorney, was deprived of office on the ground that 
he did not possess the requisite legal qualifications, and 
no adequate compensation was offered to him. This was 
assuredly very unjust treatment of a man who had 
performed eminent services for the republic. Dr. W. J. 
Leyds (LL.D.), whose name was destined at a later date 
to be widely known, was appointed to the vacant office. 

The system of granting concessions of monopolies was 
carried out by the government to almost as great an 
extent as it had been in the worst days of the East 
India Company. Its advocates believed that it would 

140 History of the Transvaal. [1883 

foster the establishment of factories that would relieve 
the republic of dependence upon foreign countries for 
many articles of common use, but it really had hardly 
any effect of this kind, and it caused much discontent, 
especially among the English residents in the towns 
and villages. 

At this time there was general depression throughout 
South Africa, owing to a long and severe drought which 
prevented agricultural operations from being conducted 
and caused the death of great numbers of domestic 
animals of all kinds. Trade seemed paralysed throughout 
the country, and only along the railway lines could traffic 
be carried on. As there were no railways as yet in the 
Transvaal or the Orange . Free State, in those territories 
the difficulty of moving about was even greater than in 
the Cape Colony or Natal. To add to the general 
distress, the largest falls of reef ever known in the 
Kimberley mine took place, and put an end to diamond 
seeking by individuals and small companies there. The 
men thus thrown out of employment were obliged to 
look for something to do in other places, and fortunately 
for them an opening was found in the Lydenburg 
district of the Transvaal. 

The goldfields first discovered at Macmac and Pilgrims' 
Kest had ceased to attract adventurers, but early in 
1882 some prospectors found many and large nuggets at 
the place since widely known as De Kaap, and men 
from all parts of South Africa at once made their way 
to that locality. A few were very successful, many barely 
made a living, and many more did not even do that, 
but though the prizes were few, as in a lottery, they 
drew adventurers in considerable numbers to strive for 
them. In the following year, 1883, quartz reefs contain- 
ing in some parts gold in larger quantities than known 
anywhere else in the world were discovered on a farm 
belonging to Mr. George Pigot Moodie, a land surveyor 
resident in the Transvaal. Immediately there were parties 

I ^3] Progress of Gold Mining. 141 

of men on all the paths leading to Hoodie's, and the 
wonderful reefs became the subject of speculation in 
mining circles in Europe and America. There was some 
alluvial gold found here too, but not in large quantities. 

Gold mining at Moodie's consequently was different 
from that at the other fields, and could not be carried 
on by individual diggers, because it required machinery for 
crushing the quartz. Such stamps as are now in common 
use were then unknown, and even if they had been, 
they could not have been conveyed there owing to the 
want of roads. Crude stamps, on the principle of pile- 
driving weights, were, however, manufactured on the spot 
by sheathing with iron huge blocks of wood cut from 
the trunks of trees, and with these quartz was crushed. 
It was a slow process, but so rich was the quartz in 
places that large fortunes were realised by some of the 
companies. These mines were eclipsed at a later date 
by the world-famed Witwatersrand, where the brothers 
Struben were then prospecting, but that locality only 
attracted attention after June 1885, when Mr. H. Struben 
exhibited rich specimens of conglomerate taken from a 
reef containing gold. This soon caused the Lydenburg 
mines to be almost forgotten, but they have been turning 
out gold in large quantities to the present day. Before 
the close of 1884 rough roads were made, along which it 
became possible to transport heavy machinery, though at 
great expense, and gold mining then became a settled 

The easiest way to get to these fields from the Cape 
Colony or Natal as well as from Europe or America 
was by sea to Delagoa Bay, and then by waggon or 
cart or, as many hardy individuals performed the journey, 
on foot. Of the two great obstacles to the use of that 
road in former times, the tsetse and fever, the former 
was not now existent. The large game had been 
slaughtered by hunters, and then the tsetse disappeared. 
Fever was still prevalent at all seasons of the year 

142 History of the Transvaal. [1883 

in the wide belt of swampy country that had to be 
passed through, and particularly in the hot months it was 
rife until the Lebombo range was reached, but the gold 
seekers did not let that keep them back. Several died 
along the road, where there was no other accommodation 
than an occasional hut occupied by an Indian trader 
who sold groceries at exorbitant prices and allowed a 
traveller to sleep among his wares on payment of a 
couple of shillings. Most of them, however, reached the 
goldfields, and set to work with a will. With those who 
succeeded in finding gold to the value of thirty shillings 
a day, or above that amount, all went well, and they 
had no fault to find, but those who were less fortunate 
were loud in their complaints of the government and of 
the owners of the farms, whom they accused of extortion 
and of putting obstacles of various kinds in their way. 
Thus there was a class of discontented and disaffected 
men to be dealt with, which must be set in the balance 
against the additional revenue that the goldfields contri- 
buted to the treasury of the republic. 

The project of President Burgers for the construction 
of a railway to Delagoa Bay was now recalled, and steps 
were taken to carry it into execution as speedily as 
possible. It would necessarily be in two sections, one 
in the Portuguese territory and the other in the Transvaal. 
There was no difficulty in arranging matters with the 
authorities in Lisbon, who agreed to most liberal terms 
as to the landing and forwarding of goods and passengers, 
the amount of customs duties, and all other matters. In 
January 1884 they also granted a concession to a gentle- 
man who formed a company in London to construct a 
railway from Lourenco Marques to Komati Poort on the 
boundary of the South African Kepublic. It was necessary 
that this section should be completed before the one in 
the Transvaal, that the sleepers and rails as well as the 
rolling stock might be conveyed inland by it. It was 
therefore some years later when the line from Pretoria 

1S83] Trouble on the Western Border. 143 

to Komati Poort was taken in hand by a company in 
which the government of the republic was the largest 

In the territory north of the Vaal river that had been 
cut off from the South African Republic by the Keate 
award, confusion and strife were constant. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Charles Warren was instructed by the high com- 
missioner to endeavour to lay down boundary lines 
between the contending clans and induce them to live 
in peace with each other, and from the 27th of October 
to the end of December 1878 he was engaged in this 
duty. He took about a thousand guns from different 
unruly clans, and believed that he had succeeded in 
restoring order, but as was afterwards seen, it was not 
lasting. On this occasion all the chiefs of any note in 
the territory south of the Molopo expressed a desire to 
become British subjects. 

On the 13th of November 1877 and again on the 
13th of May 1878 Sir Bartle Frere recommended the 
imperial authorities to annex to the British dominions 
the whole territory south of the Portuguese boundary from 
the Atlantic ocean to the Transvaal border, and if his 
advice had been acted upon, though the expenditure would 
doubtless have been considerable, a vast amount of treasure 
would have been saved, as can now be seen. It was, 
however, quite unheeded. 

In October 1878 one hundred and twenty farmers who 
had been cut off from the Transvaal by the Keate award 
sent a petition to the high commissioner that they might 
be reannexed, but it was not considered advisable to 
comply with their request. They and all other Europeans 
in the territory between the Kalahari desert and the 
Keate award line were then supposed to be living under 
the jurisdiction of Bantu or Korana chiefs, who were 
quarrelling with each other about the ownership of almost 
every square metre of ground. As a general rule, however, 
they did not venture to interfere in any way with the 

144 History of the Transvaal. [1883 

white people, who would certainly have resisted had they 
done so. 

Botlasitsi, son of Gasibone, the highest in rank of the 
Batlapin chiefs, was the one who gave the most trouble. 
He had a substantial grievance in part of his ground 
having been included in Griqualand West, where it was 
regarded and disposed of as crown land, and he resented 
the acknowledgment by the British authorities of Manko- 
roane, who had a larger following, as his superior. He 
was openly at war with Griqualand West, as has been 
related in another chapter. The difficulty with him was 
brought to an end by Colonel Warren, who through 
Mankoroane's agency on the 25th of November 1878 
made prisoners of him, two of his sons, and one of his 
brothers, just after they left a cave near Taung where 
they had their head-quarters. They were sent to Kimber- 
ley, where Botlasitsi remained in prison until the 31st of 
May 1880. He was a ruffian by disposition, and though he 
was certainly wronged by the Keate award, no pity need 
be felt for him. 

In 1878 a tract of land was ceded by a Batlapin chief 
to Colonel Warren to be disposed of as he might see fit, 
but the lefthanded clan of the Koranas occupied it at 
the time, and they refused to acknowledge the transaction. 
It was considered necessary to reduce them to obedience 
and to disarm them, for which purpose on the 29th of 
January 1879 Colonel Warren sent Major Kolleston with 
a force of forty men to their kraal, and demanded their 
guns. They preferred to fight for their possession, and 
in the skirmish that took place one white man was killed 
and another was wounded, and two Koranas were killed. 
The Koranas then submitted, and fifty guns were taken 
from them. 

A rough estimate of the number of individuals composing 
the Barolong, Batlapin, Batlaro, and Korana clans south of 
the Molopo was made early in 1880 by Captain J. W. 
Harrel, who was sent to inspect that part of Betshuana- 

1880] Events in Betshuanaland. 145 

land and report upon the condition of the people. In 
his report, dated 27th of April 1880 he estimated the 
number of the Barolong acknowledging the chieftainship 
of Montsiwa, whose principal kraal was at Sehuba, at 
12,500, those under Moshete, at Kunana, at 2,500, those 
under Bonakwane, at Morokwane, at 10,000, those under 
Makobi, at Pitsani, at 2,500, and those under Matlabe, 
at Polfontein, at 5,000. The Batlapin under Mankoroane, 
at Taung, he estimated at 12,500, and those under Mairi 
and Matlabane, at Monte and Pokwane, at 7,500. The 
Batlaro under Bareki, at Honing Vlei, he estimated at 
10,000, and the Koranas under Massou, at Mamusa, at 
5,000. The total number of people living between the 
Molopo on the north, the Orange and Vaal rivers on the 
south, the Kalahari desert on the west, and the Keate 
award line on the east, Griqualand "West excluded, he 
estimated at sixty-seven thousand five hundred, all told. 

The Massou here mentioned as chief of the Koranas 
at Mamusa was a son of the old chief Massou Biet 
Taaibosch, who died at a very advanced age on the 
11th of June 1878. 

The chiefs named in Captain Harrel's list were those 
who were independent of each other. Subject to them 
were a large number of petty captains, among whom feuds 
were constant, independent of the strife between the 
paramount chiefs. Nothing but a strong ruling power 
could have restored order among them, and Great Britain 
was not then disposed to assert her sovereignty over 
Betshuanaland. A state of things was, however, rapidly 
forming which would compel her to do so. Among all 
the chiefs Montsiwa — the fountain of lies (Motshele oa 
Maaka) as the others termed him — was the one that the 
British authorities in South Africa regarded with most 
favour, and he was certainly in a military sense the 
strongest of them all. He was already an old man, but 
he lived until 1896, and was then succeeded by his son 
Badirile, who died on the 1st of April 1911. 

vol. 11. 1 1 

146 History of the Transvaal. [^83 

From 1877 to 1881 war was not carried on so openly 
as either before or after that period, because the govern- 
ment at Pretoria favoured the strongest of the chiefs, 
and the military force there to some extent overawed 
them all. But as soon as it became known that the 
British flag was about to be withdrawn and supervision 
of the clans ceased, the old quarrels revived. During the 
night of the 2nd of May 1881 Montsiwa attacked a 
captain under Matlabe by surprise, killed some fifty of 
his people, and did great damage to his kraal. Montsiwa 
was trying to do in Betshuanaland what Moshesh had 
done in Basutoland, but he had not a tithe of the ability 
of the great Mosuto, and instead of making friends of 
the weaker clans around him he made enemies of them. 
By the people of the Transvaal and the Orange Free 
State he was regarded, and not without reason as has 
been shown in another volume, as utterly untrustworthy, 
but the British authorities in ^outh Africa supported him 
and treated him as if he was the paramount chief of the 
Barolong tribe. He was sufficiently astute to try to keep 
on good terms with them, and during the recent hostilities 
gave shelter and protection to a considerable number of 
refugees who were obliged to flee from the Transvaal. 

In October 1881 war broke out between the Batlapin 
chief Mankoroane, whose principal kraal was Taung, on 
the Hart river, and the Korana captain David Massou, 
who lived at Mamusa (now Schweizer-Beneke), farther 
up the same stream. Each threw the blame on the other, 
but as it certainly needed very little provocation to cause 
the ever restless Koranas to take up arms, it cannot be 
far wrong to attribute the war to the possession by 
Mankoroane of large herds of cattle. Acting on the 
advice of Europeans living with them, each of these 
chiefs invited white men to assist him, promising as pay- 
ment a share of the booty and a farm when the war 
was over. There were hundreds of men in South Africa 
eager to take advantage of such an opportunity to acquire 

x882] War in Betshuanaland. 147 

land and cattle. The British authorities termed them 
filibusters and freebooters, but many people of good 
repute found it difficult to see in what respect morally 
they differed from the men of the German legion enlisted 
and employed by Great Britain in the Crimean war, or 
from the Scotch troopers who fought under Gustavus 
Adolphus and in the wars of the Netherlands. There 
were some very dissolute and unprincipled men among 
them, but there were also many who would pass muster 
as respectable burghers in an English agricultural district 
or a county in Canada. 

There was no intention on their part to kill those on 
the opposite side, and in fact only a very few who made 
themselves particularly obnoxious lost their lives in the 
operations in which they took part. Their presence 
indeed tended to prevent bloodshed, and their object and 
interest was to obtain peace as soon as possible and to 
preserve it afterwards. A large majority of those who 
enlisted on Massou's side came from the Transvaal, but 
there were over sixty deserters from the British regi- 
ments in South Africa among them. Those who took 
part with Mankoroane were mostly from the diamond 
fields and the towns in the Cape Colony. 

Hostilities were carried on for nine months, during 
which time Mankoroane lost a good many cattle, but 
surprisingly few men, certainly not half as many as 
would have perished if his enemy had not been restrained 
from taking life by the presence of Europeans. Then, 
on the 26th of July 1882, largely through the mediation 
of the Transvaal authorities peace was concluded between 
the two contending chiefs and people. 

A tract of land sufficiently large to provide four hundred 
and sixteen farms of three thousand morgen each was 
then allotted by the chiefs and their counsellors to the 
white men, who resolved to form one community, and 
who elected a Transvaal farmer named Gerrit Jacobus 
van Niekerk to be their leader. 

148 History of the Transvaal [1883 

A great comet was visible at the time, so the territory 
ceded to the Europeans was called by them Stellaland. 
A site for a town to be the seat of government was 
selected, bnilding allotments and streets were laid out, 
and the name Vryburg was given to it. The farms were 
roughly apportioned until they could be properly surveyed, 
and certificates of ownership were issued, which enabled 
those who did not intend to occupy them personally to 
sell their rights. A good class of men from other parts 
of South Africa then came in and purchased ground, so 
that Stellaland soon presented the appearance of a per- 
fectly orderly and respectable community. 

On the 7th of August 1883 it was proclaimed an inde- 
pendent republic by Mr. Gr. J. van Niekerk, who there- 
upon assumed duty as administrator of its government. 
A representative body termed the bestuur (i.e. the direc- 
torate) was elected, the necessary officials were appointed, 
and a new state was added to those previously existing 
in South Africa. 

Greater discord was created in Betshuanaland by the 
feud between the Barolong chiefs Moshete and Montsiwa. 
Moshete was descended from the principal son of Tao, 
and was therefore higher in hereditary rank, but Montsiwa 
had a larger following and was favoured by the British 
authorities in South Africa. In reality there was no 
paramount Barolong chief, for each section of the tribe 
after its division into four branches was absolutely inde- 
pendent of the other three. Moroko at Thaba Ntshu 
and Matlabe in the Transvaal were quite as free of 
either Moshete or Montsiwa as if they had been Bakwena 
or Bapedi. Yet this claim to a title which carried no 
authority with it kept a large part of Southern Betshuana- 
land convulsed for many years. 

When Massou and Mankoroane engaged Europeans to 
assist them, Moshete and Montsiwa followed their 
example. Moshete's volunteers came from the Transvaal, 
where Montsiwa was so detested that President Kruger 

i88i] War in Betshuanaland. 149 

was unable to prevent them from crossing the border or 
even from making the republic a base for hostile opera- 
tions. The British government naturally complained of 
this, and the president, who was exceedingly anxious to 
preserve concord, did all that he could to induce the 
volunteers to retire, but in vain. He could not use force 
against them, for that would have provoked civil war. 

Montsiwa's principal European adviser was a man of 
good family in England, named Christopher Bethell, who 
had unfortunately formed a connection with a niece of 
the chief, and who had come to consider himself a 
member of the clan. It was an extraordinary position 
for an educated English gentleman to be in, but occa- 
sionally such idiosyncrasies, which would be regarded as 
extravagant in a romance, are met with in real life. 
Bethell acted as Montsiwa's confidential agent, and was 
believed to have procured not only recruits, but large 
quantities of ammunition at the diamond fields. He was 
in correspondence with the secretary to the high com- 1 
missioner, and took care to represent all occurrences in 
which Montsiwa was concerned in the most favourable 

The attack by Montsiwa during the night of the 2nd 
of May 1881 upon the section of Matlabe's people living 
at Lotlakana was resented by the farmers along the 
Transvaal frontier, who held Matlabe in high regard, as 
he had never once broken faith with them. He was at 
this time a very old man, too feeble to take the field 
himself, but Moshete was ready to adopt his cause. The 
farmers too were ready to do anything in their power 
to chastise the arch-villain Montsiwa as he was termed 
by the Transvaal state secretary Mr. W. E. Bok, in his 
correspondence with the high commissioner. It took 
several months, however, to get everything ready, and at 
the same time Montsiwa was preparing to resist, each 
side being fully aware of what the other side was doing. 
On the 17th of October 1881 Moshete and his partisans 

150 History of the Transvaal. t l8 83 

attacked Montsiwa at Sehuba, his principal station, but 
were beaten off. On making a second attack shortly 
afterwards, however, Sehuba was taken and burnt, when 
Montsiwa and most of his people retired to a place 
called Maf eking, on the northern bank of the Molopo 
river. Mafeking had previously been an out-station, 
occupied by Molema, Montsiwa's brother, but it now 
became one of the most important places in Betshuanaland. 
Under the direction of the English volunteers trenches 
were dug and walls were built, until the station became 
so strongly fortified that it could not be taken by assault 
by any force that Moshete could bring against it. 

There was much greater vindictiveness displayed by 
both sides in this quarrel than in that between Massou 
and Mankoroane, and deeds revolting to humanity, such 
as the murder of women and children, were perpetrated 
on more than one occasion. The disappearance of a 
man named James Scott McGillvray, one of Montsiwa's 
volunteers, who it was alleged had been captured, put 
in chains, and then foully murdered by farmers who 
were fighting on Moshete's side, though the particulars 
could not be ascertained and the only evidence was a 
cane with McGillvray's name cut on it that was found 
by a shackled skeleton, caused much correspondence 
between the British resident at Pretoria, the high com- 
missioner, and McGillvray's relatives, and tended to 
intensify the bitter feeling between the English and 
Dutch speaking people of South Africa. 

The farmers engaged on Moshete's side elected as 
their leader a man named Nicolaas Claudius Gey van 
Pittius, whose only qualifications for the post were 
personal courage and hatred of his opponents. He styled 
himself Moshete's agent, and professed to be acting 
under that chief's orders, but in reality he, and not the 
chief, directed all the movements. It can serve no good 
purpose to relate the different skirmishes and night 
attacks and surprises, sometimes successful on one side 

1882] War in Betshuanaland. 151 

sometimes on the other, that took place, nor to recount 
the burning of huts and seizure of cattle that was 
turning the land into a wilderness such as the emigrant 
farmers found it when they drove Moselekatse away. 
This went on until Montsiwa was compelled to abandon 
all his stations except Mafeking, where at last he stood 
at bay. He had then very few Europeans left to assist 
him. As Mafeking could not be taken by storm, Moshete's 
party formed a lager about an English mile or a little 
over a kilometre and a half distant from it, and invested 
the place so that no one could get in or out, 

As it had been impossible to lay in a large supply of 
food, hunger soon began to be felt in the beleaguered 
station, and this was speedily followed by disease, which 
carried off first the young children and the old people, 
and then attacked those in the prime of life. The 
number of deaths daily became appalling. Montsiwa 
himself did not suffer hunger, because as long as there 
was any food at all he as chief partook first of it, but 
his family was in great distress. His counsellors and his 
sons implored him to try to come to terms with his 
enemies, they put before him the plain fact that to hold 
out longer meant certain death to all his people, because 
the planting season would soon pass by, and then if 
they had not made gardens they must perish, but for 
some time he was deaf to their entreaties. At last, like 
Moshesh in similar circumstances, he consented to pretend 
to submit in order to get seed in the ground, and so 
he sent to Commandant J. P. Snyman in the Transvaal 
to ask him to act as mediator and arrange terms of 
peace. The commandant consented, and without delay 
proceeded to Mafeking. 

On the 24th of October 1882 the terms as dictated by 
Commandant Snyman were drawn up in the form of a 
treaty between Moshete and Montsiwa, which was signed 
by both the chiefs and their principal counsellors and 
leading men. It took from Montsiwa the larger and 

152 History of the Transvaal. [ l88 3 

much the better part of the territory that he had once 
been in possession of, and placed him under the protection 
and control of the Transvaal government. It took from 
Moshete also some ground, so as to form a solid block 
along the Transvaal border according to the convention 
of Pretoria, from Kamathlabama to Stellaland. It bound 
Montsiwa to pay £16,000 as a war indemnity within one 
month, either in cash or something to that value. In 
enforcing such severe terms the Transvaal farmers had 
in mind the past conduct of Montsiwa, how they had 
once treated him with extreme generosity, which he had 
repaid with a breach of faith and an utter disregard of 
truth in all his statements thereafter, and they were 
determined to put it out of his power to act in the same 
manner again. They therefore left him barely sufficient 
land to exist upon, where it would be impossible for him 
to recover his former strength. 

The principal object of this chief throughout his life 
was to regain the whole of the ground that had once 
been occupied by his father Tawane, which in his view 
was bounded by his father's most distant outposts and 
hunting fields, and he lost sight altogether of the fact 
that the clan had been deprived of every square metre 
of the habitable portion of it by Moselekatse, when the 
wretched remnant of the people that survived the ruthless 
conquest had been obliged to flee far away to Thaba 
Ntshu. The ejection of the Matabele by the emigrant 
farmers was a mere episode in Montsiwa's view, and did 
not affect his right to what had once been his clan's if 
he could only eject the white conquerors by fair means 
or foul. From a Bantu standpoint the attitude of this 
chief was not only intelligible, but was praiseworthy, 
though the farmers looked at the matter very differently. 
He now asserted that it was on account of his attachment 
to the English that he had been made to suffer so 
severely, and he succeeded in finding some persons who 
professed to believe him. 

1883] Negotiations with England. 153 

As soon as the treaty was signed, 24th of October 1882, 
Mr. N. C. Gey van Pittius issued a proclamation, with 
Moshete's approval, in which he took possession of the 
big block of ground with defined boundaries, and named 
it Land Goosen, the Land of Goshen. It was intended to 
give out farms of three thousand morgen in size in it, 
but this was deferred for a time, and events that occurred 
prevented its being carried out thereafter. On the 11th of 
October 1883 a provisional agreement was entered into 
between the heads of the administrations of Stellaland 
and Land Goosen for their union under the name of the 
United States of Stellaland, and to this Moshete and his 
counsellors gave their consent, that is they did as they 
were told to. But nothing further ever took place in the 

The government at Pretoria maintained that the strife 
in Betshuanaland was entirely due to the clans being cut 
off from their protection and authority, and asserted in 
positive terms that they could maintain order if Great 
Britain would permit them to do so by giving them 
control over the disturbed district. On the 17th of 
December 1882 Lord Kimberley became secretary of state 
for India, and Lord Derby succeeded him at the colonial 
office. The new minister was favourably disposed towards 
the Transvaal, and took the wishes of the republican 
government and their proposals into consideration. They 
desired chiefly the withdrawal of the suzerainty, the abro- 
gation of the powers of the British resident, the removal 
of the south-western boundary, and the reduction of the 
debt to Great Britain, which they were then unable to 
pay. The time was opportune, as other events were 
occupying public attention, so a revision of the convention 
of Pretoria was resolved upon. 

In October 1883 a deputation from the Transvaal, con- 
sisting of President Kruger, the reverend Stephanus 
Jacobus Dutoit, superintendent-general of education, and 
Commandant Nicolaas Smit, with the reverend David P. 

154 History of the Transvaal. [1884 

Faure, of Capetown, as interpreter, and Advocate Ewald 
Esselen, as secretary, visited London. Sir Hercules 
Bobinson was also there, as the secretary of state had 
requested him to attend and give advice in the matter, 
Lieutenant-General Sir Leicester Smyth acting as adminis- 
trator during his absence from Capetown. The prime 
minister of the Cape Colony, Mr. T. C. Scanlen, attended 
likewise, his object being to keep the trade route to the 
north open by a friendly arrangement with the Transvaal 
delegates. And, as if to make representation complete, the 
reverend John Mackenzie, of the London missionary 
society, was in England unofficially advocating the cause 
of Mankoroane. 

The conferences were protracted, as Lord Derby, acting 
on the advice of Sir Hercules Kobinson, was unwilling to 
subject Mankoroane and Montsiwa to domination by the 
republic, or to allow the trade route to the north to pass 
out of British control. On all other matters at variance 
he was willing to meet the wishes of the deputation, and 
he thought that in consideration of his doing so they 
should give way on the one point which he could not 
entirely concede. They contended long and earnestly for 
the privileges of the Sand Kiver convention, which left 
them free to fix a boundary wherever they chose, and at 
any rate they claimed the territory taken by them from 
Moselekatse, over which they had unquestionably exercised 
authority. They offered to neutralise a road through it, or 
to agree to any conditions necessary to protect British 
commerce from molestation, but finding it impossible to 
gain their point, they at last gave way, and the boundary 
was only extended to' include in the republic part of the 
territory of the Korana captain David Massou and part 
of that of the Barolong chief Moshete. The suzerainty 
was abolished, the powers of the British resident were 
abrogated, and that officer was to be replaced by one 
having the position of a consul. The debt was reduced 
by £127,000, being the deficit incurred during the adminis- 

1884] The Convention of London. 155 

tration of the country while under British occupation. 
The remaining debt, namely the liabilities of the country 
at the time of its annexation by Great Britain in 1877 
and the advances made to meet compensation awards, 
amounting altogether to £250,000, was funded, and it was 
arranged that it should be liquidated in twenty-five years 
by the payment of t £6 0s. 9d. per cent yearly as sinking 
fund and interest. 

To this effect a new convention was drawn up and 
signed on the 27th of February 1884. It is much shorter 
than the one it replaced, containing only twenty articles. 
By it the South African Republic was restored to the 
position of an independent state, and its administration, 
in the earl of Derby's words, " was left free to govern 
the country without interference, and to conduct its 
diplomatic correspondence and shape its foreign policy, 
subject only to the requirement that any treaty with a 
foreign state should not have effect without the approval 
of the queen." The exact wording of the fourth article, 
the one of greatest importance in the convention of 
London, is as follows : 

" The South African Eepublic will conclude no treaty 
or engagement with any state or nation other than the 
Orange Free State, nor with any native tribe to the 
eastward or westward of the republic, until the same has 
been approved by her Majesty the queen. Such approval 
shall be considered to have been granted if her Majesty's 
government shall not within six months after receiving a 
copy of such treaty (which shall be delivered to them 
immediately upon its completion), have notified that the 
conclusion of such treaty is in conflict with the interests 
of Great Britain or of any of her Majesty's possessions 
in South Africa." 

In the fourteenth article the rights of European strangers 
entering the republic are defined. It reads: "All persons, 
other than natives, conforming themselves to the laws of 
the South African Republic, will have full liberty, with 

156 History of the Transvaal. [1884 

their families, to enter, travel, or reside in any part of 
the South African Eepublic ; they will be entitled to hire 
or possess houses, manufactories, warehouses, shops, and 
premises; they may carry on their commerce either in 
person or by any agents whom they may think fit to 
employ; they will not be subject, in respect of their 
persons or property, or in respect of their commerce or 
industry, to any taxes, whether general or local, other 
than those which are or may be imposed upon citizens 
of the said republic." 

The convention required to be ratified by the volksraad, 
but that body was not fully satisfied with it. It was ad- 
mitted to be a very great improvement upon the convention 
of Pretoria, inasmuch as the suzerainty had been abolished 
and the debt had been reduced, but the south-western 
boundary was most unsatisfactory, and would certainly 
produce strife. Both Moshete and Massou ignored it, 
and would not allow beacons to be erected along it. It 
was thus not exactly with their entire approval that on 
the 8th of August 1884 the convention of London, great 
as was the gain derived from it, was ratified. 

In the opinion of most people the conclusion of this 
convention was unquestionably an act of liberality as well 
as of justice on the part of the British government. It 
removed from our country the reproach that some foreign 
people were casting upon us, that we respected treaties 
with feeble states no longer than suited our own con- 
venience. It was admitted by us that a wrong had been 
done, — though perhaps unintentionally, — but that wrong 
had been redressed, and no apparent reason remained why 
the most friendly feelings should not in future prevail 
between the inhabitants of the restored independent South 
African Eepublic and those of the British realm. 



When the convention of London was signed Earl Derby 
thought it possible to maintain order in Southern Betshu- 
analand more by the prestige of the British name than by 
a display of strength, until the territory could be annexed 
to the Cape Colony. He supposed that the cost would 
be very trifling, and Mr. Scanlen undertook to ask the 
Cape parliament to bear a portion of it. Very properly 
Earl Derby wished to avoid putting the imperial treasury 
to any serious expense, and it was thought that a popular 
man acting under the high commissioner's instructions 
would be able to maintain order with a few policemen. 

As deputy commissioner for Betshuanaland the reverend 
John Mackenzie, who had been acting as Mankoroane's 
agent in England and who was believed to have great 
influence with the Bantu tribes there, was selected. He 
had resided in the country for many years as a missionary 
of the London society, was conversant with the language, 
and took a deep interest in the welfare of the people. 
A very interesting volume from his pen, Ten Years north 
of the Orange River, a Story of every day Life and Work 
among the South African Tribes from 1859 to 1869, pub- 
lished in 1871, had brought him prominently before the 
British public, and another volume, Day-dawn in Dark 
Plates, a Story of Wanderings and Work in Bechuanaland, 
published in 1883, had created a very favourable impres- 
sion. He was beyond dispute an able man, but as yet 
without experience in such work as he was now entrusted 


158 History of South Africa. [1884 

On the 12th of April 1884 he was formally appointed by 
Sir Hercules Kobinson deputy commissioner for Betshuana- 
land, and as soon as he had received his instructions he 
proceeded to that country. At Taung he met Mankoroane, 
who, in return for a promise of protection, on the 3rd of 
May 1884 signed a document giving to her Majesty the 
queen of England full authority over his country and his 
people. The extent of the country which he claimed was 
not stated, and it is doubtful whether the chief and his 
counsellors realised the full significance of the document 
they attached their marks to. At a later date he asserted 
that he had not done so, but that is by no means con- 
clusive evidence. 

From Taung Mr. Mackenzie went on to Vryburg, and 
had several interviews with the administrator Mr. Van 
Niekerk. He found that the residents in the village, the 
majority of whom were English or German, had sent a 
petition to the Cape parliament to be annexed to the Cape 
Colony, and that they professed to be attached to her 
Majesty's government. Already there was a marked differ- 
ence between the views of the villagers and the farmers, 
but he did not realise this, and mistook what he heard 
at Vryburg for the opinion of all Stellaland. The new 
boundary of the South African Eepublic, however, as 
defined in the convention of London, had given about a 
hundred of the farms to that state, and an exchange was 
going on by which the most determined opponents of 
British rule were being separated from the others. Mr. 
Mackenzie promised that the titles to farms occupied by 
Europeans would be respected, and he announced a British 
protectorate over Stellaland. 

He then appointed Mr. Van Niekerk assistant commis- 
sioner, and entrusted the full control of affairs in Stella- 
land to him. The residents in Vryburg made no objection 
to this arrangement, but it was valueless, for as soon as 
the farmers came to hear of it they repudiated it, and 
Mr. Van Niekerk was obliged to withdraw from the half- 

1884] Events in Betshuanaland. 159 

hearted consent he had given to act as Mr. Mackenzie's 

Farther north everything was in confusion. Montsiwa 
had gathered a good crop, and as soon as his grain was 
stored had repudiated the treaty with Moshete. The 
result was that on the 10th of May 1884 Gey van Pittius 
declared war against him. Two days later, on the 12th 
of May, Montsiwa made a sudden attack upon the camp 
of Moshete's volunteers at Kooi-Grond, which was partly 
within the new Transvaal line, got possession of it, and 
burnt a great part of it. While the Goshenites, as 
Moshete's volunteers were now generally termed, were 
assembling in order to carry on the war, on the 20th of 
May 1884 Mr. Mackenzie arrived at Mafeking. Montsiwa 
made no difficulty about attaching his mark, on the 22nd 
of May, to a document similar to that agreed to by 
Mankoroane, and thereupon Mr. Mackenzie declared him, 
his people, and his country, under British protection. 

By this act the position of things was completely 
changed. The ministry in England stated that a pro- 
tectorate did not imply sovereignty over the country, but 
it certainly implied that if Montsiwa was attacked by the 
Goshenites Great Britain would be obliged to defend him. 
Still it was hoped that as the strength of the opposing 
parties seemed to be nearly equal, a small police force 
thrown into one scale would serve to turn the balance. 
Major Stanley Lowe was therefore directed to raise a corps 
of one hundred mounted European policemen, to assist 
Mr. Mackenzie to enforce peace. Major Lowe set about 
doing this at once, and before the end of July 1884 the 
Betshuanaland Mounted Police were ready for service. 
Perhaps a mistake was made in giving Mr. Christopher 
Bethell a commission in this force, as it exasperated the 
Goshenites when they found their ablest opponent em- 
ployed in this manner. Mr. Mackenzie did not consider 
this force sufficient, and he enrolled thirty additional 
Europeans and eighty blacks, but the high commissioner 

160 History of South Africa. [1884 

did not approve of the employment of black policemen, 
and they were only enrolled a few days when they were 

More reprehensible in the opinion of Sir Hercules Robin- 
son was the engagement by the deputy commissioner of a 
band of mixed Europeans and Zulus under the leadership 
of a man who went by the name of Scotty Smith, that 
had taken an active part in the disturbances of the 
country and that had captured a great many horses from 
farmers along the border and in Stellaland. This band 
had its head-quarters at Taung, and Mankoroane asserted 
that he dared not interfere with it, as it was too strong 
for him to control. Mr. Mackenzie never gave his reason 
for engaging these people under the name of the Betshu- 
analand Scouts, but the high commissioner refused to 
sanction the arrangement, or even to pay them for the 
few days that elapsed before their dismissal. 

The government and people of the South African 
Bepublic were strongly opposed to Mr. Mackenzie's 
appointment, on the ground that he was a partisan of 
the Bantu whether they were in the right or in the 
wrong, and his description of Montsiwa as "a brave and 
single-minded chief," which was certainly incorrect in the 
sense he intended it to bear, was to them very irritat- 
ing. The Upington ministry in the Cape Colony also 
was antagonistic to him, so the high commissioner 
thought it advisable to request him to visit Capetown to 
confer with him, and on the 30th of July 1884 appointed 
Mr. Cecil John Rhodes to act as deputy commissioner 
during his absence from Betshuanaland. In Capetown 
on the 20th of August Mr. Mackenzie resigned the office 
" on account of the antipathy displayed towards him by 
the Cape ministry and the Transvaal government," and 
Mr. Rhodes was then confirmed in the appointment. He 
accepted it solely in the desire to keep the road to the 
north open and safe under the British flag, and he 
declined to receive any salary for his services. Before 

1884] Events in Betshuanaland. 161 

he could reach the scene of disturbances, on the 31st of 
July, the day after his first acting appointment, the 
Goshenites had an engagement with Montsiwa's force, 
and without any loss to themselves worth speaking of, 
succeeded in killing about a hundred of his men and 
wounding many more. 

Among those who lost their lives on this occasion was 
Mr. Christopher Bethell. He was terribly wounded, one 
side of his face and an eye being shot away, when a 
couple of ruffians went up to him and began to taunt 
him. According to the account of Molema, who was 
wounded and was lying on the ground close by pretend- 
ing to be dead, one of them threatened to put an end 
to him, when he replied you can do so if you like, upon 
which the threat was carried out. It was a brutal murder, 
and no one, not even Gey van Pittius himself, has ever 
attempted to justify it. Another Englishman of respect- 
able family, named Nathan Walker, lost his life at the 
same time. 

On the 25th of August 1884 Mr. Rhodes, accompanied 
from Lichtenburg by General P. J. Joubert representing 
the South African Republic, arrived at Rooi-Grond, where 
he had hoped to be able to make some satisfactory 
arrangement with the Goshenites. Mr. Gey van Pittius 
was there, but at first declined to meet Mr. Rhodes unless 
he was acknowledged as administrator of Land Goosen, 
and that the deputy commissioner would not do. That 
evening the Goshenites attacked Montsiwa at Mafeking, 
and continued operations against him throughout the 
night, the sound of the firing being distinctly heard at 
Rooi-Grond. On the* 26th there was some ^correspondence 
and a meeting with Mr. Gey van Pittius and the leading 
men of his party, who would not agree to anything that 
affected their independence. 

The terms that they submitted were to the effect that 
the boundaries of Land Goosen should be recognised as 
those proclaimed on the 24th of October 1882, and that 

vol. 11. 1 2 

1 62 History of South Africa. [1884 

the treaty of that date between Moshete and Montsiwa 
should be confirmed ; that Montsiwa should pay the costs 
of the war then being carried on, which should be 
guaranteed by the intervening parties (i.e. Great Britain 
and the South African Eepublic) ; that the government 
of Land Goosen should be acknowledged as free and 
independent, they being willing to " secure to the inter- 
vening parties by treaties of commerce, free trade, free 
import, and free transit of goods, produce, et cetera ; " 
that the two governments of the South African Eepublic 
and the Cape Colony should guarantee the good behaviour 
and peaceful conduct of Montsiwa and his people; that 
they were willing to accept a joint protectorate of the 
South African Eepublic, the Cape Colony, and the Orange 
Free State, provided their government was acknowledged 
as free and independent, and that those states might 
appoint consuls or residents at their own expense ; and 
that Montsiwa should break down all fortifications, 
destroy, and vacate them, and should surrender to the 
government of Land Goosen all his war materials of 
every kind. 

Such conditions show plainly that the Goshenites 
regarded themselves as masters of the situation. They 
were not madmen, and only persons either insane or 
believing themselves to be invincible would venture to 
propose such terms to the representative of a power like 
Great Britain. Mr. Ehodes of course regarded them as 
inadmissible, and to gain time proposed an armistice of 
fourteen days to enable him to communicate with the 
high commissioner, but this was refused. He then warned 
the Goshenites* that in attacking a« chief under British 
protection they were making war upon her Majesty the 
queen, and at once left for Vryburg. In his opinion 
there was but one way of settling matters with them, 
and that was by employing, overpowering force, British 
prestige, upon which Lord Derby had placed reliance, 
having failed to make any impression on the conduct or 

1884] Events in Betshuanaland. 163 

even the language of such men as Gey van Pittius and 
his supporters. 

At Vryburg Mr. Ehodes met an elected committee of 
the people of Stellaland, whom he found anxious to see 
perfect order and a strong government in the country. 
They admitted that they were too weak to stand alone 
now that a hundred farms had been assigned to the 
Transvaal by the convention of London, and a majority 
of them would have preferred to be annexed to the 
adjoining republic, but as that could not be, they were 
willing to come under the British flag. On the 8th of 
September 1884 a formal agreement was entered into 
between Mr. Ehodes as representing Great Britain on one 
side and the committee as representing the people of 
Stellaland on the other, that "pending annexation to the 
Cape Colony Stellaland should continue its own govern- 
ment, however recognising her Majesty's protectorate, and 
subject to the condition that all executive acts must be 
taken in concert and with the consent of the commis- 
sioner of Betshuanaland, and that the land titles issued 
by the government of Stellaland be recognised." 

This agreement was ratified by the high commissioner, 
and was thereafter regarded as binding on all parties. 
Everything then went on smoothly in Stellaland, except 
that the incessant cattle thefts by Mankoroane's Batlapin 
and the robbers domiciled at Taung occasionally nearly 
caused retaliation on that chief by the white people. 
Major Lowe's police were mainly occupied in trying to 
suppress this cattle lifting, but with all their efforts they 
did not succeed in entirely preventing it. 

After Mr. Ehodes left Eooi-Grond General Joubert con- 
sented at Montsiwa's request to act as mediator between 
him and the Goshenites, and to draw up a treaty between 
them. Naturally he and Mr. Ehodes looked at the 
matter from different standpoints. To him the trade 
route to the north was of little consequence, and the 
ground through which it ran was morally the property of 

164 History of South Africa. [1884 

the representatives of the emigrant farmers. Montsiwa 
in his eyes was a perfidious barbarian — he used the word 
scoundrel when describing him, — who was deserving of 
little consideration, and who had brought this latest 
trouble upon himself by ignoring a treaty made at his 
own request less than two years before. He felt bound 
by the convention of London, but not otherwise, to assist 
in suppressing the disturbances on the border of the state 
of which he was a prominent official. 

The terms of the treaty of peace drawn up by him 
and signed on the 30th of August were that Montsiwa 
gave himself and his people over unconditionally to the 
government of Land Goosen, and became subjects of that 
state ; that he should break down and destroy all the 
fortifications of Mafeking; that he should have Mafeking 
and a tract of land around it with defined boundaries, 
thirty thousand morgen in extent, as a location; and 
that either party breaking the treaty should pay £10,000 
to the government of the South African "Republic, to be 
awarded by it to the other party. This treaty was signed 
by Moshete and his counsellors, by the leading men of 
Land Goosen, by Montsiwa and his counsellors, and by 
General Joubert. Its terms were communicated to Mr. 
Rhodes, who as representing the British government 
without hesitation repudiated it, and it was never 
carried out. 

The next attempt to arrive at a settlement was made 
by the government of the South African Republic. The 
reverend S. J. Dutoit, superintendent general of educa- 
tion, was appointed a special commissioner, and on the 
25th of September 1884 concluded a provisional treaty 
with Montsiwa, by which all the territory claimed by 
that chief and by Moshete, including Land Goosen, was 
placed under the protectorate of the South African 
Republic, and Montsiwa had fifteen thousand morgen of 
land added to his location. At the request of all the 
parties to this transaction, the government of the republic 

1884] Events in Betshuanaland. 165 

issued a proclamation provisionally assuming a protectorate 
over this territory, but on the British authorities objecting 
to it, the proclamation was withdrawn. 

The expectations of Earl Derby with regard to Bet- 
shuanaland had been disappointed in another respect also. 
Mr. Upington declined to carry out Mr. Scanlen's promise 
to ask the Cape parliament to bear a portion of the 
expense of maintaining a commissioner and a small police 
force there, so that the whole burden fell upon the 
imperial treasury. For some time indeed it was antici- 
pated that the territory would be annexed to the Cape 
Colony, and Mr. Upington's ministry would not have 
objected to this if matters had gone on smoothly there. 
They desired to do nothing antagonistic to the South 
African Eepublic, but after conferring with the delegates 
of that state when they returned from Europe, on the 
15th of July 1884 Mr. Upington moved in the house 
of assembly, that "in the opinion of this house it is 
expedient, pending the ratification of the convention of 
London by the volksraad of the South African Eepublic, 
that the colonial government be authorised to open nego- 
tiations with her Majesty's imperial government, with the 
view to submitting to parliament next session a measure 
for the annexation to the Cape Colony of the territory 
on the south-western border of the South African 
Eepublic, now under the protection of Great Britain." 
This was carried, and four months later, when it was 
known that a strong force was to be sent from England 
to uphold the queen's authority in Betshuanaland, the 
ministry resolved to make a final attempt to settle 
matters there in an amicable manner. 

With this intent, on the 4th of November 1884 Messrs. 
Upington and Sprigg, taking with them Mr. J. S. 
Marais, member of the house of assembly for Paarl, left 
Capetown for the north. At Vryburg they were joined 
by Mr. G. J. van Niekerk, and then went on to Eooi- 
Grond, where they arrived on the 17th. "Whether a 

1 66 History of South Africa. [1884 

change in disposition had taken place, or whether the 
knowledge that military preparations were being made to 
assist Montsiwa was the cause, Messrs. Upington and 
Sprigg met with a much more friendly reception from 
the Goshenites than had been accorded to Mr. Ehodes. 
With Mr. Van Niekerk's assistance matters were discussed 
for several days, and on the 22nd of November it was 
finally arranged that Land Goosen should be annexed to 
the Cape Colony. Until that could be completed, which 
would require the approval of both the Cape parliament 
and the imperial ministry, the same system as in Stella- 
land was to be observed, namely the existing administra- 
tion was to continue to carry on the government, but 
no legislation was to be valid unless approved by a 
British commissioner. Montsiwa was to have all the 
land he possessed in May 1884 restored to him. 

The ministers then returned to Capetown, where they 
reported that they had found the great majority of the 
white inhabitants of Goshen respectable and law-abiding 
people, many of whom had acquired rights by purchase. 
But the high commissioner did not approve of the 
arrangement that had been made by them, and it was 
then really too late to make any arrangement at all, for 
an expedition was on the way from England with the 
express object of expelling all the white intruders — (free- 
booters they were called) — from the so-called Land of 

Upon receiving information of what had occurred during 
the visit of Mr. Khodes to Eooi-Grond, Mr. Gladstone 
and Earl Derby were of opinion that the honour of 
England demanded that a chief nominally under British 
protection should actually be protected against rapacious 
despoilers. Montsiwa, in the opinion of South African 
farmers an "arch-villain" and a "scoundrel," in Mr. 
Gladstone's opinion was an innocent and injured chief, 
but even supposing him to be utterly worthless, Mr. 
Gey van Pittius and his partisans could not be allowed 

1884] Events in Betshuanaland. 167 

to deal with him as they chose. There was also the 
murder of Mr. Bethell, who at the time of his being so 
foully dealt with was an officer in the British service, 
to be considered. And the convention line of the South 
African Kepublic was to be maintained, and the road to 
the north to be kept open. 

So it was determined to employ a force of five 
thousand men to clear the territory of the Goshenites 
who had acted in such a highhanded manner in it. The 
first intimation of this intention was received by the 
high commissioner in Capetown on the 3rd of October 
1884, a full month before Messrs. Upington and Sprigg 
went on their fruitless mission. The expedition was to 
consist chiefly of volunteers, who were to be picked 
men, expert in shooting and riding, but it was to have 
some regular artillerymen and trained soldiers attached to 
it. It was recruited principally in England, but the full 
number was made up in the Cape Colony. From the 
troops already stationed in South Africa, detachments 
were drawn from the sixth or Inniskilling dragoons and 
from the second battalion of the fifty-eighth or North- 
amptonshire regiment, and from England a detachment 
of the Scots Guards, some engineers, and a number of 
artillerymen with their guns were sent. There was what 
was termed a pioneer corps, and the remainder of the 
force consisted of irregular cavalry in three divisions or 

On the 10th of November Major-General Sir Charles 
Warren, who had seen a great deal of service in South 
Africa since November 1876, when as a captain in the 
royal engineers he was sent from England to survey the 
boundary between Griqualand West and the Orange Free 
State, was appointed commander in chief of the expedi- 
tion and special commissioner for Betshuanaland. With 
his staff he arrived in Capetown on the 4th of December, 
and without a day's delay set about making the neces- 
sary preparations for moving northward. At government 

1 68 History of South Africa. [1885 

house he met Mr. Rhodes, and requested him to return 
to Betshuanaland and resume duty as deputy com- 
missioner in the undisturbed parts of the territory. 
Mr. Rhodes consented, and for some time sent his 
reports to the high commissioner, but later at General 
Warren's request sent them to him. 

To arrange everything necessary for the advance of a 
body of five thousand men beyond the railway terminus 
at the Orange river needed some time, and January 
1885 was far advanced before General "Warren was able 
to meet President Kruger at a point on the south- 
western border of the Transvaal, and make arrangements 
with him for having the new boundary according to the 
convention of London properly surveyed and marked with 
beacons. On the 24th and 26th of January long con- 
ferences took place, at which Mr. Rhodes, the reverend 
Mr. Mackenzie, and Mr. Van Niekerk, with many others, 
were present. The president endeavoured to get some 
modifications where the line passed through the land 
claimed by Massou and Moshete, both of whom 
were strongly opposed to it, but General Warren main- 
tained that the wording of the London convention must 
be strictly adhered to, and this was determined upon. 
In case of disagreement as to the meaning of any terms 
used in the convention, it was arranged that President 
Brand, of the Orange Free State, should be requested 
to appoint an umpire. Sir Charles Warren then ap- 
pointed Captain Claude Reignier Conder, of the royal 
engineers, to survey the boundary from Ramathlabama 
Spruit southward on behalf of the British government, 
and President Kruger appointed Mr. Tielman Nieuwoudt 
de Villiers to do the same on behalf of the South 
African Republic. 

These gentlemen commenced the work as soon as pos- 
sible, but encountered so many difficulties that it was 
only completed on the 11th of September 1885. On 
one occasion it became necessary to refer a difference of 

»Ms] Events in Betshnanaland. 169 

opinion between them to President Brand, who appointed 
Judge Melius de Villiers to decide it. Massou in par- 
ticular gave a great deal of trouble by breaking down 
the beacons through his land near Mamusa as fast as 
they were erected, and assuming a defiant attitude towards 
all white people. He believed that President Kruger by 
consenting to the new boundary had betrayed him, and 
thereupon declared that he regarded the Transvaal farmers 
as enemies and began to plunder them. Moshete was 
less violent, but he too complained that the Transvaal 
did not support him as the English supported Montsiwa, 
and therefore it would be better for him to go over to 
the stronger side. 

To facilitate communication with Capetown and England 
a line of telegraph was being constructed as rapidly as 
the material could be forwarded, and on the 16th of 
February it reached Vryburg and an office was opened 
there. Another improvement in the country that was 
being made by the expedition was the sinking of wells 
to ensure a supply of water along the road. About 
every twelve English miles or nineteen kilometres one 
was sunk, and usually water was found at no great 
depth from the surface. 

Overtures from the Goshenites were made on several 
occasions as the expedition marched northward, but no 
notice was taken of them. The advance was steady and 
uninterrupted, scouts moving in all directions to prevent 
the main body being surprised, until on the 10th of 
March 1885 Mafeking was reached, and it was found 
that the Goshenites had dispersed and taken all their 
movable property with them. Without having occa- 
sion to fire a single shot, the expedition had succeeded 
in its object of clearing the country of objectionable 

The country was now held in undisputed occupation 
by an English army, and it became necessary for 
Mr, Gladstone to decide what to do with it. Bo far the 

170 History of South Africa. [ l88 5 

only obligations of Great Britain with regard to it were 
the promises of protection made by Mr. Mackenzie to 
Mankoroane and Montsiwa, and the agreement made by 
Mr. Rhodes with the people of Stellaland. Sir Charles 
Warren thought that it rested with him as special com- 
missioner to arrange for its future government, and 
already, on the 14th of February, he had proclaimed 
military law in force in Stellaland. He had proved him- 
self a very able military leader, but as a politician he 
was as great a failure as Sir Garnet Wolseley in Zulu- 
land. He almost ignored the high commissioner, who 
alone had power under an order in council of the 27th 
of January 1885 to proclaim laws and appoint magis- 
trates, and he disagreed with Mr. Rhodes, who on the 
16th of March resigned as deputy commissioner, giving 
as his reason that the general was violating the agree- 
ment of the 8th of September 1884 made by him with 
the people of Stellaland and approved by the imperial 
authorities. He was obliged to withdraw his proclama- 
tion of military law in Stellaland (15th of April 1885), 
but as he could not brook opposition, he retained his 
dislike of Mr. Rhodes, whom he termed a very dan- 
gerous man. 

His treatment of Mr. Van Niekerk was almost uni- 
versally condemned in South Africa. A man named 
James Honey, who had been Mankoroane's principal 
recruiting agent, was murdered in March 1883, and some 
persons asserted that Mr. Van Niekerk as administrator 
of Stellaland must have been accessory to the crime. He 
courted the fullest investigation, and General Warren 
caused him to be arrested and brought before court after 
court, all of which pronounced that they had no juris- 
diction in the case. He was poor, and the cost of 
engaging lawyers fell heavily upon him, but President 
Kruger came to his relief, gave him an appointment in 
the South African Republic that enabled him to live 

1885] Events in Betshuanaland. 171 

Acting under instructions from the secretary of state, 
on the 23rd of March 1885 Sir Hercules Robinson issued 
a proclamation declaring a British protectorate over the 
whole territory from the western boundary of the South 
African Republic to the twentieth meridian from Green- 
wich, and from the Cape Colony to the twenty-second 
parallel of south latitude. This proclamation did not 
establish sovereignty, but only a protectorate, over the 
country, and nothing further was done in the matter 
until the change of ministry in England which placed 
Lord Salisbury at the head of affairs. 

It was not long before Montsiwa tried to give trouble. 
He could not comprehend the cost to Great Britain of 
the expedition that had brought him relief, and imagined 
that General Warren ought to comply with all his 
wishes. His first request was that every Morolong that 
did not recognise his authority should be expelled from 
the territory, and he seemed surprised when he was 
informed that only his European opponents were to be 
treated in this manner. That was not acting properly 
towards him, the friend of the English, he argued, that 
was only half helping him. Then General Warren 
resolved to lay out a small village for Europeans to live 
in close to Mafeking, but separate from the Barolong 
huts and distant a few hundred metres from them, 
where sanitary regulations could be carried out and each 
nationality could live by itself, but to this Montsiwa 
objected. He preferred that the European village should 
be at Rooi-Grond, and could not understand why General 
Warren spoke in a tone of authority to him. He gave 
way, however, and proved more tractable afterwards. 

In July the Salisbury ministry resolved to withdraw Sir 
Charles Warren and the whole of his force from Betshuana- 
land, and to authorise the high commissioner to enrol a 
body of five hundred European mounted policemen to 
maintain order in the territory. Major Lowe's police, 
one hundred in number, were to be disbanded, but they 

172 History of South Africa. [1885 

and men of Warren's irregular cavalry could enlist in the 
new Betshuanaland Border Police if they chose to do so. 
These instructions were carried out without delay, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick Carrington was appointed to 
the command. General Warren retired, and on the 24th 
of September left Capetown to return to England. The 
detachments of dragoons and Northamptonshires returned 
to their regiments, and in September the second battalion 
of the fifty-eighth left for Hong Kong. 

Instructions to Sir Hercules Robinson followed, under 
which on the 30th of September 1885 a proclamation 
was issued by him declaring her Majesty's sovereignty 
over that portion of the Protectorate lying north of the 
Cape Colony, south of Ramathlabama Spruit and the 
Molopo river, west of the South African Republic, and 
east of the lower course of the Molopo river, that 
makes a bend to the south, which was to be termed 
British Betshuanaland. 

The governor of the Cape Colony was by a separate 
commission appointed governor of British Betshuanaland. 
As administrator and supreme chief Judge Sidney 
Godolphin Alexander Shippard was appointed, and on 
the 23rd of October 1885 arrived at Vryburg, which was 
to be the seat of government. 

British Betshuanaland was divided into three districts : 
Vryburg, of which Mr. Abraham Faure Robertson was 
appointed civil commissioner and resident magistrate ; 
Maf eking, of which Mr. James E. Surmon was appointed 
magistrate ; and Taung, of which the reverend John 
Smith Moffat, a son of the venerable missionary 
Dr. Robert Moffat, was appointed magistrate. Minor 
officials were drawn from the Cape civil service, and 
everything necessary for the establishment of a crown 
colony was provided. The laws of the Cape Colony were 
to be the laws of British Betshuanaland. In November 
Sir Hercules Robinson visited the province, and saw that 
everything was in proper working order. 

1885] Events in Betshuanaland. ij$ 

There was no opposition by either white people or 
Bantu to this settlement of Southern Betshuanaland, 
which was a guarantee of the maintenance of order 
there. And for the present the imperial authorities aban- 
doned the hope of annexation to the Cape Colony, which 
would give them relief from the pecuniary responsibilities 
they had incurred. Some four hundred of the Stella- 
landers sent a petition to the high commissioner against 
such annexation, and the Cape parliament was disinclined 
to be burdened with it, so for ten years to come British 
Betshuanaland remained a crown colony. 

Under British rule the clans were prevented from pil- 
laging and destroying each other, and consequently were 
able under missionary guidance to advance towards 

It soon became apparent that a mistake had been made 
in putting Mankoroane forward as paramount chief of the 
Batlapin. He was one of the poorest specimens of a 
Bantu ruler to be found anywhere, and cared nothing for 
the interests of his people as long as his personal wants 
were gratified. His word was as valueless as that of 
Montsiwa, which implies that it was worth nothing at 
all. He was sullen and discontented because the Stella- 
landers had not been driven away and their land given 
to him, though he had ample for all his needs. On one 
occasion his crops of millet were over-ripe and the grain 
was falling to the ground, but he would not give per- 
mission to his people to gather it, because the yearly 
circumcision ceremonies were not over, and the magis- 
trate was obliged to ignore his authority for a time and 
order the women to harvest the crops, or all would have 
been lost. The reverend Mr. Moffat, who was magistrate 
at Taung, who had a very wide experience in dealing 
with Bantu, and who made allowances for their failings 
whenever he could, reported of him in June 1886 in 
the following words : " he is the most despicable native 
chief I have ever had to do with." Sir Hercules Eobin- 

174 History of South Africa. [1885 

son, on learning • of his conduct, decided no longer to 
treat him as the paramount chief of the Batlapin tribe, 
a position which none of the other chiefs would acknow- 
ledge he had any right to. So that error was rectified, 
to the satisfaction of nearly every one. 

The European population increased in number. Vryburg 
grew to be an important town, and Maf eking became a 
thriving business centre. The white people were satisfied 
with Mr. Shippard's administration, and were without 
political grievances until regular titles to the farms were 
issued. Then they complained that the agreement with 
Mr. Ehodes, which was the foundation of British rule 
in the country, was not being adhered to. By that 
agreement their titles were to be respected, and those 
titles or certificates of ownership gave them absolute posses- 
sion. In the new titles, which were to replace the 
certificates, reservations to the crown were made of precious 
stones and metals, streams, fountains, and outspans, which 
diminished the value of the land. But as no precious 
stones or metals were ever found there, and as wells and 
dams made by the farmers were not mentioned, practically 
the conditions of ownership remained unchanged. 

The Korana captain David Massou took so prominent 
a part in the disturbances that have been recorded that 
it will be well to continue the story of his career, though 
he did not reside in Betshuanaland. He was incensed 
with the government of the South African Bepublic 
because it had not prevented the division of the land 
that he claimed, and could not realise how consistently, 
though ineffectually, President Kruger had striven to 
prevent that act. In his opinion a very large portion of 
his land had been taken from him, and so little remained 
that the only thing his people could do for a living 
would be to rob the farmers of cattle. 

The farmers resented this, and the government called 
upon Massou to prevent it. He was also informed that 
it would be necessary to erect beacons round his location, 

1885] Events in Betshuanaland. 175 

and that he and his people would have to pay hut-tax. 
The land on the other side of the boundary, he was 
told, was not lost to him, it was still his, only on that 
side his people would be subject to a different government. 
Massou replied that he would have nothing to do with 
any government, and would not pay taxes to any one. 
By the Keate award he and his people had been declared 
free and independent, as such he had carried on war 
with Mankoroane, and as such he would remain. He 
entirely ignored the convention of London, which had 
been made without reference to him. It cannot be denied 
that Massou had a good case, and yet it was impossible 
to allow a gang of robbers, such as the Koranas then 
were, to remain unchecked. 

Commandant- General Joubert was therefore directed by 
the republican government to reduce Massou to subjection. 
He called out eight hundred burghers, and with the state 
artillery, a small corps of trained men, proceeded to 
Mamusa. Massou was given a last chance to submit, 
and as he declined it and prepared to fight, early in the 
morning of the 2nd of December 1885 a hill upon which 
the Koranas were posted was attacked. It was stubbornly 
defended, and the lower part was not taken until 
Captain Schweizer, of the artillery, and nine farmers 
were killed and fourteen others were wounded. Massou 
himself, his two sons, and about sixty of his people, 
among whom were some women and children, fell in 
the engagement, many of them from the fire of the 
cannon. The majority of the fighting men retired to 
the crown of the hill, where they held out for twenty- 
four hours, but as they were without water they were 
then obliged to surrender. The booty, consisting of 
thirty horses, fourteen hundred head of horned cattle, 
and about as many sheep, was insufficient to cover the 
cost of the commando. The clan was broken up and 
dispersed, and even the name Mamusa was discarded, 
being replaced by the much less euphonious Schweizer- 

176 History of South Africa. [1885 

Keneke, after Captain Schweizer and Fieldcornet Reneke, 
who fell in the engagement. 

North of Ramathlabama Spruit and the Molopo river 
the territory remained a protectorate, and was not made 
subject to British sovereignty. It was occupied by the 
Bangwaketse, the Bakatla, the Bakwena, and the Bama- 
ngwato tribes, all members of the same family group and 
having recently had the crocodile as their siboko. 

Close to the Molopo the Bangwaketse tribe lived, 
whose principal kraal was at Kanye. At this time their 
chief was Bathoen, a sensible man, who bore no love 
for the Barolong under Montsiwa, but who kept his 
people from open strife. For many years nothing occurred 
here worthy of note. 

Next to the north came the Bakwena tribe under 
Setsheli, the chief whom the reverend Dr. Livingstone 
brought into such prominence. He was now very old 
and feeble, though he lived until 1893, and his son 
Sebele was the virtual ruler. The Bakwena were at war 
with the Bakatla, a kindred tribe, whose siboko— the 
crocodile — was the same, though a species of monkey 
from which they derived their tribal title was also 
regarded as a siboko. 

These Bakatla were among the most restless people in 
the whole country. They lived at Mabotsa when the 
reverend Dr. Livingstone, who was succeeded by the 
reverend Roger Edwards, was a missionary with them, 
and where they were visited in June 1844 by the hunter 
Gordon Cumming. Their chief was then Moselele. He 
was at war with Setsheli, who, however, gave him shelter 
eight years later when the Transvaal authorities were 
trying to bring him to account for cattle stealing. 

In 1870 the Bakatla were living at Pilansberg in the 
district of Rustenburg in the Transvaal, and were under 
the chief Khamanyani. They were a nuisance to all their 
neighbours, and the chief was as insolent as he was 
thievishly disposed. But one day he provoked Commandant 

1885] Events in Betshuanaland. 177 

Paul Kruger, who had ridden on horseback to his kraal 
to seek redress for some injury, to such an extent that 
Mr. Kruger's patience became exhausted, and he chastised 
the chief soundly with his riding shambok. Khamanyani 
complained of this as an indignity, and to avoid a repetition 
of it fled to Setsheli's country. 

The Bakwena chief received him in a friendly manner, 
and allotted him a tract of land at Motshudi to live upon. 
There were not many people with him at the time, but 
gradually others came from the Transvaal to join him, 
until the greater part of the Bakatla tribe was united 
once more. He had at first professed to be Setsheli's 
most obedient vassal, but now he felt strong enough to 
stand by himself, and not only bade defiance to the man 
who had given him shelter, but made war upon him, 
though neither party was able to do more than carry on 
plundering raids against the other. He tried to justify 
his conduct by asserting that the ground he was living 
on did not belong to Setsheli, and therefore the Bakwena 
chief could not claim him as a vassal. In this manner 
a feud was commenced between the Bakwena and the 
Bakatla, which kept that part of Betshuanaland in a 
disturbed state for many years. In 1875 Khamanyani 
died, and was succeeded by his son Linshwe, who was 
then about eighteen years of age. The young chief acted 
towards Setsheli in the same way as his father had done, 
and though on more than one occasion European agents 
of the Transvaal government tried to bring about peace 
between them, nothing more lasting than a temporary 
armistice was the result. 

In 1878 the attention of the high commissioner Sir 
Bartle Frere and the British authorities in the Transvaal 
was drawn to Matabeleland by a written concession having 
been granted by Lobengula on the 8th of May of that 
year to Mr. Gilbert McArthur, a resident at Tati, to 
prospect for gold with not more than ten white men 
for three years in Mashonaland. This was regarded as 

vol. 11. 1 "? 

178 History of South Africa. [1878 

an event that might possibly lead to complications in the 
north, and it was therefore considered advisable to try 
to ascertain more than was then known of the country 
between the Limpopo and the Zambesi and its inhabitants. 
There were a few traders and missionaries in Matabele- 
land, among the latter the reverend Mr. Thomas and 
the reverend Charles Daniel Helm, who went to reside 
there in 1875, so that information was obtainable upon 
that part of the country, but of Mashonaland very little 
more was known than the facts that the Matabele were 
in the habit of making murderous raids into it, that 
the people were divided into many little communities 
independent of each other and were in an exceedingly 
degraded state, and that the chiefs possessed very little 
authority over their followers. That the Makaranga living 
there were descendants of the highly intelligent subjects 
of the monomotapas of olden time, that they had been 
reduced by discord among themselves and by conquest 
and savage treatment to the condition in which they 
were then, but that they were capable of improvement 
again, was quite unknown. 

Sir Bartle Frere resolved to send a competent man to 
explore the country, to visit the principal chiefs, and to 
collect information of every kind that might be useful. 
For this purpose he selected Captain E. E. Patterson, 
who had already made a journey into the interior, and 
who possessed exceptional qualifications for the task. He 
was in the prime of life and in robust health, was full 
of vigour, was a careful observer, a good draughtsman, 
fond of overcoming difficulties, and above all entered into 
the project with the liveliest interest and with intense 
delight. With him was associated Mr. J. G. Sergeaunt, 
a son of the gentleman who had been sent out from 
England to put the Transvaal finances in order, and who 
embraced the offer with enthusiasm. On the 24th of 
June 1878 they left Pretoria with a proper equipment 
for the journey before them. 

1S78] Events in Betshuanaland. 179 

They directed their course first to Shoshong, the 
principal settlement of the Bamangwato tribe of Betshuana, 
then under the chief Khama. On the way they came 
in , contact with some Masarwa, the mixed offspring of 
Bush girls and Bantu men, who were without property 
of any kind, and lived upon game and wild plants. 
Khama they found to be a man of great intelligence 
and of excellent disposition. He was a sincere Christian, 
had only one wife, and ruled his people kindly, but 
firmly. He had strictly prohibited the introduction of 
spirituous liquor of any kind into his country, and the 
result was that the utmost order was observed by his 
people. At this time he was about forty years of age. 
The population of Shoshong was estimated at ten thousand 
souls, of whom two thousand five hundred were capable 
of bearing arms. The situation of the settlement was not 
a good one, and water was far from plentiful, but it 
had been chosen on account of its being capable of 
defence against the Matabele. There were several other 
kraals in the Bamangwato country, but none so large 
as Shoshong. There were nine trading stores, and the 
European residents numbered twenty-three men, six women, 
and thirteen children. 

From Shoshong the travellers went on to the residence 
of Lobengula, chief of the Matabele. Here they were well 
received, and found no difficulty in making a friendly 
arrangement with the chief regarding his dealings with 
white men, but their report does not contain such minute 
particulars concerning the locality and the tribe as was 
given of Shoshong and the Bamangwato. 

A circumstance connected with the Bamangwato is 
worth mentioning, as it shows that the ancient belief in 
ancestral spirits visiting people in the form of a par- 
ticular animal was becoming lost by some sections of 
the Bantu. When this tribe separated from its kindred 
it voluntarily adopted a species of antelope as its siboko 
instead of the crocodile, which it certainly would not have 

i8o History of South Africa. [1S7S 

done in earlier days. Even to the new siboko very little 
veneration was shown, so completely had the old belief 
died out. But with most of the tribes it still survived, 
with some more as a tradition than as a living faith, 
but with others in all its ancient strength. 

Their next stage was to the reverend Mr. Thomas's 
mission station Shiloh, about thirty miles or forty-eight kilo- 
metres distant from Lobengula's kraal. Their Setshuana 
interpreters were now useless, as the dialects spoken by 
the people they were among were quite different from 
those in use in Betshuanaland. A son of Mr. Thomas, 
however, volunteered to go with them as guide and 
interpreter, and they gladly availed themselves of his 
services. From this stage little is known except from 
accounts gathered from Bantu of what occurred. They left 
Shiloh with the intention of proceeding first to the 
Victoria falls, but when about three days' journey from 
the Zambesi, after being two days without water, they 
managed to capture a Bushman, and by signs compelled 
him to show them a pool, which he did most un- 
willingly. They were in such a state of distress from 
thirst that they took no precautions, but at once drank 
mmoderately, though both Captain Patterson and Mr. 
Thomas, had they reflected for a moment, must have 
realised that it was extremely dangerous to do so. They 
may not have known much about Bushmen and their 
habits, but they must at least have heard of the method 
of the wild people of killing game by poisoning pools of 
water in localities such as this. But what were they to 
do, as they may have believed themselves to be perish- 
ing from thirst ? They drank, and within a few hours 
the three white men and five of their Bantu attendants 
died, for the water had been poisoned. Tidings of this 
event were brought back by some Bantu survivors of 
the ill-fated party. 

Sir Charles Warren sent some officers — Major Samuel 
Edwards, Lieutenant C. E. Haynes, and Lieutenant Maund 

1885] Events in Betshnanaland. 181 

— to Lobengula to inform him of the establishment of 
the protectorate and to gather information as to his 
condition and views. They arrived at Bulawayo on the 
4th of June 1885, and remained there twenty-five days. 
They were well received and treated by Lobengula, who 
declared himself as very friendly towards English 
people. He claimed all the Betshuana chiefs as his 
vassals, and more than once asserted that Khama had no 
country of his own. 

On their way to Bulawayo they visited Tati, where 
they found that mining was not prospering, though eight 
or nine companies had sent rich specimens of quartz to 
England. Machinery for crushing ore was needed, and 
could not be brought from either the Cape Colony or 
Natal for want of roads. This condition of things was 
not to last many years longer, however, for the railroad 
was advancing rapidly towards the interior. On the 4th 
of November 1885 the first engine steamed into Kimberley, 
and on the 28th of that month Sir Hercules Robinson 
formally opened the line to that town amidst such 
festivities as had seldom before been witnessed in South 
Africa. And among the spectators on that occasion was 
a man who was dreaming of carrying that railroad to the 
very northern extremity of the continent, and who was 
destined before his early death to see it open many 
hundreds of miles beyond Tati. 

On the return journey Major Edwards' party visited 
Shoshong, the largest Bantu town in South Africa, which 
contained, as they estimated, from fifteen to twenty 
thousand inhabitants. From Shoshong to Molopolole they 
travelled by the western road, and in one part found no 
water at all for forty-five miles and not sufficient for a 
span of oxen for seventy-five miles, as they were on the 
border of the great Thirstland of South Africa. 

At that time Germany was seeking places that she 
might take possession of, with the object of extending 
her commerce and her influence over distant parts of the 

1 82 History of South Africa. t l88 5 

world. She had as much right as any other power to do 
this, but nations that had established colonies before she 
thought of doing so were justified in trying to prevent 
her from occupying positions that would break their lines 
of communication or endanger their safety. A fall 
account has been given in a preceding volume of her 
occupation of Great Namaqualand and Damaraland, and 
if there had been a good harbour that could have been 
strongly fortified on that line of coast, not only would 
the Cape Colony have been endangered, but the sea route 
round the Cape of Good Hope would have been interfered 
with. Perhaps this was not seen very clearly in 1884, 
but sufficient was suspected of Germany's designs regarding 
this part of the world to make Englishmen unusually 

In Pondoland and Zululand attempts were made by 
Germany to get possession of territory, but were frustrated 
in the first named country by the foresight of Sir Bartle 
Frere in proclaiming a British protectorate over the 
coast, and in Zululand by Panda's cession of Saint Lucia 
Bay that had been almost forgotten. In the reports of 
the mission^ sent to the north by Sir Charles Warren, 
Lieutenant Haynes mentioned that three Germans had 
been exploring the country about Shoshong and farther 
towards the Zambesi. Their efforts had the result of 
obtaining for their country by negotiations a long strip 
of land giving access to that river, but Mr. Rhodes was 
on the alert, and was just in time to secure for Great 
Britain the vast territory that now bears his name and 
with it an open highway to the heart of the continent. 

British Betshuanaland remained a crown colony for ten 
years, during which time it made steady progress in 
European population and consequently in material prosperity. 
As the railway to the north advanced through it land in- 
creased in value, and Kimberley provided a market for 
produce of all kinds. It was, however, upon the whole 
better adapted for cattle rearing than for agriculture, 

1895] Enlargement of the Cape Colony. 183 

though in good seasons and wherever the ground could 
be irrigated large crops of maize were obtained. In course 
of time two new magisterial districts, Kuruman and 
Gordonia, were created, and perfect order was maintained 
by the well-disciplined corps termed the Betshuanaland 
border police. 

The natural destiny of the province was absorption by 
the Cape Colony, and both parties having at last agreed 
to unite, in the session of the Cape parliament in 1895 an 
act for the purpose was passed. It provided that British 
Betshuanaland should be an electoral circle, to be represented 
in the legislative council by one member, and should 
form two electoral divisions, one of which should comprise 
the magisterial districts of Vryburg, Taung, Kuruman, 
and Gordonia, and return two members to the house of 
assembly, the other to comprise the magisterial district 
of Mafeking, which should return one member. The act 
required the assent of her Majesty the queen in council, 
which was given on the 3rd of October 1895, and the 
governor was empowered to proclaim it in force. 

It fell to Sir Hercules Robinson, the same governor 
who was connected with Betshuanaland in its stormy days, 
to carry the act to completion. In 1889 he had retired 
and been succeeded by Sir Henry Loch, who had served 
a full term, and he had then again been appointed governor 
of the Cape Colony and high commissioner. On the 
30th of May 1895 he arrived in Capetown and took the 
oaths of office, and on the 11th of the following 
November he issued a proclamation fixing the 16th of 
November 1895 as the date when British Betshuanaland 
should become part of the Cape Colony.. 

On that day accordingly the administrator and the 
heads of departments retired, but the other officials 
remained on duty, receiving their instructions thereafter 
from Capetown and sending their reports to that place 
instead of to Vryburg. That was the only difference the 
annexation made to them, for all of the old offices that 

184 History of South Africa. [ l8 95 

were created under the crown colony government were 
retained, and new ones were not needed. The public 
debt of the province as a matter of course became part 
of that of the Cape Colony. 

A census of the Europeans in the province taken in 
1891 shows that they were then 5,254 in number, of 
whom 3,056 were resident in the district of Vryburg, 
861 in the district of Mafeking, 735 in the district of 
Gordonia, 436 in the district of Taung, and 166 in the 
district of Kuruman. 

The remainder of Betshuanaland, that is the immense 
territory between Ramathlabama Spruit and the Molopo 
river on the south, the Tshobe and Zambesi rivers on 
the north, the Kalahari desert on the west, and the 
northern part of the South African Republic and 
Matabeleland on the east, inhabited by the Bangwaketse, 
Bakwena, Bakatla, and Bamangwato tribes, with some 
Balala and a few scattered Masarwa and Bushmen, 
remained merely a British protectorate under the guid- 
ance of the high commissioner. The few European mis- 
sionaries and traders in it were subject to the jurisdiction 
of a resident deputy commissioner, who had also the 
relationship of the tribes to each other and to outsiders 
under his control, but the chiefs were not in any way 
interfered with in the government of their people, nor 
were any taxes demanded from them. 



The question of the confederation of the South African 
colonies and states was at this time a prominent one, 
though there were few men in the country that would 
be affected by it who regarded it as coming within the 
sphere of practical politics. To the secretaries of state 
in England it seemed simple enough, they had the 
Canadian model before their eyes, and all that South 
Africans would have to do was to follow it. The Orange 
Free State would be obliged to resign its independence, 
for of course the united communities would be under the 
British flag, but that would be only a small matter, and 
indeed barely twenty years had passed away since that 
state had been eager for such a union. This was the view 
of the British ministers, but in point of fact there was 
scarcely any analogy between the condition of Canada and 
of South Africa. 

The word confederation was capable of very different 
meanings. To many persons in the eastern districts of 
the Cape Colony it implied the separation of those districts 
from the remainder of the colony, their establishment under 
a local government, and the federation of that government 
with the one in Capetown for a few general purposes 
only. They were not anxious for the inclusion of even 
Natal in the scheme, for she was a rival in the trade 
with the interior, and they were averse to the two Dutch 
states being brought into it, because, in their opinion, 
those states were unprogressive, and would only be a 

1 36 History of South Africa. [1878 

drag upon the remainder of the community. These views 
were, however, held by only a minority of the eastern 
people, and when on the 16th of July 1878 Mr. John 
Paterson, who represented an eastern constituency, brought 
on a motion in the house of assembly in favour of 
a conference concerning confederation, it was promptly 

With a considerable section of the South African 
people the word meant retention of the local govern- 
ments, and their union for general purposes under their 
own flag. In 1878 the farmers' protection association 
had come into existence in the Cape Colony in conse- 
quence of the passing of the excise act. But it was 
largely under the guidance of Mr. Jan Hendrik Hof- 
meyr, one of the ablest and most distinguished men 
the country has yet produced, who realised to the full 
the value of the British connection, and consequently the 
association expressed no desire for an independent flag. 
But in the following year, 1879, a society of widespread 
influence and great power, termed the Afrikander bond, 
was founded by the reverend S. J. Dutoit, editor of the 
Patriot newspaper at the Paarl, and one of its objects 
was to create an independent nationality. A strong 
anti-British feeling had been aroused by the annexation 
of the Transvaal in opposition to the wishes of its 
people, and Mr. Dutoit was its foremost exponent. In 
later years, when the farmers' protection association 
became amalgamated with the Afrikander bond, and Mr. 
Hofmeyr acquired practically the almost entire direction 
of the great society, it was very different, but at the 
time treated of in this chapter the sentiments of the 
bond made federation under the English flag impossible. 
Seven-eighths of the Transvaal people, as large a pro- 
portion of the inhabitants of the Orange Free State, and 
a majority of the Dutch-speaking people of the Cape 
Colony were opposed to it, on the ground that it would 
be brought about by an act of injustice. On the other 

1878] Rejection of Confederation. 187 

hand, federation under an independent flag was equally 
impossible, for it would have been resisted to the death 
by a section of the colonists, and would certainly not 
then have been sanctioned by Great Britain, as possibly 
it might have been a quarter of a century earlier. 

There was an alternative to these plans, which was 
favoured by not a few of the most far-seeing men in 
the country, and which the Transvaal and the Orange 
Free State would have cordially agreed to, indeed it was 
what the Transvaal farmers called confederation and 
declared their readiness to accept. It was to add to the 
Cape Colony as honourable opportunities offered the 
thinly inhabited land on the border, to plant European 
settlers there, to extend the railways and telegraphs in 
order to make government from one centre practicable 
and easy, and to enter into a close alliance with the 
two Dutch states, leaving them their independence and 
their flags, while working cordially with them for the 
common good.* Into such a system it would be optional 
for Natal to enter or not, as she chose, but in fact 
Natal was hardly considered as of much weight in those 
days. The policy here outlined, however, needed time to 
work out, and the secretaries of state were in a hurry, 
so it was not considered. 

On the 27th of June 1878 the legislative council of 
Natal met. The subject of the British ministry's plan 
of confederation was discussed, but no delegates to a 
conference were appointed, because the Cape parliament 
had taken no action in the matter. 

* In October 1883 the Transvaal delegates when on their way to 
England were entertained at a banquet in Capetown, when President 
Kruger in the course of a speech said that what he would call a 
united South Africa was all the states acting together, and when 
one state got into trouble the others coming forward to help it. 
He would like to see a union extending from the Cape of Good 
Hope to the Zambesi, where there was no distinction of nationality 
whatever, but in which they all worked for the welfare of South 
Africa. — Keport in the Cape Argus. 

1 88 History of South Africa. [1880 

The Cape ministry now resolved to appeal to the 
electors on the subject, and on the 2nd of August 1878, 
when parliament was prorogued — to be dissolved on the 
13th of September — Sir Bartle Frere in his closing 
speech alluded to it in the following words: "Passing 
events teach us the need of union, and on the eve of 
an appeal to the country the government desires to 
commend the great question of a, united South Africa 
to the earnest attention of the constituencies of the 
colony. For defence, for commerce, for civilisation, for 
progress, the interest of every colony and state in South 
Africa is one. I confidently rely upon the intelligence 
of the country to give no uncertain sound upon the 
most important subject that has ever been submitted to 
its judgment. 

Sir Michael Hicks Beach on his part continued to 
press the matter. In a despatch to Sir Bartle Frere of 
the 16th of September 1878 he wrote: "I trust that 
the elections which will shortly be held will result in 
the return of a parliament not less able and patriotic 
than that which has now come to an end ; and more 
particularly that the new houses will devote their 
attention to the important question of confederation with 
a determination to overcome all obstacles to the early 
adoption of a measure so deeply affecting the common 
interests of South Africa." 

The colony did not respond to the appeal made to it 
in the manner the governor hoped it would, but during 
the session of 1879, which lasted from the 21st of June 
to the 11th of September, the matter could not be 
decided, owing to the wars then being carried on. 

At the opening of the session on the 7th of May 
1880 the governor referred to the subject in the follow- 
ing words : 

" The possibility of the union of the South African 
colonies is a subject which has engaged much of the 
attention of my advisers. It is preeminently a question 

1880] Rejection of Confederation. 189 

for the people of South Africa themselves to consider 
and determine, for the ultimate success of the union, if 
it should be resolved upon, depends upon the hearty 
cooperation of those who may enter into it. Papers in 
connection with this important matter will be laid before 
you, and resolutions proposed for the assembling of a 
conference of delegates from the various colonies inter- 
ested, to consider the advisability and practicability of a 
union, and, if it should be deemed practicable, to 
ascertain its character, and to frame a report to be 
afterwards submitted to the legislatures of the colonies 
respectively represented in the conference." 

The opposition to the confederation scheme of the 
government was strong in many parts of the colony, 
and was increased in the western districts and con- 
sequently in the parliament by the action of Messrs. 
Kruger and Joubert, the delegates from the Transvaal 
independence committee, who pleaded earnestly that 
nothing should be done to support the action of the 
imperial government with regard to that community. 
Mr. Sprigg knew that the issue was hardly doubtful, 
still he felt himself bound to bring the matter forward, 
and on the 22nd of June he moved in the house of 
assembly : 

" 1. That in the opinion of this house it is expedient 
that a conference of representatives be assembled to 
consider the existing relations of the British colonies in 
South Africa to each other, and to the native territories 
adjoining, and to ascertain the practicability, or other- 
wise, of a legislative and administrative union of such 

" 2. That such conference consist of sixteen members, 
viz. his Excellency the governor and high commissioner 
of Cape Colony as president, six members representing 
the Cape Colony, three members representing Griqualand 
West, three members representing Natal, and three 
members representing the Transvaal. 

190 History of South Africa. [1880 

" 3. That the conclusions arrived at by such conference 
be embodied in a report to be hereafter submitted to the 
legislatures of the colonies respectively concerned, and 
have no binding effect whatever on any colony until the 
provisions of the report shall have been . confirmed by 
substantive resolutions passed by the legislature of that 
colony, and approved by her Majesty's government." 

These proposals committed the parliament to very little, 
still the principle underlying them was objectionable to 
so many members that it was at once seen the scheme 
was doomed to failure. Mr. Fuller spoke in its favour 
indeed, and moved as an amendment that the Cape 
Colony should have nine representatives in the conference, 
but then Mr. Vincent moved as a further amendment : 
"that this house, while appreciating the interest taken 
by her Majesty's government in the affairs of South Africa, 
and while anxious to meet their wishes as far as con- 
sistent with the interests of the colony, is of opinion 
that the present time and the present circumstances of the 
British colonies in South Africa and the native territories, 
adjoining are not favourable to entering on the con- 
sideration of the serious additional responsibilities 
necessarily involved in a union with Natal and the 

On the 25th of June both the amendments were with- 
drawn, and the previous question was moved and carried 
without a division, the ministers assenting, as the great 
majority of the members were opposed to the measure. 

A defeat on a subject of such importance would have 
necessitated the resignation of the ministry, had it not 
been that for all other purposes they still commanded the 
support of a majority of the members of parliament. 
To test this, on the 29th of June Mr. Fleming moved 
that the ministry possess the confidence of the house of 
assembly, which was carried by thirty-five votes to two, 
after the opposition had withdrawn from the chamber. 
Again, on the 23rd of July 1880 a motion of no con- 

i88o] Rejection of Confederation. 191 

fidence in the Sprigg ministry was lost in the house 
of assembly by thirty-two votes to twenty-four, and in 
the legislative council by thirteen votes to two. 

With this the effort to promote the union under one 
government of the several South African communities, 
whose interests are identical, the habits, customs, and 
occupations of whose people are similar, who are one in 
the instinct of blood and race, came to an end for thirty 
years. This was the calamitous effect of an act that 
must be deeply regretted, and that no attempt to excuse 
can justify. Sir Bartle Frere was surely fully warranted 
in using the following words when proroguing the Cape 
parliament on the 30th of July : 

" I regret that, owing to the unsatisfactory character 
of the settlement of Zululand, and the state of affairs 
in the Transvaal consequent upon the annexation of that 
country, it was not deemed advisable to proceed with the 
proposals for a conference to consider the practicability of 
a South African union. I can but express the hope 
that in the course of time those considerable difficulties 
will be removed, and an advance be made towards welding 
into one nation isolated communities who have now so 
many common interests, and who will ultimately recognise 
the advantage of one general government animated by a 
generous, comprehensive, and liberal spirit." 

With this failure Sir Bartle Frere's work in South 
Africa came to an end. He had not done what was 
impossible for any man — even so grand and highly gifted 
a man as he — to do, he had not overcome the will of 
the great majority of the electors, practically all the 
Dutch-speaking and a considerable section of the English, 
who felt that the annexation of the South African Republic 
was not only unwise but unjust, and who would not 
support any measure that depended upon it. So he was 
recalled. On the 15th of September 1880 he embarked 
at Capetown in the mail steamer Pretoria to return to 
England, where he died on the 29th of May 1884. 

192 History of South Africa. [ l88 ° 

Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, G.C.M.G., who 
was then governor of New Zealand, was appointed 
governor of the Cape Colony and high commissioner in 
succession to Sir Bartle Frere. Until he could arrive, 
Major-General H. H. Clifford acted as administrator from 
the 15th to the 27th of September, and Sir George Cumine 
Strahan, K.C.M.G., from the 27th September 1880 to 
the 22nd of January 1881, when the new governor took 
the oaths of office. 

There was now direct telegraphic communication with 
England by means of a submarine cable between Durban 
and Aden, which was commenced to be laid down from 
Durban on the 5th of July 1879, and was opened for use 
at Aden on the 29th of December of that year. It was 
laid down and maintained in working order by a company 
that received subsidies of £35,000 a year from the British 
government, £15,000 a year from the Cape Colony (Act 19 
of 1878), £5,000 a year from Natal, voted in July 1878, 
and £5,000 from the Portuguese government in con- 
sideration of its connection with Delagoa Bay. At Aden 
it was connected with the line from England to India, 
so that whatever transpired in any part of the civilised 
world was known a few hours later throughout South 

The construction of railways was making good progress 
in the Cape Colony, and though the public debt was 
increasing on this account, the burden for interest did 
not press upon the taxpayers, because the revenue from 
the railways covered the cost of their maintenance and 
the interest on the loans raised for their construction. 
They were of very great use in opening up the country 
to commerce and bringing the people into contact with 
each other. The advance of the different lines from the 
coast towards the interior is here shown. 

Western line: Capetown to Beaufort West, three hun- 
dred and thirty-nine miles or five hundred and forty-two 
kilometres, opened on the 5th of February 1880; midland 

i88o] General Progress of the Cape Colony. 193 

line : Port Elizabeth to Graaff-Reinet, one hundred and 
eighty-five miles or two hundred and ninety-six kilometres, 
opened on the 26th of August 1879; Port Elizabeth to 
Grahamstown, one hundred and seven miles or one 
hundred and seventy-one kilometres, opened on the 3rd 
of September 1879 ; eastern line : East London to Queens- 
town, one hundred and fifty-four miles or two hundred 
and forty-six kilometres, opened on the 6th of May 1880. 
Altogether, with branch lines, there were nine hundred 
and five miles or fourteen hundred and forty-eight kilo- 
metres of railway open for traffic in the Cape Colony at 
the end of 1880, against sixty-three miles or one hundred 
and one kilometres in 1873. These lines look small on 
the map to-day, but in 1880 they marked great progress. 

In the session of parliament from the 25th of March 
to the 27th of June 1881 provision was made for the 
extension of the three lines to the Orange river. From 
Beaufort West the western line was to be continued to 
Hopetown, from Cradock, to which town the midland 
line had been completed and opened on the 1st of June 
of that year, it was to be continued to Colesberg, and 
the eastern line was to be continued from Queenstown 
to Aliwal North. The line in the Cape peninsula also 
was to be extended from Wynberg to Kalk Bay. Further, 
a company that had been formed for the purpose was 
empowered to construct a railroad, uniform in gauge 
with the government lines, from Grahamstown to Port 
Alfred, and a contribution of £50,000 was made to it 
from the public treasury. Another great stride forward 
was thus made in opening up the country. 

The progress in the construction of these new lines 
was not very rapid. On the 21st of October 1881 the 
first sod of the Grahamstown-Port Alfred railway was 
turned by Mr. J. X. Merriman, commissioner of crown 
lands and public works, but the line was only completed 
and opened for use early in 1885. The western line was 
completed to the Orange river at Hopetown, and was 

vol. 11. 14 

194 History of South Africa. [1884 

formally opened for use by Governor Sir Hercules 
Eobinson on the 12th of November 1884. Traffic to 
and from the diamond fields was greatly facilitated by 
the opening of this line. On the 16th of October 1883 
the midland line was opened to Colesberg. On the 15th 
of the same month the eastern line was opened to 
Sterkstroom, at the foot of the Stormberg range, but it 
had still to be carried by way of Bushman's Hoek up 
the steep escarpment to the high plateau above. This 
was an engineering performance only excelled in the 
Cape Colony by the road up the Hex river kloof on the 
western line, and the view from the top of the range 
over the country below is very extensive and at sunrise 
or sunset is especially fine. 

It required more than a year to construct the road to 
the plateau above Bushman's Hoek, but on the 19th of 
March 1885 the line was opened to Burghersdorp, and 
five months later, on the 19th of August, the first train 
reached Aliwal North, where the official opening took 
place on the 2nd of September. A connection between 
the western and midland lines was completed from De Aar 
to Nauwpoort in March 1884, and thereafter passengers 
could travel, though by this circuitous route, from Cape- 
town to Port Elizabeth or Grahamstown. At the end 
of 1884 there were in the Cape Colony one thousand 
three hundred and forty-five miles or two thousand one 
hundred and fifty kilometres of railway open for use. 

The rough labour in the construction of all these lines 
was performed by Bantu, who had now become quite 
expert in the use of the pick, shovel, and wheelbarrow, 
though they could not perform as much work in a given 
time as European navvies. They were thus receiving 
an excellent education in the first principle of civilisation, 
the value of labour. They were also making use of the 
railways for travelling, and thus learning the value of 
time. A great change was taking place in the social life 
of these people in the colony, the men were becoming 

1884] Progress of Railway Construction. 195 

accustomed to work and to regular habits, and the 
women were relieved from much of the drudgery of 
earlier times. 

The line from Wynberg to Kalk Bay had the effect 
of opening up the narrow strip of ground along the 
base of the Steenberg as the favourite summer holiday 
resort of the residents of the Cape peninsula. For more 
than half a century, or ever since retired Indian officials 
began to make Wynberg their place of residence, the 
coolness of the air in this locality even when the heat 
was too great to be pleasant in Capetown had attracted 
visitors, and a hotel known as Farmer Peck's at the 
base of the eastern end of the mountain was famed all 
over South Africa. Here, close to the old Dutch military 
post Muijsenburg, or in modern spelling Muizenburg, a 
large village with great hotels and lodging houses 
speedily sprang up, and all along the foot of the moun- 
tain to Kalk Bay handsome villas began to be built, 
where wealthy people lived for several months of the 
year. It was only six miles or ten kilometres from 
Kalk Bay station to Simonstown, and in course of time 
that also was bridged by the railway, to the great con- 
venience of the residents at the naval station and the 
officers and crews of the ships of war that frequented 
the bay. 

In 1881 parliament made provision for building a 
bridge over the Vaal river at Barkly West, to meet the 
requirements of the growing trade to Betshuanaland and 
the country farther north. 

There were now three thousand one hundred and 
forty miles or five thousand and twenty-four kilometres 
of telegraph open for use in the Cape Colony. 

Among other marks of improvement at this time may 
be mentioned the erection of a lighthouse on Cape St. 
Francis, with a revolving white light, first exhibited on 
the 4th of July 1878, the construction of a good road 
through Garcia's pass in the Langeberg, which was opened 

196 History of South Africa. [1884 

for traffic in November 1879, and the formation of the 
magisterial district of Aberdeen on the 26th of February 

The harbour works in Table Bay were being pushed 
on a3 rapidly as possible, but in 1878 the breakwater 
was still not sufficiently advanced to protect all the 
vessels at anchor from huge waves rolling in before north- 
west gales, and in July of that year five were driven 
ashore in a storm, when four lives were lost. At the 
same time two vessels were wrecked at Port Elizabeth. 
These were the last disasters arising from want of shelter 
in Table Bay, however, for during the next two years 
the breakwater was so far extended that any vessel could 
lie in perfect safety behind it. 

Occasionally vessels were wrecked on the South African 
coast, but as there were lighthouses on the most 
dangerous points along the southern shore, such terrible 
disasters as occurred in the olden times seldom took 
place. The year 1881 was an exceptionally unfortunate 
one in this respect. 

On the 31st of December 1880 the British barque 
Lancastria, that had anchored in the most exposed posi- 
tion in Table Bay, was driven from it by a violent gale 
from the south-east, and as no attempt was made to put 
to sea, which could have been done without the slightest 
difficulty, she was allowed to drift upon the coast a 
little north of Robben Island. There on the following day 
she became a complete wreck, and two lives were lost. 

On the 26th of July 1881 three vessels were driven 
ashore in a gale at East London, and became wrecks. 
Thirty men were drowned, and only one was saved. 

On the 28th of the same month the American ship 
Calcutta ran ashore at the mouth of the Xora, not far 
south of the Bashee river. There was a very heavy 
surf at the time, in which she was soon battered to 
pieces. Only three men managed to reach the shore 
alive, and thirteen were drowned. 

iSSi] Wreck of the Teuton. 197 

Sadder still was the loss of the Union Company's 
steamer Teuton. This fine ship left Hamburg on the 
20th of July and Southampton on the 5th of August 1881, 
with cargo and passengers for different South African 
ports. Having landed the passengers for Capetown and 
discharged some cargo there, on the 30th of August she 
left Table Bay with two hundred passengers for Port 
Elizabeth, East London, and Durban, among whom were 
several families of immigrants who intended to proceed 
from Port Elizabeth to the Knysna. Some hours later 
she struck on the outer end of the reef at Quoin Point, 
west of Cape Agulhas. She got off, but with a rent in 
her bow, through which the water poured faster than 
it could be pumped out. The ship was built with eight 
watertight compartments, and as only one of these was 
filling no immediate danger was apprehended, so she 
was put about and steered along the coast for Simon's 
Bay. The weather was fine, and the sea was perfectly 
smooth. For four hours all went well, but then the 
ship's bow sank so low that the screw was out of 
water, and she was motionless. The captain ordered 
the boats to be got out, but this was hardly commenced 
when the front bulkhead must have given way, for the 
ship suddenly plunged and went down. There were two 
hundred and sixty-two souls on board, and of these all 
but thirty-five men and one young girl were drowned. 

On the 16th of December the German barque Albatross 
was wrecked in Algoa Bay, happily without any loss of 

After the conclusion of the war with Morosi, when it 
was hoped that an era of peace had set in, immigration 
from Europe was resumed, but as yet only a few 
individuals had arrived from Great Britain. A larger 
number were received from Hamburg, who found no 
difficulty in obtaining what was to them a fairly 
comfortable living, with a good prospect of advancement 
in fortune at no distant time. 

198 History of South Africa. [1884 

It had been resolved to build handsome and com- 
modious houses of parliament in the lower part of the 
ground attached to government house in Capetown, 
opposite the public library, and a design having been 
approved of, on the 12th of May 1875 the foundation 
stone of the granite basement was laid with much 
ceremony by Governor Sir Henry Barkly in presence of 
a great concourse of people. The trowel which he used 
was made of South African gold and ivory. But the 
work had not proceeded very far when it was stopped 
through fear that it was not sufficiently firm, and it was 
not taken in hand again until 1880. It was intended to 
be the grandest building in South Africa, and therefore 
much time was needed for its construction. With the 
exception of the western wing, which was added in 
1909, it was completed by the end of 1884, and was first 
used when parliament met on the 15th of May 1885. 

Sir Hercules Kobinson was absent in Natal and the 
Transvaal from the 4th of May to the 24th of August 
1881, and during that time Lieutenant-General Sir 
Leicester Smyth, who was in chief command of the 
British troops in South Africa, acted as administrator, 
with the title of deputy for the governor. 

On the 30th of November 1881 Mr. Jan Hendrik 
Hofmeyr resigned as minister without portfolio, which 
was a serious loss to the party in power. He was not in 
full accord with his colleagues as to the policy to be carried 
out in Basutoland, but otherwise continued to support them. 

By this time the mail steamers arrived from England 
in Table Bay every week after a passage of between 
eighteen and nineteen days, and the intermediate ships 
of the same companies arrived just as regularly twenty- 
one days after leaving Southampton. In 1881 another 
company entered into competition for the cargo and 
passenger traffic to and from South Africa. This was 
the Clan line, which is still in existence, whose first 
steamer left England on the 1st of September 1881, 

1882] Recognition of the Dutch Language. 199 

On the 17th of March 1882 parliament was opened. 
According to the constitution English was the only 
language that could be used in debate, and this was 
naturally felt by the bulk of the country people as a 
grievance. They ceuld not know what was going on, 
they complained, as all the proceedings of the legislative 
bodies took place in a language that was foreign to 
them. This was not quite correct, because abstracts of 
the debates were published in the Dutch newspapers, 
still the grievance was real, for the home language of 
a majority of the civilised inhabitants of the colony was 
prohibited in public affairs. 

In the preceding year a good many petitions had been 
presented to the house of assembly in favour of per- 
mitting the use of Dutch, and the matter had been 
briefly discussed, but as the session was then drawing 
to a close, it did not come to a vote. During the recess 
much interest was taken throughout the colony in the 
movement, and so many petitions were signed and 
forwarded as soon as parliament met again, that it was 
certain a majority of the electors felt strongly on the 

On the 30th of March Mr. Hofmeyr moved in the 
house of assembly : " that in the opinion of this house 
it is desirable that the eighty-ninth section of the con- 
stitution ordinance be so amended as to allow members 
of parliament the optional use of the Dutch language in 
addressing either house of the legislature." This was 
carried by a large majority, so on the 17th of April the 
prime minister, Mr. Scanlen, who fully approved of it, 
brought in a bill to carry it into effect. On the 24th 
of April it was read the second time, on the 28th was 
passed through committee, and on the 1st of May was 
read the third time and finally passed. This was a 
simple act of justice, and as such merits commendation, 
but it cannot be said that the tone of debate in parlia- 
ment was improved by it. Members whose ordinary 

200 History of South Africa. [1884 

language was Dutch when they wished to make an 
impression on the house continued to speak in English, 
because nearly every one present was quite conversant 
with that language, while the majority of the English 
members understood no tongue but their own. 

The first member to take advantage of the new rule 
was Mr. J. C. Luttig, who represented Beaufort West 
in the house of assembly. On the 13th of June he 
expressed his gratification at being able to use his mother 
tongue in the house, but did not employ it further 
in debate. 

This was, however, only a beginning. It was followed 
in 1884 by legalising the use of Dutch in the courts of 
law and in public schools, and finally making it com- 
pulsory on most of the members of the civil service to 
understand and speak both the languages in general use 
in the country. 

In the session of 1882 an act was passed giving two 
additional members to the electoral division of Kimberley, 
thus bringing the whole number in the house of assembly 
up to seventy-four. 

On the 1st of July 1882 Mr. Molteno resigned as 
colonial secretary, in order to be able to spend the 
evening of his life in peaceful retirement. This necessi- 
tated changes in the ministry, so Mr. Scanlen took the 
vacant office, and Advocate James Weston Leonard 
became attorney-general. 

At this time the dreaded disease small-pox made its 
appearance in Capetown, where on the 26th of June 1882 
two cases were discovered in one of the poorest streets. 
It was never ascertained to a certainty how it originated 
or was brought there. All possible precautions were at 
once taken, and every one who was known to have been 
in contact with the persons affected was isolated on 
Paarden Island near the mouth of Salt River, but the 
disease rapidly spread. In August it appeared in the 
suburbs, and in September four hundred and thirty-five 

1882] Outbreak of Small-pox. 201 

individuals died from it in the city alone. The Moham- 
edans who on religious grounds refused to be vaccinated 
and who persisted in carrying their dead uncoffined to 
the cemeteries, were the principal sufferers. The light 
brown Javanese, or Malays as they were commonly 
termed, almost entirely disappeared, and they have never 
since recovered anything like their former strength. 
There are many Mohamedans in the Cape peninsula still, 
the men can be distinguished at once by the red fez 
on their heads, but most of them are recent immigrants, 
and the gorgeously dressed women and the men in 
turbans and heavy conical head coverings like parasols 
with the rim turned out, so common in the olden 
times, are hardly ever seen now. The small-pox in 1882 
practically exterminated them. 

When the warm weather set in the disease abated, and 
by the middle of November it was supposed to have died 
out in the town, where one thousand one hundred and 
forty-six individuals had died from it, but it still lingered 
in the suburbs, and as soon as the hot weather was over 
it broke out at Kimberley. There, with blacks constantly 
coming and going, it was most difficult to deal with, 
though they wilHngly submitted to be vaccinated. After 
some months it was believed to have subsided, but in the 
winter of 1884 it appeared again at Dutoitspan, and on 
this occasion spread to the Barolong tribe in the Orange 
Free State and to Basutoland. It caused the death of 
many Bantu at these places — the exact number is unknown 
— but at length it was overcome or died out. 

In the session of the Cape parliament, 27th of June to 
the 28th of September 1883, a very useful act was passed 
for the establishment of post office savings banks through- 
out the colony. 

Mr. Saul Solomon, whose health had completely broken 
down, was much missed in the house of assembly, where 
he had been regarded by friend and opponent alike as the 
ablest debater since the retirement of Mr. William Porter. 

202 History of South Africa. [1884 

He went to England in hope of regaining some strength, 
but was unsuccessful, and lingered on in debility until the 
16th of October 1892, when he died at Bedford. He was 
the most conspicuous example that South Africa has yet 
known of what a powerful and healthy mind can do to 
overcome defects of the body. Another man, whose name 
was destined to be more widely known than Mr. Solomon's, 
was now becoming prominent. This was Mr. Cecil John 
Rhodes, who afterwards proved himself capable of under- 
taking gigantic enterprises of different kinds and carrying 
them all successfully through. On the 20th of March 1884 
he became treasurer of the colony, the honourable C. "W. 
Hutton having lost his seat in the recent election. 

On the 31st of December 1883 there was a faction fight 
with pick handles between Zulu and Fingo labourers on 
the railway works at De Aar, in which about a thousand 
men were engaged. Quarrels of this kind were common 
between members of different tribes, but none on such a 
large scale had occurred before at a distance from their 
homes. Fifty-six men were killed, and many more were 
wounded. As it was feared that the quarrel might be 
renewed, a strong volunteer force was sent from Capetown 
to restore order, but upon its arrival at De Aar everything 
was found perfectly quiet, and the workmen were hardly 
troubling themselves about the recent fray. To them it 
seemed to be a not very objectionable mode of celebrating 
a holiday. 

On the 10th of January 1884 there was an explosion of 
thirty-three tons of dynamite and a large quantity of gun- 
powder at Kimberley. This was sufficient to have destroyed 
the town if the locality of the explosion had been slightly 
different, but fortunately surprisingly little damage was 
done by it. 

The session of parliament, 2nd of May to the 19th of 
July 1884, was an eventful one. A project of the ministers 
to transfer to the imperial government the whole of the 
Transkeian territories, to be added to Basutoland and 

1884] Retirement of the Scanlen Ministry. 203 

thereafter form a dependency on a small scale like India, 
was exceedingly unpopular, and everyone knew that upon 
its introduction in the house of assembly the position of 
the ministry would be precarious. It was admitted by 
everyone that the scheme would relieve the colony of 
responsibility as well as of a heavy burden, but it would 
practically be an admission that the colonists were either 
unfit or too weak to manage their own affairs. That was 
the real cause of the falling off of support to Mr. Scanlen, 
though as it never came before parliament, it was not the 
ostensible cause of his resignation. 

In the alarm caused by the danger of phylloxera de- 
stroying all the vineyards in the colony, in 1881 a proclama- 
tion had been issued by the governor prohibiting the 
importation of any plants, roots, or tubers whatever. It 
was still hoped that by this means and the complete 
destruction of all the vines known to be affected, the 
plague might be stamped out. Mr. Scanlen, however, was 
of opinion that certain plants could be imported with due 
precautions, without danger of their introducing phylloxera, 
and before parliament met at his instance the governor 
issued a proclamation to that effect. As soon as the session 
was opened this matter came on for discussion. Most of 
the members spoke in favour of the retention in full 
force of the proclamation of 1881, and though Mr. Scanlen 
proposed to suspend the operation of the recent procla- 
mation until the house had an opportunity of expressing 
a judgment upon such measures as might be necessary 
for protecting the interests of the country, he found only 
ten supporters, while forty-seven opposed him. He accepted 
this as a vote of want of confidence, and on the 7th of 
May tendered his resignation. 

The governor then invited Mr. Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr, 
" onze (our) Jan," as he was commonly called, the man of 
greatest influence in the assembly at the time, to form a 
ministry, but he declined to do so. He realised that to 
retain the confidence and the affection of his countrymen, 

204 History of South Africa. [1884 

he must not openly assume such a prominent position, 
that the proper course for him to pursue was to avoid 
the responsibility of power while actually exercising it. 
No cabinet could exist for a week without his support 
while parliament was in session, and therefore he would 
be as much master of the situation out of office as in it. 

The governor then turned to Advocate Thomas Upington, 
who had been a member of Mr. Sprigg's ministry. He 
accepted the invitation, and took office as premier and 
attorney-general, with Mr. Jonathan Ayliff* as colonial 
secretary, Mr. John Gordon Sprigg as treasurer, Mr. 
Frederick Shermbrucker as commissioner of crown lands 
and public works, and Mr. Jacobus Albertus de Wet as 
secretary for native affairs. On the 13th of May 1884 the 
new ministers took the oath of office, and commenced duty. 

Under these circumstances, not much business of im- 
portance was transacted during this session. The rivalry 
of Natal for the trade of the eastern portion of the Orange 
Free State, however, caused an act to be passed granting 
to importers in that republic a rebate on goods passing 
through the custom houses of the Cape Colony and 
forwarded in unbroken packages by the railways towards 
the interior as far as they extended. 

In all parts of the colony improvements were now being 
made more rapidly than at any former period. In Cape- 
town this was especially noticeable, though the city still 
remained very far short of what it is at the present day. 
In July 1881 the Molteno reservoir was opened, which it 
had been fondly hoped would have stored a sufficient 
supply of water for many years to come, allowing for a 
progressive increase in the population. It had cost £60,000 
and had taken four years to construct. But it proved to 
be faulty, and though engineering skill and large sums 
of money have since been expended in improving it, it has 

* After holding office a short time Mr. AylifTs health broke down so 
completely that he was obliged to resign, and on the 4th of March 
1895 he was succeeded by Mr. John Tudhope, 

1884] Improvements in Capetown. 205 

never fully realised the expectations originally held re- 
garding it. On the 12th of October 1881 the railway 
station] in Adderley street was for the first time lit by 
electricity, which answered so well that it was soon 
generally adopted. On the 25th of April 1882 the docks 
were for the first time made as easy to work in by night 
as by day by the brilliant electric light. 

On the 20th of October 1882 the graving dock was 
formally opened for use by the governor with the ceremony 
usual on such an occasion. The Union Company's 
steamer Athenian, one of the largest in their fleet, which 
needed some repairs, entered it during the ceremony. On 
the 17th of March 1883 the Standard Bank building in 
Adderley street was opened for use. Though it is now 
dwarfed in height by the General Post Office on one side 
and Cartwright's Mansion House on the other, in 1883 
it was a very prominent building, and was the largest 
and finest structure used for banking in South Africa. 

It became necessary to close the cemeteries on the 
eastern side of Somerset road, which had been in use 
since 1755, and consequently were filled with the dead. 
The city had extended beyond them, so that they could 
not be enlarged, even if the site had not been objectionable 
for sanitary reasons. There was much discussion as to 
the best place for new graveyards, but at length a large 
tract of open ground at Maitland was selected, and after 
several extensions of time, to enable the new site to be 
properly prepared, on the 15th of January 1886 the 
Somerset road cemeteries were finally closed. 

In November 1884 a commencement was made with 
laying down a cable in the Atlantic to connect South 
Africa with England, thus giving an alternative line of 
communication to that along the eastern coast. 

In September 1884 an industrial exhibition was opened 
in Capetown, but it was more a display of what might 
be done than of what really is done in South Africa. 
For instance, a piano made in the Free State was 

206 History of South Africa. [1884 

exhibited, and diamond cutting was carried on to show 
the process. Still there were some good displays of 
colonial produce, and the exhibition on the whole was 
made so attractive that a large number of people from the 
country visited it. It was closed on the 13th of October. 

In England, where the people, though of mixed blood, 
have been blended into one nationality and all speak the 
same language, political party associations are useful to 
keep each other in check and to cause emulation in the 
general welfare of the country. But it is different in the 
Cape Colony, where the Europeans are of two nationalities, 
speaking different languages, and where conciliation on 
both sides is needed to prevent political discord and strife. 
By the majority of the English people at this time the 
Afrikander Bond was accused of keeping sores open by 
its championship of the interests of the Dutch-speaking 
inhabitants, and now, in September 1884, an association 
termed the Empire League was formed in Capetown 
purposely to oppose it. Occurrences then taking place in 
Betshuanaland had much to do with its origin, for national 
feeling was so strongly excited that men of extreme views 
lost the power of keeping calm. But the Empire League 
did not have a long life. As soon as passion cooled, 
people began to reflect that such an association was only 
provoking redoubled exertion on the part of the Bond 
and widening the chasm between the two sections of the 
community, so its most sensible members withdrew their 
support, and the others, finding it impossible to maintain 
it with any pretension to dignity or influence, allowed it 
to disappear. 

On the 10th of August 1883 the death took place in 
England of the venerable Dr. Bobert Moffat, the translator 
of the bible into Setshuana, who laboured in South Africa 
from 1817 to 1870 as a missionary of the London society, 
the greater part of that time at Kuruman. He had 
attained the age of nearly eighty-eight years. In this 
country he was known for devotion to his duty and 

1884J Death of Mr. Robert Godlonton. 207 

freedom from those strong national prejudices which were 
characteristic of many of the early missionaries of the 
London society. Abroad his name was familiar through 
his interesting and useful book Missionary Labours and 
Scenes in Southern Africa, which was published in London 
in 1842, and is a standard work of reference upon the 
first missions to the Betshuana tribes and the condition of 
those people at the time. 

Another man who was deservedly held in esteem 
throughout South Africa, the honourable Eobert Godlonton, 
was in his ninetieth year when he died on the 30th of 
May 1884. Mr. Godlonton was one of the British settlers 
of 1820, and made Grahamstown his home from that time 
onward. He was called the father of the press in the 
eastern province, for he was the proprietor and editor of 
the Grahamstown Journal and was part proprietor of 
newspapers in Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein, King- 
Williamstown, and Queenstown. Long a member of the 
legislative council, he was known as holding strong eastern 
views, but as being scrupulously fair to those who opposed 
him. Seven different volumes or thick pamphlets, most 
of them relating to the Kaffir wars or the struggles of the 
British settlers, were written by him and published at 
different times. 



END OF 1884. 

Sir Henry Bulwer retired from the lieutenant-governor- 
ship of Natal on the 20th of April 1880, and for a few 
days Lieutenant-Colonel William Bellairs acted as ad- 
ministrator. On the 5th of May Major-General H. H. 
Clifford took over the duty, and carried on the govern- 
ment until the 2nd of July, when Major-General Sir 
George Pomeroy Colley arrived and took the oaths of 
office as governor of Natal and high commissioner for 
South-E astern Africa. He was also commander-in-chief 
of her Majesty's forces in the country. 

In the legislative council in February 1880 an address 
to the crown had been moved praying for the grant of 
responsible government. All of the elected members 
present and four of the nominee members voted in 
favour of the measure, so that it was carried by fifteen 
votes to nine. In September the nominee members who 
had been added to the council five years before would 
lose their seats, and it was hoped that responsible govern- 
ment might then be introduced. But the English ministry 
did not think it prudent to favour the request, and the 
only change that took place was the restoration of the 
council to its condition before 1875. In December 1880 
the council agreed to refund to the British treasury 
j£250,000 on account of the cost of the Zulu war. 

In this colony there were now railway lines in working 
order, from Durban to Verulam, nineteen miles or thirty 
kilometres in length, opened for traffic on the 1st of 


1880] Events in Natal. 209 

September 1879, a branch from the main line five miles 
or eight kilometres from Durban, to Isipingo, six miles 
or nearly ten kilometres in length, opened for traffic on 
the 21st of February 1880, and from Durban to Maritz- 
burg, seventy-one miles or nearly one hundred and four- 
teen kilometres in length, completed and opened for 
use on the 1st of December 1880. 

European immigrants in larger numbers than before 
the Zulu war were being brought into the country through 
the agency of the land and immigration board, under 
a system by which residents could nominate individuals 
in Great Britain on guaranteeing their employment 
after arrival. When opening the legislative council on 
the 21st of October 1880, the governor was able to state 
that seven hundred and thirty-four had already arrived 
in that year, as compared with two hundred and eighty- 
seven in 1879. Among them was a party of twenty-three 
families, numbering about one hundred and fifty souls, 
who were brought out under special arrangements, and 
in July 1880 were located on a farm named Wilgefontein, 
about five miles or eight kilometres from Maritzburg. 
These people had been carefully selected in England, and 
each head of a family had at least ,£100 in money. The 
farm was divided into plots of forty to one hundred and 
sixty acres in size, and according to the quality of the 
ground these plots were assigned to the immigrants at 
charges of £60 to £328 each. The distribution was made 
by lot. The government defrayed the cost of the passage 
of the immigrants from their former homes to the ground 
they were to occupy, and they were then left to provide 
for themselves. 

At the same time a larger number of Indians than of 
Europeans were being introduced as labourers, and very 
few of them availed themselves of the right to a return 
passage to the country of their birth upon the expiration 
of their term of service. They were thus added to the 
permanent inhabitants of Natal. 

vol. 11. 15 

210 History of South Africa. [1882 

Sir George Colley was killed on the 27th of February 
1881, and Brigadier- General Sir Evelyn Wood, the 
military officer next in rank, who had only arrived at 
Durban sixteen days before, then became acting adminis- 
trator of Natal. During his absence on duty connected 
with the Transvaal and Zululand from the 3rd of April to 
the 9th of August Lieutenant-Colonel F. Redvers Buller 
filled the position. On the 22nd of December 1881 Sir 
Evelyn Wood left to return to England, when Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell, the colonial 
secretary, became acting administrator. 

Now that peace was supposed to have been restored in 
the Transvaal and Zululand, the imperial authorities con- 
sidered it unnecessary to send out a man of high rank to 
carry on the government of Natal, especially as the salary 
attached to the office was then only £2,500 a year. On 
the 17th of November 1881 Mr. Sendall, an able and 
deserving official, but who had never filled a position of 
much importance, was appointed lieutenant-governor. As 
soon as this became known, there was a general outburst 
of indignation throughout the colony. To be reduced to 
the level of a petty West Indian island was something 
that wounded the pride of the people, who regarded them- 
selves as the most enterprising community in South Africa, 
and before whose eyes was constantly floating the prospect 
of a brilliant position in the future. The legislative 
council, which was then in session, reflected the senti- 
ments of the people. It resolved to provide a salary of 
£4,000 a year if a man with experience and suitable 
status should be appointed governor. The imperial 
authorities then gave way. Mr. Sendall was provided for 
in a different manner, and Sir Henry Ernest Bulwer was 
sent out with the full rank of governor. On the 6th of 
March 1882 he arrived and took the oaths of office, to the 
great satisfaction of the colonists. 

Almost the first act of Sir Henry Bulwer (10th of March 
1882) was to dissolve the legislative council, in order that 

1 882] Events in Natal. 211 

the electors might decide upon the question of responsible 
government. The colonists had represented that Natal was 
the only community in South Africa that did not enjoy self 
rule, and Earl Kimberley in reply had offered to grant 
them the privilege, provided they were prepared to under- 
take their own defence completely. They had hoped that 
Great Britain would preserve order in Zululand, and that 
a considerable number of the Bantu refugees south of the 
Tugela would return to that country again, as soon as 
they were assured of the safety of their lives and property. 
But they had been sadly disappointed, for Great Britain 
declined to interfere in any way beyond the Zulu reserve, 
and there was no exodus of blacks from Natal. All was 
confusion and strife in Northern Zululand, and at any 
time bands of fugitives might cross the border. This 
circumstance was the determining factor in the elections 
of 1882. The people realised that it would be impossible 
for them unaided to defend the colony, and that European 
immigration which was so desirable and necessary for its 
advancement would cease if they were left to protect 
themselves, so the majority voted against the introduction 
of responsible government. 

On the 8th of June the newly elected legislative council 
met. It decided that the colony with its small European 
population was not ripe for self government, if that 
implied its own entire protection, but it resolved to 
enlarge the franchise, to increase the number of members, 
and to request the imperial government to continue to 
maintain a strong garrison. There were then two 
battalions of infantry, the forty-first and the fifty-eighth, 
and one of cavalry, the sixth Inniskilling dragoons, in 
Natal and the Zulu reserve. 

The Franchise Amendment Act which was then passed 
gave the right to vote to lodgers resident three years in 
the colony and earning £8 a month. 

The Constitution Amendment Act provided that the 
legislative council should consist of thirty members, of 

212 History of South Africa. [1882 

whom twenty-three were to be elected, five were to be the 
official heads of departments, and two to be nominated 
by the governor from colonists of standing possessing land 
worth ;£1,000. The counties of Pietermaritzburg and 
Victoria and the boroughs of Pietermaritzburg and Durban 
were each to return three members, the counties of Klip 
River, Weenen, Umvoti, and Durban, and the division of 
Newcastle were each to return two members, and the 
united counties of Alexandra and Alfred were to return one 

Having passed these acts, on the 25th of August the 
legislative council was prorogued. 

The acts were reserved by the governor for the approval 
of her Majesty the queen, which was given on the 14th 
of February 1883, when they became of force. 

In order that members might be simultaneously elected 
under the new law, on the 3rd of April 1883 the council 
was dissolved, having held only one session. The elections 
then took place, the two new nominee members, who were 
chosen on account of their knowledge of Bantu customs 
and the interest they were known to take in the welfare 
of the black people, were appointed, and on the 5th of 
July 1883 the enlarged council met for the first time. 
It continued in session until the 24th of October, but 
passed no acts needing special notice. 

Of the different peoples of Europe none are more 
adapted to succeed in British colonies than the Scandi- 
navians, and none become more quickly assimilated. It 
was therefore with much satisfaction that among the 
immigrants of 1882 thirty-six families of Norwegians were 
received in Natal. They arrived in August of this year, 
and had plots of ground assigned to them at Marburg in 
Alfred county. 

The extension of the railway to the interior to facilitate 
trade with the two republics now occupied more of the 
attention of the colonists than political questions. Early 
in 1882, before the arrival of Sir Henry Bulwer, the 

1884] Events in Natal. 213 

council accepted a tender of Mr. James Perry, of London, 
for the construction of a line from Maritzburg to Lady- 
smith, and surveys were being made to ascertain the best 
way to get to the top of the Drakensberg. 

To ascertain what could be done to promote friendly 
relations between Natal and the Orange Free State it 
was arranged by the two governments that a conference 
should take place at Harrismith. As representatives of 
Natal Messrs. J. W. Ackerman, H. Escombe, and T. C. 
Crowley were appointed, and as representatives of the 
Free State three members of the volksraad. On the 31st 
of March 1884 the conference opened, and during four 
days matters of various tendencies were discussed. This 
led afterwards to arrangements mutually beneficial for the 
construction of a railroad to Harrismith, the payment to 
the Free State government of a share of the customs 
duties on goods passing through Natal, and other matters, 
but nothing binding was immediately effected, as the 
conference was purely consultative. 

On the 2nd of January 1884 the largest local industrial 
exhibition that had then been held in Natal was opened 
in Durban by Governor Sir Henry Bulwer. The show 
of horses, cattle of different breeds, sheep, pigs, dairy 
produce, bacon, and poultry was excellent, and was a 
proof that all kinds of animals could be reared in the 
colony to perfection. The variety of vegetables and fruit 
and the quality of these productions could not be excelled 
in any part of the world. As for flowers, the show was 
like a glimpse of fairyland, so beautiful and so varied in 
colour were they. Tobacco in leaf and manufactured, 
superior in flavour to any but the very best imported, was 
to be seen, preserved fruits, jams, marmalade, pickles, 
preserved ginger, arrowroot, and much besides attested 
that only European immigrants, with a moderate amount 
of capital, skill, and energy would be needed to make 
this fair land with its healthy climate and productive soil 
one of the most thriving of the British overseas posses- 

214 History of South Africa. [1884 

sions. Sugar and treacle were there, and also tea, then 
coming into prominence through the exertions of Mr. J. 
Liege Hulett. 

Another article that has since risen to be one of the 
chief assets of Natal was coal, of which some excellent 
specimens were exhibited. Already it was beginning to 
be recognised that when the railway was open to the 
coal fields and the harbour was made capable of admitting 
ocean steamships, a great and lucrative industry must 
come into being, by extracting, forwarding, and supplying 
fuel. And both railway and harbour works were then 
advancing towards completion, so surely the prospects of 
Natal were bright. 

Of course there were drawbacks, for neither animal nor 
plant life is immune from disease, and the skill of 
civilised man is needed to combat the various plagues 
that from time to time make their appearance. In a 
genial climate insect life in countless variety abounds, 
such as is unknown in countries where for months 
together every year the land is frozen hard or is covered 
with snow. Between insects and man there is perpetual 
war, for they are always busy destroying the fruits of his 
industry. Eemedies are ultimately discovered, but it 
sometimes happens that a pest will cause enormous 
damage while the necessary investigations into its mode 
of existence are being made. Thus cotton and coffee, 
once so promising, had disappeared from being productions 
of Natal. And in 1884 redwater had already created havoc 
with the horned cattle in this colony, and was then 
sweeping off the herds in Kaffraria and causing wide- 
spread alarm in the eastern districts of the Cape Colony. 

In the session of the legislative council, 12th of June 
to the 26th of September 1884, the question of responsible 
government was again discussed, when the conclusion 
arrived at was to endeavour to obtain as large a measure 
of self rule as possible while preserving the benefit of 
military protection by Great Britain. 

1884] Events in Natal. 215 

Any old resident absent from Natal for a few years and 
then returning would at once be struck by the great 
improvements recently made, especially in Durban. On 
landing at the Point he would notice that the shifting 
sand hills once to be seen there had been removed, that 
the ground had been levelled (in 1882), and many build- 
ings erected on it. He would be conveyed to the town 
on a tram line, opened for use on the 7th of March 
1881. On his arrival there he would find that the 
principal streets, once bare sand through which wheel 
vehicles were drawn with difficulty, had been hardened and 
provided with paved sidewalks as neat and smooth as 
Begent street in London. He would see the handsomest 
public building in all South Africa, with the single excep- 
tion of the houses of parliament in Capetown, the town 
hall, of which the foundation stone was laid with due 
ceremony by Governor Sir Henry Bulwer on the 1st of 
February 1883, and which cost £49,063 when completed, 
so nearly ready for use that it was opened on the 28th 
of October 1885 by the same governor with much festivity. 
On all sides he would observe churches and offices and 
stores and shops that he had no remembrance of, and on 
the Berea his eyes would rest on handsome villas in 
gardens with flowering shrubs more beautiful than any in 
the foreign lands he had visited. He would see too a 
vacant space, soon, however, to be covered with finer 
buildings than before, where in the evening of the 4th of 
September 1884 a fire took place which destroyed property 
valued at £50,000. The fire originated in the back 
premises of Messrs. Adler Brothers between Smith and 
"West streets, and destroyed the Durban Institutes, Mr. 
Escombe's buildings, and several others. Fortunately the 
evening was calm, or the damage would have been greater 

Very old residents would remember that when Durban 
was founded the Bluff was occupied by a remnant of 
the Amatuli that had managed to live in concealment 

216 History of South Africa. [1884 

there during the general destruction of the Natal tribes in 
the wars of Tshaka. In 1852 Umnini, its chief, consented 
to its removal to a location on the bank of the Ilovo, 
where it would be freer and less exposed to fall into 
bad habits than in a suburb of a European town, and 
there in March 1883 he died. 

In Maritzburg the improvements were not so prominent 
as in Durban, still they were constantly being made. On 
the 29th of July 1881 the waterworks there were opened 
for use. On the 11th of October 1883 a monument to 
the memory of the men who fell in the Zulu war was 
unveiled in this town by Sir Henry Bulwer. 

On the 21st of April 1881 Mr. Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof, 
one of the pioneer emigrants from the Cape Colony, 
from whose communications to the newspapers much 
information concerning early events in Natal can be 
obtained, died at Maritzburg. He had once been a man 
of great influence with the emigrants, and had been the 
second president of the Orange Free State, but when he 
resigned that position and accepted office under the 
British government in Natal, the ties of sympathy between 
them and him were weakened, and he soon came to be 
almost forgotten in the two republics. There is no reason 
to believe, however, that his affection for his country 
and his people had ceased, only he had come to believe 
that they needed a stronger government than they could 
establish of themselves. 

On the 20th of June 1883 the right reverend Dr. 
John William Colenso, bishop of Natal, died at his 
residence Bishopstowe, about eight miles or thirteen kilo- 
metres east of Maritzburg. He had done more than 
any other man of his time to bring Natal prominently 
before the English-speaking people throughout the world, 
for everywhere the controversy created by his writings 
and the events that followed it were matters of intense 
interest. Perhaps a more conscientious man never lived, 
certainly a more fearless one when maintaining what he 

i38 4 ] Events in Natal. 2iy 

believed to be right never did. For public opinion he 
cared nothing, when opposed by nearly every other 
Christian clergyman in Natal in the matter of Langa- 
libalele he continued on his course of action without 
the slightest deviation. His championship of the Bantu 
whether they were right or wrong arose from his feeling 
that they needed protection, as they were unable to 
defend themselves. To him it was advocating the cause 
of the helpless weak against the arrogant action of the 
strong, surely a noble motive of conduct. But his 
judgment in this respect was not always correct, and 
indeed want of judgment was his weakest point. Before 
his eyes in many a Bantu kraal an increase of popu- 
lation was going on equal to that which he pronounced 
to be impossible in the case of the Israelites in Egypt, 
and he did not see it. His industry was ceaseless, and 
the quantity of manuscript that he prepared was almost 
marvellous. His venerable figure was much missed by 
the Europeans in Natal, and more so by the Bantu 
there and in Zululand, who held him in the highest 

Little more than a year passed away after his death 
when Bishopstowe — Ekukanyeni, the abode of light, as it 
was called in the Zulu tongue — was destroyed by fire. 
On the 2nd of September 1884 during a violent gale a 
veld fire swept everything before it, and hurled burning 
grass upon the thatched buildings of Bishopstowe, which 
were at once alight. The inmates escaped with their 
lives, but hardly anything could be saved. 

The Bantu population of Natal had now been for half 
a century in contact with European civilisation, and 
during a large portion of that time Christian missionaries 
had been labouring among them, while their intertribal 
feuds were not permitted to lead to slaughter, and loss 
of life on charges of dealing in witchcraft was almost 
suppressed. It was only when supposed wizards or 
witches were quietly done away with that people now 

2i8 History of South Africa. t l88 4 

perished for this imaginary offence. The ancient checks 
upon rapid increase of population were thus removed, and 
as the customs and habits of these people were not other- 
wise interfered with, they lived in Natal in what was 
to them the nearest approach to an earthly paradise to 
be found in any part of South Africa. It is therefore 
important to know what effect this condition of things 
had upon the Bantu, and to learn what progress towards 
civilisation they were making under it. 

If happiness is the standard to measure by, they 
ought according to our ideas to have been happier in 
1884 than they were at a time when they were constantly 
at war and life was never safe for a single day. If one 
had asked them they would unhesitatingly have said that 
it was better to have plenty to eat and to sleep in 
safety than to be hungry and always watchful against 
a foe. And yet at the bottom of their hearts the great 
majority of them were discontented, and spoke among 
themselves of the pleasant times of their ancestors, not 
of their own. It may be that the monotony of existence 
under the British peace palled upon them, that they 
needed some occasional excitement to make them realise 
their advantages at the time. Or was it that in common 
with human beings everywhere, they could never be 
fully satisfied, and as they were not given to speculate 
upon the future, reflected only upon the enjoyments of 
the past and forgot its sorrows? 

Their wants were few compared with those of Europeans, 
and with very little exertion they could obtain everything 
they required. That was the real reason why they would 
not work steadily, why the Europeans were obliged to 
go to India for labourers while many thousands of stalwart 
men were living in perfect idleness close by. The black 
man could work, and work hard, when he had an object 
in view in doing so, but he was not inclined to exert 
himself from mere distaste for repose. Why should he? 
The European, whose ancestors for countless generations 

1884] Condition of the Bantu tn Natal. 219 

have lived in a cold climate, and who have been com- 
pelled to toil or perish, has inherited a stock of energy 
that makes idleness wearisome to him, but the black man's 
progenitors always lived in a sunny land, where clothing 
was not needed and where the necessaries for existence 
were easily obtained. This reasoning, however, must not 
be carried too far, for from his mother he inherited strong 
muscles and sinews, since from the most remote times 
the African woman was a drudge. It was more from 
tradition and custom that the men were led to believe 
they were born to be warriors and herdsmen, and from 
the absence of any stimulus to labour, that the Bantu 
in Natal were as a rule unwilling to take service with 
the Europeans. 

From the time of the first appearance of white traders 
in the country the black man saw the advantage of 
having an iron pot, a steel axe, and a tinder box, and 
to get possession of these he was willing to work for a 
few days. His vanity also induced him to exert himself 
to obtain brass wire and flat copper bars to make arm- 
lets of, and beads to decorate his person. It was only 
gradually that his wants extended. To become the 
possessor of a gun, the symbol of manhood, became the 
greatest inducement to labour yet known, and after it 
was obtained a saddle and bridle and a plough came 
to be desired. The wants of the Bantu now increased 
fast. Woollen blankets began to take the place of fur 
karosses, and European clothing began to be worn. This 
was the stage at which the Bantu of Natal generally 
speaking had arrived in 1884. Though many of their 
cattle had died from redwater, their losses had not then 
had much effect upon them. The almost complete 
destruction of their herds from rinderpest and east coast 
fever, which since that date has operated powerfully in 
forcing them to change the whole course of their lives, 
was still in the future. There was still amasi (fermented 
milk) in all the kraals, and in the evenings the men 

220 History of South Africa. [1884 

were still to be seen milking their cows, drawing off the 
contents of their milk bags for consumption, and re- 
plenishing them with that just taken from the animals. 

The governor, in his capacity as supreme chief, exercised 
the right of calling out as many men as were needed at 
any time to make or repair roads, or perform any other 
public work of a simple kind. This was done through 
the agency of the chiefs, each of whom was called 
upon to furnish a certain number of men at a specified 
rate of pay, which was always low. The principle of 
this custom was never objected to, because it was a 
recognised right of every chief to require his followers 
to work for him without other payment than their food 
— in some cases not even that — and the only grievance 
complained of in this system was that some of the chiefs 
used it to oppress men who were not in their favour 
by calling them out time after time, and allowing 
others to escape altogether. The governors made it a rule 
not to require more than one man out of seven in a 
clan to do public work at the same time, and left it to 
the local chiefs to make the selection. 

There was not now much difficulty in getting men to 
work, even for several months together, when they could 
associate in large numbers, such as in the construction 
of railroads. Young men who possessed few or no cattle 
had found out that in this way they could obtain the 
means to get wives, a discovery to them of much impor- 
tance. Still there was a disinclination to take service with 
individuals, where companionship with their fellows was 
wanting, and where the wages offered were in general 
low. There was an exception to this rule in the case 
of houseboys, a form of service that seemed to have an 
attraction for big lads, and in many European families 
they were the only servants obtainable. They performed 
the ordinary duties of housemaids, and fairly chuckled 
over such work as dusting a room or making a bed, 
which appealed to the comic side of their nature. Attired 

1884] Condition of the Bantu in Natal. 221 

in their employers' cast-off clothing, they soon learned 
to do plain cooking, and made careful nurses for young 

There had been a good many converts to Christianity, 
though upon the great mass of the people the influence 
of the missionaries had not made itself deeply felt. They 
were somewhat bewildered by the great variety of form 
in which the white man's religion was put before them. 
There were presbyterian, independent, English episcopal, 
Wesleyan, Lutheran, and Roman catholic missionaries 
working among them, who came from England, Scotland, 
America, Germany, and Scandinavia. Probably if an 
equal number of men of any one of these communions 
had worked there alone the effect would have been 
much greater. The Americans were longest in the field, 
and the Roman catholics were the latest to arrive, 
though the great industrial mission conducted by the 
Trappists from Germany was on such a scale that it 
bade fair to have a greater effect upon the people than 
any of the others. 

There were thoroughly good trustworthy men among 
the converts, and they lived as far as possible after 
the manner of Europeans, but with some of them — if not 
with all — the new religion was only a graft upon the 
old, which was not entirely displaced. Ancestral spirits 
still hovered over the professors of the new faith, and 
there can be little doubt that if European influence should 
be withdrawn, the form of Christianity that would be 
evolved would differ considerably from that professed by any 
white community. And still the bible might be retained, 
and appealed to as an unerring guide. This is a delicate 
subject to write of, and most of the missionaries will 
very likely disagree with what is here stated, but the 
author of this volume relies on his own experience. 

In the numerous mission schools the children were 
receiving instruction from books, and were learning habits 
of order and neatness as well as the principles of the 

222 History of South Africa. [1884 

Christian faith. The hopes for the future advancement 
of the people in civilisation rested more upon such children 
than upon the conversion of adults, though these were 
not neglected. 

The Bantu were governed according to their own 
customs, which had been codified as laws, but provision 
was made for those among them who were desirous of 
coming under the colonial law to do so. They were 
obliged to undergo a long probation, and to go through 
certain forms, after which their names were published 
in the Government Gazette, when they became subject to 
European law alone. A considerable number availed them- 
selves of this right, which proved they were in down- 
right earnest in trying to become civilised, for their 
freedom was much restricted by the change. For instance, 
they could have as many wives as they chose under 
Bantu law, and the inheritance of their children was 
regulated according to their ancient custom; but as soon 
as their names were gazetted they could be severely 
punished for bigamy, and though they could bequeath 
their property as they chose, if they died intestate their 
daughters shared equally with their sons. This did not 
entitle them to the franchise, even if they possessed the 
property qualification, but under very strict conditions a 
select few could obtain even that. So severe were the 
conditions, however, that before 1891 only three Bantu 
had acquired that doubtful privilege in Natal. 

There was a court of appeal from the decisions of the 
ordinary magistrates who heard cases between Bantu in 
the first instance, which was presided over by an official 
possessing not only an intimate acquaintance with the 
language, but with the way of thinking and with the 
whole manner of life of the black people. It was called 
the Native High Court, and on the 5th of January 1884 
Mr. John Wesley Stepstone became judge in it. 

Thoughtful men were beginning to enquire what the 
future relationship of the two races to each other ought 

1874] Events in the Orange Free State. 223 

to be. It was evident that at the rate of increase of the 
Bantu at that time, at no very distant date the Europeans 
would be crowded out of much of the land then 
possessed by them ; but as nothing was devised to 
prevent this occurrence, it would be out of place to 
refer to it further here. 

On the 16th of June 1873 President Brand, having 
recovered from his very serious illness, resumed duty as 
head of the Orange Free State, to the great satisfaction 
of the people. In the following November he was 
elected again as president, without opposition, and on 
the 5th of May 1874 took the oaths and entered upon 
his third term of office. 

An alteration was made at this time in the court of 
combined landdrosts, by the substitution of a qualified 
advocate, with the title of chief justice, to preside in it 
instead of the senior member, as previously. Advocate 
Francis William Keitz, who was then practising at the 
Cape bar, was appointed chief justice, and in March 
1874 assumed the duty. A further improvement in this 
court was made a little later, when the volksraad 
resolved that two qualified advocates should take the 
place of the landdrosts. In January 1876 the supreme 
court thus constituted was completed by the appointment 
of Mr. James Buchanan, previously attorney-general of 
the South African Republic, and Advocate Melius de 
Villiers, a brother of the chief justice of the Cape Colony, 
as puisne judges. The latter had been practising at the 
Cape bar. 

In 1874 the redwater disease among horned cattle 
appeared in the Orange Free State for the first time, and 
caused much loss to the farmers. 

On the 24th of December 1874 a convention was 
signed between President Brand and Sir Henry Barkly, 
governor of the Cape Colony, concerning the construction 
of bridges over the Orange river at the cost of the Cape 
government. Three bridges, at Colesberg, Bethulie, and 

2 2 4- History of South Africa. [^79 

Aliwal North, were then taken in hand, but the work 
could only be carried on slowly. The materials were 
of necessity imported, and the carriage overland was 
tedious and expensive. The first completed was the 
one at Bethulie, which was opened for traffic on the 14th 
of February 1879. The other two were not ready for 
use until some months later. The construction of these 
bridges greatly facilitated communication between the 
Cape Colony and the Orange Free State, as before they 
were ready for use when the river was in flood waggons 
were sometimes detained for weeks on its banks. 

In 1876, as related in another chapter, President Brand 
visited England, and entered into an agreement with 
Lord Carnarvon concerning the diamond fields. During 
his absence Messrs. W. Collins, J. G. Siebert, and G. J. 
Dutoit acted as a commission to perform the duties of 
the head of the state. 

After the return of the president nothing of any im- 
portance occurred for some years. No part of South 
Africa enjoyed greater prosperity at this time, and 
peace with everyone and perfect internal order were 
undisturbed. Great improvements were made in the 
public schools, a high class educational institution 
for girls was established in Bloemfontein, and the Grey 
college was enlarged and a branch for the training of 
teachers was added to it. The public debt, as repre- 
sented by the bluebacks, was paid off, and those notes 
disappeared from use. Many courthouses and other 
necessary buildings were erected in the different villages, 
and in May 1877 the neat public offices in Bloemfontein 
were opened for use. All over the state the means of 
communication were attended to. A line of telegraph 
was constructed from Bloemfontein to Fauresmith, 
where it was connected with the line from Capetown 
to Kimberley, thus giving immediate communication 
with the Cape Colony and Natal. On the 7th of April 
1879 the office at Bloemfontein was opened. 

1880] Events in the Orange Free State. 225 

On the 27th of June 1877 the National Bank of the 
Orange Free State was established by the volksraad, with a 
capital of £100,000, £70,000 of which was furnished by 
the government and £30,000 by subscribers. It was 
placed under the control of a board of seven directors, 
four of whom were appointed by the volksraad and three 
elected by the shareholders. 

President Brand, to whose wise guidance the republic 
owed much of- its prosperity, in December 1878 was 
elected for the fourth term. Having completed this also, 
and having seen the state grow steadily and quietly in 
population and in welfare, without attracting much notice 
from the outside world, he was again elected, and on the 
9th of May 1884 took the oath of office for a fifth term. 
This he did not complete, for on the 16th of July 1888 
the Peacemaker of South Africa, as he had deservedly 
come to be called, died in office. He was a model man, 
who did his duty and trusted in God, in the firm belief 
that everything would come right in the end. That was 
his motto, "alles zal regt kom." 

In April 1880 Moroko, chief of the Barolong at Thaba 
Ntshu, died at the age of eighty-nine or ninety years. 
Though his abilities were not of a very high order, 
he was of a peaceable disposition, was exceedingly well 
disposed towards Europeans, and kept his people in such 
control that there were never any complaints of cattle 
thefts along his border. His territory was enclosed on 
all sides by the Free State, but was regarded as perfectly 
independent, and Moroko was not treated as a subject 
but as a faithful ally of the government at Bloemfontein. 
For many years he had been guided by the advice of 
Wesleyan missionaries, but had never openly embraced 
Christianity until the day before he died, when he was 
baptized. His mother was then still living. 

For the preceding seven or eight years the government 
of the clan had been practically in the hands of a man 
named Tsepinare, who was only an adopted son of 

vol. 11. 16 

226 History of South Africa. [1884 

Moroko, but was recognised by him and by the people 
generally as his legitimate heir. After his death, however, 
his eldest son, a man named Samuel, who had been 
educated at a church school in England, claimed to be 
the proper heir, and with his adherents, who professed 
the same religious opinions as he did, attacked Tsepinare, 
and tried to drive him from Thaba Ntshu. 

The old counsellors then sent a request to President 
Brand to intervene, and he, after a patient hearing of 
both sides of the case, on the 17th of July 1880 gave 
his decision in favour of Tsepinare. Samuel was not 
satisfied with this, and though his adherents were much 
less numerous than his opponents, he made another 
attempt to secure the chieftainship by force of arms. "In 
this he was unsuccessful, and was then compelled to 
leave Thaba Ntshu. After a time he came to Capetown, 
and endeavoured to obtain recognition and assistance 
from Sir Henry Loch, her Majesty's high commissioner, 
who very properly declined to interfere in the matter, 
and Samuel then went to England, where he was equally 
unsuccessful. He returned to South Africa, and went 
to live in Basutoland, but after a while, having collected 
a band of followers, he made a sudden attack upon Thaba 
Ntshu and on the 10th of July 1884 managed to kill 
Tsepinare. All was in disorder there, the great majority 
of the people refused to acknowledge Samuel as their 
head, and appealed to President Brand to assist them. 
He went to Thaba Ntshu, and, with their concurrence, 
on the 12th of July 1884 proclaimed the territory part 
of the Orange Free State, under the name of the district 
of Moroka. 

Tsepinare had xaused the outlying ground to be properly 
surveyed, and had given a titledeed to each of the petty 
captains whose kraals were scattered about it. After his 
death many of these men were desirous of selling their 
allotments, and the volksraad, acting upon their petitions, 
granted permission to some to do so, but a regulation 

1884] Events in the Orange Free State. 227 

was made to prevent for fifteen years the alienation of 
any part of the remainder, and all speculation was debarred 
by requiring such sales as were allowed to be conducted 
through the medium of the government, so that the rights 
of the people living on the ground should be protected. 
The annexation of Thaba Ntshu brought the Bantu in 
the Orange Free State up to a greater number than the 
Europeans, but it kept the two races apart as before. 

In November 1884 Samuel was put upon his trial at 
Bloemfontein for the murder of Tsepinare, but was 
discharged upon an exception to the indictment that 
the court had no jurisdiction, the district at the time of 
the murder being independent. He then went to reside 
in Basutoland. 

In 1881 a census of the Orange Free ' State showed 
the population to consist in round numbers of sixty-one 
thousand Europeans and seventy-two thousand Bantu 
and other coloured persons. The white people were 
therefore here in a more favourable position than in 
any other part of South Africa, and the Bantu also 
could advance in civilisation more readily than elsewhere. 
They were in reality living more in accordance with 
European ideas than their kinsmen below the mountains, 
and a much larger proportion of them had embraced 
Christianity. But the approach to equality between the 
two races was in fact more apparent than real, for only 
the shallow Caledon river separated the Free State from 
Basutoland, and if the census had covered this territory 
also, the proportion would have been more than six 
black individuals for one white. 



The following statistics will show at a glance the 
revenue and expenditure of the Cape Colony and Natal 
during the twelve years 1873-1884, and also the amount 
of the oversea trade of all South Africa during that 
period, the whole of which then passed through Durban 
or ports of the Cape Colony. These figures, however, 
do not represent the total purchasing power of South 
Africa, because neither the diamonds obtained in Griqua- 
land West and the Orange Free State nor the gold found 
in the Transvaal passed through a custom house, and 
there are no means of ascertaining their value. They are 
therefore not mentioned in the following lists. 

Revenue of the Cape Colony. 

The revenue of the Cape Colony was steadily increas- 
ing with the growth of population, independently of the 
items telegraphs and railways, which depended upon the 
progress made in construction. In 1873 customs brought in 
£686,405, in 1880 £'1,198,054, transfer dues rose from 
£84,416 in 1873 to £129,063 in 1880, auction dues from 
£18,777 to £32,503, stamps and licenses from £124,513 
to £178,952, postage from £41,479 to £92,089, and some 
other items in proportion. In 1880 there was derived a 
revenue from the annexed districts between the Kei and 
Natal of £29,920. In telegraph and railway receipts of 
course the greatest bound forward was shown. In 1873 
the receipts from the telegraph were £3,362, in 1880 
they were £54,741, the railway receipts were in 1873 
£63,950, in 1880 £739,206. The average annual total 
revenue from the 1st of January 1873 to the 31st of 



Revenue of the Cape Colony. 


December 1876 was £1,413,442, by 1880 it had risen to 

Be venue of the Cape Colony feom the 1st of 
january 1881 to the 31st of december 1884. 

Customs duties 

. £4,572,938 

Stamps and licenses... 


Land revenue... 


Transfer dues ... 


Postage :. 


Auction dues ... 


Excise ... 


House duty ... 


Succession duty 


Land sales 




Bank notes duty 


Fines and fees of court 


Sales of government property 


Beimbursements % ... 


Mines ... 


Miscellaneous ... 




Special ... 



. 3,567,637 



Total during the four years 


The average yearly revenue during this period was 

The expenditure was much greater than the revenue, 
owing to the construction of railways, telegraph lines, 
harbour works, and bridges, which necessitated borrowing 
money on a large scale. The ordinary expenses were 
increasing also, but they were more than covered by the 
ordinary revenue. The items maintenance of railways and 

230 History of South Africa. [1880 

interest on loans and sinking fund were of course 
those that exhibited the most rapid increase, but all the 
great departments showed steady growth. Unfortunately 
the war expenses had to be made good by loans, but 
the cost of equipment and maintenance of the ordinary 
defence forces was met from the current revenue. 

Revenue of Natal. 



Harbour, light, wharfage, and 

steam tug dues 


Transfer dues 

Mail service 

Fines, forfeitures, and fees 

Land revenue 


Fees of office 

Auction dues 

Bantu marriage fees 

Land sales 

Sale of government property ... 






Sums refunded 

Receipts civil list 




• Abolished in 1874. \ Abolished in 1875. 


















































i88 4 ] 

Revenue of NataL 


Yearly average of revenue and other receipts from 
1st January 1873 to 31st December 1876 £245,069, from 
1st January 1877 to 31st December 1880 £424/287. 

Be venue of Natal feom the 1st of January 1881 
to the 31st of december 1884. 

Customs duties 


Harbour, light, wharfage, and steam 

Excise ... 

Mail service 

Fines, forfeitures, and fees of court 

Land revenue 

Transfer dues 

Stamps and licenses 

Fees of office 

Land sales ... 

Sale of government property 

Immigration ... 


Sale of ammunition... 



Sums refunded 

Telegraphs ... 





Total receipts during the four years £2,490,867 

The average yearly revenue from the 1st of January 
1880 to the 31st of December 1884 was £622,717. 

The expenditure of Natal was increasing yearly, mainly 
in the items interest on loans and maintenance of rail- 
ways, harbour works, and telegraphs, but also in almost 
every branch of the administration. The public works 


History of South Africa. 


being reproductive, however, the treasury was able to bear 
the strain upon it without excessive taxation. In 1879 
and 1880 there was a war expenditure of £82,250, in 
addition to £250,000 paid to the imperial government, 
which was raised by loan, and the interest was thereafter 
a charge upon the revenue. 

Exports of the Cape Colony. 






.. £10,793,893 


Ostrich feathers ... 




Hides, horns, and skins... 



Copper ore 




Angora hair 








Cured fish 








Grain and meal ... 








Dried fruit 




















Other South African 

produce . 





Deduct exports to Natal 





On an average yearly exportation oversea of South 
African produce, exclusive of diamonds, from the 1st of 
January 1873 to the 31st of December 1876 of £3,785,630, 
and from the 1st of January 1877 to the 31st of Decem- 
ber 1880 of £3,633,756. The cause of the great falling 
off in the value of the wool exported from 1877 to 1880 
was a drought in the eastern districts of almost unprece- 

, i88 4 ] 

Exports of the Cape Colony. 


dented severity in 1877 and 1878, which caused the loss 
of an immense number of sheep there, and it was several 
years before the flocks attained again their former size. 
The quantity of ivory brought down from the interior was 
decreasing year after year, as the elephants were being 
destroyed. After this time cotton disappeared from the 
customs returns, while the production of ostrich feathers 
was rapidly increasing. 

Exports of the Cape Colony from the 1st of 
January 1881 to the 31st of December 1884. 

Wool £7,982,055 

Ostrich feathers 3,886,089 

Hides, horns, and skins 1,638,665 

Copper ore 1,514,670 

Angora hair 1,027,165 

Ivory 30,725 

Cured fish 98,166 

Wine 65,937 

Grain and meal 33,227 

Aloes 35,305 

Dried fruit 6,933 

Argol 19,695 

Horses 15,605 

Brandy 2,447 

Other South African produce ... 279,755 

Total exports during the four years £16,636,439 
Deduct exports to Natal 249,068 


The average yearly exportation of South African 
products oversea through the ports of the Cape Colony 
from the 1st of January 1881 to the 31st of December 
1884 was of an estimated value at the custom houses of 


History of South Africa. 


The public debt of the Cape Colony on the 31st of 
December 1884 was £20,804,132, of which £1,145,865 
was security for loans by corporate bodies. 

Expobts of Natal. 



Hides, horns, and skins 


Angora hair 

Ostrich feathers 

Beans, peas, and maize 

Arrowroot ... 


Butter ..i 


Horses and other animals 


Salted meat 


Potatoes . . . 




Other articles 








































Deduct exports to the Cape 


£2,702,101 £2,678,508 


£2,096,894 £2,134,295 

On an average yearly exportation oversea of South 
African produce, exclusive of diamonds and gold, from the 
1st of January 1873 to the 31st of December 1876 of 
£524,223, and from the 1st of January 1877 to the 31st 
of December 1880 of £533,574. The Zulu war caused a 

i88 4 ] 

Imports and Exports. 


considerable local consumption of various articles that 
would otherwise have been exported, and this, together 
with the great decrease in the number of skins brought 
from the interior, the failure of cotton cultivation, and the 
rapidly declining quantity of coffee produced, will account 
for the diminution in the value of exports from Natal 
during the last period. 

Expobts of Natal from the 1st of January 1881 
to the 31st of december 1884. 


. £1,974,925 



Hides and skins 


Ostrich feathers 


Angora hair 


Ivory ... 








Other produce 



Of which 561,158 worth went to the Cape Colony, 
leaving £2,484,216, or an average yearly exportation of 
the value of £621,054 oversea, chiefly to England. 

Imports of South Africa. 

The imports for home consumption of the Cape Colony 
from the 1st of January 1873 to the 31st of December 
1876, after deducting those from Natal, were of the 
average yearly value of £5,271,727, from the 1st of 
January 1877 to the 31st of December 1880 £6,235,324, 
and from the 1st of January 1881 to the 31st of December 
1884 £7,560,168. 

The imports of Natal, after deducting those from the 
Cape Colony, from the 1st of January 1873 to the 31st 

236 History of South Africa. [1884 

of December 1876 were of an average yearly value of 
£1.053,651. from the 1st of January 1877 to the 31st 
of December 1880 of £1,786,610, and from the 1st 
of January 1881 to the 31st of December 1884 

The total oversea commerce of the whole of South 
Africa was therefore from the 1st of January 1873 to the 
31st of December 1876, imports at the rate of £6,325,378 
a year, and exports at the rate of £4,309,853, from the 
1st of January 1877 to the 31st of December 1880, 
imports £8,021,934, exports £4,167,330, and from the 1st 
of January 1881 to the 31st of December 1884, imports 
£9,386,140, and exports £4,717,897. The difference was 
made good partly by raw gold, partly by diamonds, and 
partly by money raised on loan to cover the cost of 
material for public works. 

The public debt of Natal on the 31st of December 1884 
was £3,215,445. 

The beneficial effect upon Natal of the overthrow of the 
Zulu power is seen by the rapid increase of European 
immigrants as soon as that menace to security of life and 
property was no more. At the close of 1876 there were 
in the colony 18,646 white people, 6,787 Indians, and 
281,797 Bantu. In December 1884 there were 35,453 
white people, 27,206 Indians, and 361,766 Bantu. A 
census of Maritzburg taken on the 27th of July 1884 
showed that the city contained 8,474 Europeans and 1,671 
Indians. Durban then contained 8,543 Europeans and 
3,867 Indians. 

A census of the Cape Colony was taken in 1875, but as 
neither Griqualand West nor the Transkeian territories 
had then been annexed, it does not indicate the condition 
of the colony in 1884. The next census was taken six- 
teen years later, during the night of Sunday the 5th of 
March 1891. This is more than six years in advance of 
the end of 1884, and it does not include British Bet- 
shuanaland or Pondoland, that were incorporated later, 

1884] Statistics of Population. 237 

but with allowances for these imperfections, the statistics 
resulting from it are as nearly correct as it is possible to 
make them. 

There were then 376,987 individuals of European blood 
in the colony, of whom a little over 230,000 were Dutch 
speaking. The males were 195,956 in number, and the 
females 181,031. The extent to which recent immigra- 
tion had affected the population is shown by 38,699 having 
been born in Great Britain or Ireland, 6,549 in Germany, 
and 4,601 in other European states. 

There were 838,136 Bantu, nearly all of whom were in 
the Transkeian territories and in the eastern districts. Of 
these 415,201 were males and 422,935 were females. The 
Xosas numbered 249,484, the Fingos 229,680, the Tembus 
184,754, the Basuto 39,583, the Pondomsis 30,647, the 
Bacas 24,556, the Xesibes 11,766, and the remainder were 
of various tribes of less importance. 

The other coloured inhabitants of the colony consisted 
of 13,907 Malays, 247,806 mixed breeds of all classes, 
including a few Indians, 45,092 Hottentots, and 5,296 
Bushmen. The total number of inhabitants not of Euro- 
pean blood was 1,150,237, or there were about three times ^ 
as many coloured people as there were whites. They 
were very unevenly distributed, however, as in the districts 
of Port Elizabeth, Piketberg, Sutherland, Biversdale, 
Ladismith, Knysna, Kobertson, Prince Albert, and Frazer- 
burg there were more white people than coloured, in the 
districts of the Cape, Bredasdorp, Swellendam, George, 
Oudtshoorn, Willowmore, Barkly East, and Albert they 
were nearly equal, while in Idutywa, Tsomo, Herschel, 
Kentani, Mount Fletcher, Engcobo, Mqanduli, Nqamakwe, 
Qumbu, Tsolo, Willowvale, and Elliotdale there was not 
one white person to every hundred Bantu. 

The aridity of some portions of the colony is shown by 
the sparseness of population, thus Calvinis had only 052 to 
the square mile and Frazerburg 0'69. The most densely 
populated districts were the Cape peninsula with 146*73 

238 History of South Africa. [1884 

individuals to the square mile and Port Elizabeth with 

There were 73,816 registered voters in the colony. 

As regards population the towns stood in the following 
order : Capetown 51,251, Kimberley 28,718, Port Elizabeth 
23,266, Grahamstown 10,498, Beaconsfield 10,478, Paarl 
7,668, King-Williamstown 7,226, East London 6,924, 
Graaff-Reinet, 5,946, Worcester 5,404, Uitenhage 5,331, 
Cradock, 4,389, Oudtshoorn 4,386, Queenstown 4,094, 
Stellenbosch 3,462, Beaufort West 2,791, Malmesbury 
2,461, Aliwal North 2,057, and Swellendam 1,727. 

The live stock of the colony consisted of 444,147 horses, 
96,345 mules and asses, 2,210,834 head of horned cattle, 
13,651,011 woolled sheep, 3,075,095 large tailed sheep, 
3,184,018 Angora goats, 3,444,019 common goats, 288,190 
pigs, and 154,880 ostriches. 

The crops last gathered consisted of 2,727,490 bushels 
of wheat, 2,894,482 bushels of maize, 1,387,610 bushels 
of millet, 1,819,130 bushels of oats, .923,005 bushels of 
barley, and 527,425 bushels of rye. Of tobacco 10,993,200 
pounds had been gathered. 

There were 78,574,124 vines bearing, and the quantity 
of wine made was 6,012,522 gallons, and of brandy dis- 
tilled 1,423,043 gallons. 


Aberdeen : 

in February 1880 is made a magisterial district of the Cape 
Colony, ii 196 
Active, her Majesty's ship : 

in December 1877 supplies a naval brigade for service in the 
Kaffir war, i 79 
Adam Muis : 

goes into rebellion in Griqualand East, i 37 ; and is killed in 
action, i 39 
Aden : 

in December 1879 is connected with South Africa by submarine 
cable, ii 192 
Afrikander Bond : 

in 1879 is formed in the Cape Colony, ii 186 
Afrikaner, Jacobus: 

is head of a band of Hottentot robbers, ii 30 ; in May 1879 he 
is made a prisoner, ii 35 
Aliwal North : 

on the 19th of August 1885 the railway from East London is 
opened to, ii 194 ; population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Amangwe, Bantu clan in Natal : 

in 1873 is dispersed by colonial forces, i 231 ; the secretary of 
state for the colonies orders compensation to be made to it, 
i 236; which in 1875 is fixed at the rate of Jg3,000 a year 
for four years, * 242 
Ammunition : 

seizure of in 1879 by Transvaal farmers, ii 99 
Angora goats : 

number of in 1891 in the Cape Colony, ii 238 
Anstruther, Lieutenant-Colonel Philip : 

on the 20th of December 1880 is mortally wounded at Bronk- 
horst Spruit, ii 119 

239 \ 

240 Synoptical Index. 

Anta, Gaika chief: 

being too old and feeble to move about, in 1877 professes to be 
loyal to the Cape Government, i 83; on the 10th of June 
1878 dies, i 132 
Austen, John: 

in April 1878 becomes magistrate of Quthing, ii 43 ; on the 
22nd of February 1879, on account of the rebellion of Morosi, 
retires to Palmietfontein, ii 45 ; on the 28th of January 1881 
is killed in action with Basuto, ii 67 
Ayliff, James : 

in May 1873 becomes resident with Kreli, i 52; in March 1876 
becomes chief magistrate of Fingoland, * 44 
Ayliff, Jonathan : 

on the 13th of May 1884 becomes colonial secretary, ii 204 ; on 
the 4th of March 1885 resigns on account of ill health, ib. 
Ayliff, William : 

in February 1878 becomes secretary for native affairs in the Cape 
Colony, i 106 ; on the 9th of May 1881 retires from office, 
ii 69 
Aylward, Alfred : 

in November 1876 succeeds Captain Von Schlickmann as com- 
mandant of the volunteers operating against Sekukuni in the 
South African Bepublic, i 266 
Bacas : 

in March 1876 those under the chief Makaula in Griqualand 
East become British subjects, i 37 ; number of individuals 
composing the tribe in 1891, ii 237 
Badirilb, chief of a Barolong clan : 

on the 1st of April 1911 dies, ii 145 
Bakatla tribe of Betshuana: 

account of the, ii 176 
Bakwena tribe of Betshuana: 

during many years is at war with the Bakatla, ii 176 
Bamakgwato tribe of Betshuana : 

in 1878 is visited and described by Captain Patterson, ii 179 
Bangwakbtse tribe of Betshuana : 
reference to the, ii 176 

Bantu : 

particulars concerning, ii 194 and 202; ideas with regard to 
courts of justice, i 136 ; condition of those in the Transkeian 
territories in 1873, i 2; enumeration of the military tribes in 
existence in South Africa in 1873, i 2 ; condition of those in 
the Orange Free State, ii 225; particulars concerning those 

Synoptical Index. 241 

in Natal, ii 217 ; number of those in Natal in 1873, i 226 ; 
number of those in Natal in 1884, ii 236; number of those in 
the Cape Colony in 1891, ii 237 ; system of dealing with those 
in Natal by the Government, i 226 ; conduct of those profess- 
ing Christianity during the rebellion of 1878 in the Cape Colony, 
i 134 ; unreliability of traditions of, i 173 ; laws in force among 
those in the Transkeian territories, i 154 

Bapedi tribe : 

account of the, i 256 ; in February 1879 some of its men make 
murderous raids into Swaziland, ii 101 ; in June they make 
raids into the Lydenberg and Zoutpansberg districts of the Trans- 
vaal, ib. ; see Mampuru and Sekukuni 

Baputi clan of the Basuto tribe : 

particulars concerning, ii 41 ; see Morosi 

Barkly, Sir Henry : 

in October 1876 is unfriendly towards the South African Republic, 
i 266; on the 31st of March 1877 retires as governor of the 
Cape Colony, i 49 

Basuto : 

are dealt with very cautiously by Mr. Molteno, ii 54 ; in 1879 the 
tribe is in a prosperous condition, ii 55 ; statistics regarding 
schools in 1880, ib. ; they have obtained great numbers of 
guns, ib. ; which in December 1879 they are called upon to 
surrender, ii 58 ; a few obey, and are then attacked by their 
countrymen and driven from their homes, ii 60 ; they flee to 
Maseru and Mafeteng, and claim protection from the magis- 
trates, ib. ; forces are sent from the colony to overawe the 
insurgents, ib. ; on the 13th of September 1880 a detach- 
ment is attacked close to Mafeteng by a Basuto army under 
Lerothodi, ii 61 ; from that date until April 1881 there are 
frequent engagements without any decisive result to either side, 
ii 61 et seq. ; the damage done by the insurgents to the loyals 
and to Europeans is estimated at £212,000, ii 64 ; on the 
10th of January 1881 Lerothodi and Joel Molapo petition the 
queen for peace and to be allowed to retain their arms, ii 66; 
by instruction from the imperial government Sir Hercules Robin- 
son then offers to mediate and arrange lenient terms, ib. ; the 
chiefs decline to lay down their arms before they know the 
terms, so hostilities continue, ib. ; Mr. Sprigg offers condi- 
tions, of which they take no notice, ib. ; early in February 
1881 some five hundred burghers return home without leave, 
U 68; on the 18th of April Lerothodi and Joel promise to 
submit unreservedly to the decision of the high commissioner, 

242 Synoptical Index. 

ib. ; who thereupon, on the 29th of April, issues an award, 
ib. ; which all of the insurgent chiefs accept, but only par- 
tially carry out, ii 70 ; as hostilities have ceased, the colonial 
forces are allowed to return to their homes, ii 71 ; Mr. Joseph 
M. Orpen becomes acting governor's agent, and tries to restore 
order, but fails, ib. ; the people are becoming demoralised 
by the free use of brandy, ib. ; the colonial government is 
restricted in its action by the imperial authorities, ii 72 ; on 
the 6th of April 1882 the application of the disarmament act 
to Basutoland is annulled, ii 74 ; the Cape parliament is desirous 
of casting off Basutoland, ii 76 ; as the disturbance there has 
cost the colony considerably over j£3,000,000, ib.; in March 
1883 Messrs. Scanlon and Sauer offer great concessions to the 
tribe, but a large section takes no notice of the proposal, 
ii 77 ; the ministry then urge the imperial government to 
take over the administration of Basutoland, id 78 ; and on the 
14th of June 1883 the secretary of state agrees to do so under 
certain conditions, ib. ; the Cape parliament then passes an act 
severing Basutoland from the Cape Colony, and agrees to pay 
the imperial government JE20,000 a year towards the cost of its 
administration, ii 79 ; most of the chiefs consent to come under 
direct imperial rule, ib. ; and on the 18th of March 1884 the 
transfer is effected, ib. 

Basuto in Griqualand East : 

in July 1873 those under Lebenya are made subject to the Cape 
government, i 31 ; and in October 1874 those under Makwai, 
i 35; in 1880 many of the clans rebel against colonial autho- 
rity, ii 155 

Bataung clan under Molitsane : 

in 1880 join the other Basuto in insurrection, ii 61 

Bathoen, chief of the Bangwaketse : 
reference to, ii 176 

Batlokua : 

in July 1873 those under Lehana are made subject to the Cape 
government, i 31 

Bayly, Colonel Zachary : 

in August 1878 is sent with some volunteers to the northern 
border, but does not remain there long, ii 33 ; on the 27th of 
October 1879 he takes command of the forces operating against 
the rebel chief Morosi, ii 51 ; and on the 20th of November 
takes Morosi's mountain by storm, ii 52 

Beach, Sir Michael Hicks: 

on the 4th of February 1878 becomes secretary of state for the 

Synoptical Index. 243 

colonies, i 106 ; in August 1878 refuses to restore the independ- 
ence of the Transvaal, i 289 ; in a despatch of the 20th of 
November' 1879 expresses his views concerning the Transvaal, 
ii 94 ; presses the subject of confederation, ii 186 ; expresses 
an opinion unfavourable to Mr. Molteno in the matter in dis- 
pute between that gentleman and Sir Bartle Frere, i 106 
Beaconsfibld, town of : 

population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Beaufort West: 

in February 1880 is connected by railway with Capetown, ii 192, 
population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Bellairs, Lieutenant-Colonel William : 

from the 20th of April to the 5th of May 1880 acts as head of 
the Natal government, ii 208 
Bemba, petty Zulu chief : 

on the 9th of January 1879 surrenders to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Evelyn Wood, and is sent to Utrecht with his people, i 326 
Bethell, Christopher: 

is Montsiwa's confidential agent, ii 149 ; in July 1884 is enrolled 
as an officer in the Betshuanaland Border Police, ii 159 ; on the 
31st of the same month is terribly wounded and is then mur- 
dered, ii 161 
Betshuanaland : 

on the 23rd of March 1885 the whole country is proclaimed a 
British protectorate, ii 171 ; on the 30th of September 1885 that 
portion south of the Molopo river and Ramathlabama Spruit is 
proclaimed to be under British sovereignty, ii 172 
Betshuanaland Border Police : 

in August 1885 five hundred men are enrolled and placed under 
command of Lieutenant -Colonel Frederick Carrington, ii 171 
Bezuidenhout : 

case of, which is the immediate cause of the Transvaal war of 
independence, ii 115 
Bishopstowe in Natal : 

on the 22nd of September 1884 is destroyed by fire, ii 217 
Bizana, in Eastern Pondoland : 

in 1894 is created a magisterial district, i 222 
Black, Major: 

on the 15th of March 1879 is the first to visit Isandhlwana after 
the great disaster, i 322 
Blakeway, Captain: 

on the 10th of November 1880 is killed by rebels, i 153 

244 " Synoptical Index 

Bloemfontein : 

in June 1875 the foundation stone of the public offices is laid ; 
its educational institutions are advancing, ii 224 ; in May 1877 
the public offices are opened for use, ib. ; in April 1879 the 
town is connected by telegraph with the other parts of South 
Africa, ib. ; in May 1880 the educational institution! for girls is 
completed and opened for use, ib. 
Blyth, Captain Matthew Smith: 

in March 1876 becomes chief magistrate of the three Griqua dis- 
tricts, i 35; in September 1878 becomes chief magistrate of 
Transkei, i 140; on the 17th of March 1883 becomes acting 
governor's agent in Basutoland, ii 77 ; on the 18th of March 
1884 transfers Basutoland to the resident commissioner for the 
imperial government, ii 79 
Blythewood Industrial Institution : 

establishment of, * 43 
Bok, W. Eduard: 

in 1878 goes to England as secretary to Messrs. Kruger and Joubert, 
i 288; in January 1879 is appointed secretary of a permanent 
. committee to work for the independence of the Transvaal, ii 83 ; 
in August 1881 becomes state secretary of the Transvaal, ii 133 
Bokwe, Bev. John Knox : 

mention of, * 28 
Bomvanas : 

account of the, i 144 
Bond, Mr., a volunteer : 

in 1873 is killed by Langalibalele's followers at the Bushman's river 
pass, i 230 
Bondelzwarts Hottentots : 

territory occupied by, ii 35 
Boshof, Jacobus Nicolaas : 

on the 21st of April 1881 dies in Natal, ii 216 
Botlasitsi, chief of a Batlapin clan: 

dealings with, ii 144 
Boundary between Zululand and the Transvaal : 

as defined by the award delivered on the 11th of December 1878, 
i 303 
Bourne, Inspector : 

on the 2nd of December 1877 is in command of the colonial 
forces at Umzintsani, i 77; (Captain) on the 20th of November 
1879 assists in taking Morosi's mountain stronghold by storm, 
ii 52 

Synoptical Index. 245 


Bowker, James Henry: 

from March to June 1878 acts as governor's agent in Basutoland, 
ii 43 
Boybs, Major J. F. : 

in April 1876 becomes magistrate of Umtata, i 48 
Brabant, Colonel: 

on the 5th of June 1879 fails in the second attempt to take 
Morosi's stronghold by storm, ii 50 
Bradshaw, Captain : 

on the 19th of March 1878 is killed in the Amatola forest, i 121 
Brand, Jan Hendrik : 

in November 1873 is elected president of the Orange Free State 
for a third term, ii 221 ; in 1876 conducts transactions in 
England, i 22 ; in December 1878 is elected for a fourth term, 
ii 225 ; is most friendly towards the Cape Colony during the 
Basuto insurrection, ii 63 ; in 1881 acts as a peacemaker 
between Great Britain and the Transvaal, ii 125 ; on the 12th 
of May 1883 requests the secretary of state for the colonies 
to restore tranquillity on the Basuto border, ii 78 ; on the 
16th of July 1888 dies, ii 225 
Bridges over the Orange Biver : 

construction of three, ii 223; in February 1879 the first, at 
Bethulie, is opened for use, ii 224 
British Betshuanaland : 

on the 30th of September 1885 becomes a crown colony, ii 172 ; 
European population in 1891, ii 184 ; on the 16th of November 
1895 is incorporated in the Cape Colony, ii 183 
British Begiments that Served in South Africa : 

3rd regiment of the line (the Buffs) : in November 1876 the 
second battalion arrives, i 56; in August 1879 it leaves for the 
Straits Settlements, i 346 
4th regiment of the line : in January 1879 the second battalion 

arrives, i 296; in February 1880 it leaves for India, ii 113 
13th regiment of the line : in January 1875 the first battalion 

arrives, i 56; in August 1879 it leaves for England, i 346 
21st regiment of the line : in April 1879 the second battalion 

arrives, i 333 ; in February 1882 it leaves for England 
24th regiment of the line : in January 1875 the first battalion 
arrives, i 56; this battalion was almost annihilated at 
Isandhlwana, i 316; in August 1879 it leaves for England, 
i 346 ; in February 1878 the second battalion arrives, i 307 ; 
in January 1880 it leaves for Gibraltar, ii 113 

246 Synoptical Index. 

27th regiment of the line : in November 1885 arrives from 

Hong Kong 
32nd regiment of the line : in August 1877 the wing remaining 

here in 1872 leaves for England, i 56 
41st regiment of the line, or the Welsh regiment : in April 1881 

arrives from Gibraltar, ii 127 
57th regiment of the line : in March 1879 arrives from Ceylon, 

i 332; in October of the same year leaves for England, i 347 
58th regiment of the line, or the Northamptonshire regiment : 

in April 1879 the second battalion arrives, i 333; in September 

1885 it leaves for Hong Kong, ii 172 
60th rifles : in January 1881 the second battalion arrives from 

India, ii 122; in December of the same year leaves for 

England ; in March 1879 the third battalion arrives from 

England, i 332 ; in February 1882 it leaves for Malta 
75th regiment of the line : in February 1875 leaves for England, 

i 56 
80th regiment of the line : in March and April 1877 arrives from 

Singapore, i 56; in April 1880 leaves for Ireland, ii 113 
82nd regiment of the line, or the South Lancashire regiment : 

in August 1884 the second battalion arrives from England, ii 19 
83rd regiment of the line : in January 1881 arrives from India, 

ii 122; in November of the same year leaves to return to India 
85th regiment of the line : in March 1881 the second battalion 

arrives from India, ii 127 ; in November of the same year it 

leaves to return to India 
86th regiment of the line : in February 1875 leaves for England, 

i 56 
88th regiment of the line : in July 1877 arrives from Ireland, 

i 56 ; in October 1879 leaves for India, i 346 
90th regiment of the line : in February 1878 arrives, * 98 ; in 

October 1879 leavea for India, i 346 
91st regiment of the line, or the Argyll and Sutherland High- 
landers : in March 1879 arrives from England, i 832 ; in 

November 1885 leaves for Ceylon 
92nd regiment of the line : in January 1881 the second battalion 

arrives from India, it 122 ; in December of the same year it 

leaves for England 
94th regiment of the line : in April 1879 arrives, i 333 ; in March 

1882 leaves for England 
97th regiment of the line: in February 1881 the second battalion 

arrives from Gibraltar, ii 122 ; in February 1882 leaves for 


Synoptical Index. 247 

99th regiment of the line : in January 1879 arrives, i 296 ; in 

December of the same year leaves for Bermuda, i 347 ; in 

April 1881 it returns from Bermuda; in February 1882 it 

leaves for England 
1st dragoon guards : in April 1879 arrive, i 333 ; in September 

1880 leave for India, ii 113 
6th or Inniskilling dragoons: in February 1881 arrive from 

England, ii 127 
7th huzzars : in April 1881 arrive from England, ii 127 ; in April 

and May 1882 they leave to return to England 
13th huzzars : in November 1884 arrive from Bombay, ii 19 
14th huzzars : in March 1881 arrive from India, ii 127 ; in 

November of the same year leave to return to India 
15th huzzars : in January 1881 arrive from India, ii 122 ; in 

November of the same year leave to return to India 
17th huzzars : in April 1879 arrive, i 333 ; in August of the 

same year leave to return to India, i 346 
Bromhead, Lieutenant, of the second battalion of the 24th regiment : 
on the 22nd of January 1879 assists in the defence of the post 

at Eorke's drift, i 320 # 
Bronkhorst Spruit : 

on the 20th of December 1880 a detachment of the 94th regiment 

is almost annihilated at, ii 119 
Broome, Frederick Napier : 

in March 1875 becomes colonial secretary of Natal, i 238; 

(governor of Mauritius) in March 1879 sends the troops from 

that island to Natal, i 332 
Brownlee, Charles : 

on the 6th of February 1878 resigns the office of secretary for 

native affairs, i 104 ; in December of the same year becomes 

the first chief magistrate of Griqualand East, i 41 
Buchanan, James, attorney-general of the South African Republic : 

in 1874 is excluded from the executive council, i 250 ; in November 

1875 resigns his office, i 255 ; in January 1876 becomes a judge 

in the Orange Free State, ii 223 
Buller, Lieutenant-Colonel Redvers : 

on the 1st of February 1879 destroys the Qulusi military kraal, 

i 327 ; at the close of the Zulu war returns to Europe, i 346 ; 

from the 3rd of April to the 9th of August 1881 acts as 

administrator of Natal, ii 210 
Bulwer, Sir Henry Ernest : 

--on the 3rd of September 1875 assumes duty as lieutenant-governor 

of Natal, i 224; on the 20th of April 1880 retires, it 208; on 

248 Synoptical Index. 

the 6th of March 1882 becomes governor of Natal, ii 210; on 
the 23rd of October 1885 leaves Natal to return to England 
Burgees, Thomas Francois, president of the South African Republic : 
in 1878 obtains a loan of jE60,000 in gold from the Cape Com- 
mercial Bank with which to redeem the Transvaal paper 
money, i 248; in 1875 visits Europe to borrow money for the 
construction of a railroad from the republic to Delagoa Bay, 
i 254 ; he succeeds in borrowing JE90,000, with which he 
purchases railway material, and then returns to South Africa, 
i 255 ; on his return finds an empty treasury and the Bapedi 
under Sekukuni in rebellion, i 256; he leads a strong commando 
against Sekukuni, and gets possession of Mathebi's Kop, i 261 ; 
and of the stronghold of Johannes, i 262 ; but fails to get 
possession of Sekukuni's mountain, where the commando 
disperses, i 263 ; upon the annexation of the Transvaal to the 
British dominions he retires to the Cape Colony, i 274 ; and 
on the 9th of December 1881 dies, ib. 


on the 19th of March 1885 the railway from East London is 
opened to, ii 172 
Burial Custom of the Southern Bantu : 

mention of, i 173 
Bushmen : 

mode of existence in 1879 of those along the Orange river, 
ii 31 
Cagli, Signor : 

in 1877 is the promoter of an international exhibition in Capetown, 
i 50 
Calcutta, American ship : 

wreck of the, ii 196 • 

Cannon : 

during the war of independence two are manufactured in the 
Transvaal by a burgher named Ras, ii 133. 
Cape flats : 

settlement of German immigrants on the, i 25 
Cape parliament : see Parliament 
Capetown : 

progress of railway construction inland from, ii 192; population 
in 1891 of, ii 238 
Carnarvon, Lord : 

in February 1874 becomes secretary of state for the colonies, i 17 ; 
in July 1876 displays an unfriendly attitude towards the South 
African Republic, i 266; on the 4th of July 1877 receives 

Synoptical Index. 249 

Messrs. Kruger and Jorissen courteously, but refuses to restore 
the independence of the Transvaal, i 278 ; on the 4th of 
February 1878 is succeeded as secretary of state for the 
colonies by Sir Michael Hicks Beach, i 106 
Carnarvon, formerly Schietfontein : 

a settlement of Xosas is formed at, ii 29 ; in September 1874 
it becomes a magisterial district of the Cape Colony, i 11 
Carrington, Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick : 

commands the left wing of the Cape mounted riflemen during 
the Basuto rebellion, ii 61 ; in August 1885 assumes com- 
mand of the Betshuanaland Border Police, ii 172 
Careington's horse : 

in January 1878 are enrolled for military service, i 84 ; (now 
termed the frontier light horse) take an active part in the 
operations against the rebel chief Sekukuni in the Transvaal, 
i 285 
Caterpillars : 

extraordinary plague in parts of the Cape Colony in 1878 of, 
* 123 
Cathcart : 

in February 1877 is created a magisterial district of the Cape 
Colony, i 51 
Cbllier, Mr., editor of the VolJtstem : 

in November 1880 is prosecuted for seditious libel, ii 114 
Celt, Union Company's steamer : 

on the 7th of February 1875 is wrecked near Ratel River west 
of Cape Agulhas 
Census of the Cape Colony : 

results of that taken in March 1875, i 17 ; and of that taken 
on the 5th of March 1891, ii 226 
Ceres Road : 

on the 3rd of November 1875 the railway from Capetown is 
opened to, i 13 
Chalmers, William B. : 

in November 1877 is sent as a commissioner to the Gaika 
location, i 76 
Chard, Lieutenant, of the royal engineers : 

gallantly defends the post at Rorke's drift when on the 22nd of 
January 1879 it is attacked by the Zulus, i 320 
Chelmsford, Lord : see Thesiger 
Chiappini, Captain, of the third yeomanry regiment : 

on the 29th of May 1879 meets with a big disaster on the bank 
of the Orange river at the junction of the Quthing, ii 49 

250 Synoptical Index. 

Clan line of steamers : 

in September 1881 commence running between England and 
South Africa, ii 198 
Clarke, Brigadier-General Charles M. : 

during the Basuto insurrection is commandant- general of the 
colonial forces, ii 62 
Clarke, Captain Marshall James : 

in 1878 commands in the operations against the rebel chief 
Sekukuni, * 282; on the 18th of December 1880 is obliged to 
surrender the garrison of a small fort at Potchefstroom to 
Commandant Peter Cronje\ ii 117 ; (Lieutenant-Colonel) on the 
18th of March 1884 becomes resident commissioner in Basuto- 
land, ii 79 
Clifford, Major-General the honourable H. H. : 

in April 1879 is placed in command of the base of operations 
in Natal, i 337; fi;om the 5th of May to the 2nd of July 1880 
acts as head of the Government of Natal, ii 208; from the 
15th to the 27th of September 1880 acts as head of the Cape 
government, ii 192 
Clyde, transport: 

on the 4th of April 1879 is wrecked at Dyer's Island, i 333 
Coat of arms of the Cape province : 

particulars concerning, i 24 
Cochet, Rev. Mr., of the French evangelical mission: 

in 1880 accompanies a Basuto deputation to Capetown, ii 59 
Colenso, the right reverlend Dr. John William, bishop of Natal: 
in 1874 is the champion of the rebel Hlubi chief Langalibalele, 
i 235; desires the restoration of Ketshwayo to the Zulu chief- 
tainship, U 8; objects to the terms under which Ketshwayo is 
sent back to Zululand, ii 11; on the 20th of June 1883 dies, 
ii 216 
Colenso, Miss Frances Ellen: 

reference to books written by, i 298 
Colenso, Francis Ernest, a lawyer in Natal : 

in 1878 attempts, but without success, to interfere in the Zulu 
difficulty, * 293 • 


on the 16th of October 1883 the railway from Port Elizabeth is 
opened to, ii 194 
Colley, Lieutenant-Colonel George Pomeroy : 

in March 1875 arrives in Natal with Sir Garnet Wolseley, and 
becomes acting treasurer, i 238; (Sir George Pomeroy) on the 
2nd of July 1880 becomes governor of Natal, high commis- 

Synoptical Index. 251 

sioner for South-Eastern Africa, and commander in chief of 
her Majesty's forces, ii 208; in January 1881 collects all the 
available military forces in Natal, and forms a fortified camp 
at Mount Prospect, ii 120 ; on the 28th of that month attacks 
the Transvaal farmers at Lang's Nek, but is repulsed with 
heavy loss, ii 121 ; on the 8th of February meets with 
another disaster at Schuins Hoogte, ii 122; during the night 
of the 26th of February climbs to the top of Majuba hill with 
five or six hundred soldiers and sailors, ii 123 ; where on the 
following day he is attacked by farmers who have scaled the 
hill in three places, and meets with a great disaster, in which 
he is killed, ib. 

Conder, Captain Claude Eeignier, of the royal engineers : 

in 1885 surveys and beacons off the western boundary of the 
South African Eepublic, ii 168 

Conditions under which Ketshwayo is sent back to Zululand in 
January 1883 : 
wording of, ii 8 et seq. 

Confederation of the various South African colonies and states : 
account of Lord Carnarvon's scheme of, i 17 ; resolutions adopted 
in November 1875 by the Cape parliament concerning, i 21 ; 
an act is passed by the imperial parliament to facilitate, i 49 ; 
reasons of the Beaconsfield ministry for desiring, ii 82 ; various 
views concerning, ii 185 ; it is made impossible by the annexa- 
tion of the Transvaal to the British dominions, ii 186 ; in 1878 
the subject is discussed by the legislative council of Natal, but 
no action is taken, ii 85 ; an appeal to the electors of the Cape 
Colony is made on the subject, but the result is adverse, 
ii 188 ; in 1880 it is finally rejected, ii 191 

Conference (so called) on confederation : 
in August 1876 is held in London, i 23 

Constitution Amendment Act of 1882 in Natal : 
particulars concerning, ii 211 

Convention of London, granting complete independenco to the South 
African Eepublic : 
on the 27th of February 1884 is signed, ii 155 ; particulars concern- 
ing, ib. ; on the 8th of August in the same year it is ratified 
by the volksraad, ii 156 

Convention of Pretoria: 

on the 3rd of August 1881 is signed, ii 129 ; particulars concern- 
ing, ib. ; on the 25th of October 1881 it is ratified with great 
reluctance by the volksraad, ** 130 

252 Synoptical Index. 

Coodb, Sir John, marine engineer : 

in 1876 visits South Africa and reports upon several harbours, 
i 25 
Cotton growing : 

cessation of in the eastern districts of the Cape Colony, i 16 
Cradock : 

on the 1st of June 1881 the railway from Port Elizabeth is 
opened to, ii 193 ; population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Grealock, Major-General : 

in April 1879 is placed in command of a division of the forces 
marching near the coast in Zululand, i 337 ; encamps at Port 
Durnford, and never advances farther, i 340 ; on the close of 
the Zulu war returns to Europe, i 346 
Cronje, Commandant Pieter : 

conduct of at Potchefstroom in November 1880, ii 115 ; and in 
December of the same year, ii 117 
Cumming, Thomas A. : 

in March 1875 becomes acting commissioner and magistrate of 
Kokstad, i 35 ; in March 1876 returns to Idutywa, i 86 ; in 
September, 1877 retires from service, i 59 
Cumming, "William G. : 

in July 1878 becomes magistrate of Xalanga, * 143 
Conynghame, Lieutenant -General Sir Arthur- A. T. : 

in March 1874 becomes commander of the troops in South 
Africa, i 17 ; on the 25th of February 1878 is succeeded by 
Lieutenant-General Thesiger, i 120 
Dabulamanzi, half brother of the Zulu chief Ketshwayo: 

in September 1878 menaces the peace of Natal, i 295 ; com- 
mands the Zulu army that on the 22nd of January 1876 
unsuccessfully attacks the post at Rorke's drift, i 320; on the 
12th of the following July surrenders to the British forces, 
i 345 ; objects to the diminution of territory given to Ketshwayo 
when he returns to Zululand, ii 11 ; escapes from the custody 
of two farmers who have arrested him and flees into the 
reserve, but is followed and shot, ii 25 
Dalasilk, chief of the Amakwati occupying the district of Engcobo 
in Tembuland : 
in December 1875 becomes a British subject, i 47 ; in the war 
of 1877-8 with the Galekas declines to assist the colonial 
forces, i 62 ; in October 1880 rises in rebellion against the 
Cape government, i 148 ; but is thoroughly subdued and loses 
everything, i 149; on the 18th of May 1895 dies, i 152 

Synoptical Index. -253 

Dalindyebo : 

on the 30th of December 1884 succeeds his father Gangelizwe as 
head of the Tembu tribe, i 152 ; in November 1886 offers to 
assist the government against the Pondos, i 207 
Darala, Emigrant Tembu chief : 

in September 1878 becomes a British subject, i 143 ; in June 
1884 dies, i 152 
David Massou, Korana Captain : 

carries on war with the Batlapin chief Mankoroano, i 144 ; 
enlists Europeans to assist him, ib. ; on the 26th of July 1882 
agrees to peace, ii 147 ; strongly objects to the western 
boundary of the South African Republic as fixed by the 
convention of London, ii 168; comes into conflict with the 
government of the South African Republic, and is killed in 
battle, ii 174 
Deank, Lieutenant- Colonel Bonar : 

on the 28th of January 1881 is killed at Lang's Nek, ii 121 
Delagoa Bay : 

in 1879 is connected by submarine cable with Durban and Aden, 
ii 192 ; particulars concerning the construction of a railway to 
the Transvaal, ii 142 
Delima, son of the Gunukwebe chief (.Pato : 

in January 1878 goes into rebellion against the Cape Colony, 
i 86; in March 1878 meets with heavy losses, i 125 ; on the 
30th of July surrenders, i 132 
Derby, Earl of : 

on the 17th of December 1882 becomes secretary of state for 
the colonies, ii 153 ; regards the desire of the Transvaal farmers 
for complete independence favourably, ib. ; concludes the con- 
vention of London with them, ii 155 
Diamond field horse: 

account of the corps so called, i 91 
Dinizulu, son of Ketshwayo : 

on the 21st of May 1884 is installed by a party of Transvaal 
farmers as supreme chief of the Zulus, ii 19 ; rises in arms 
when British authority over Zululand is enforced, but is 
captured and sent as a prisoner of state to the island of 
St. Helena, ii 27 
Disarmament Act : 

in 1878 is passed by the Cape Parliament, i 117 ; the attempt 
to enforce it causes a rebellion in Tembuland and Griqualand 
East, i 147 ; is put in force in the division of King-Williams- 
town, ii 53; on the 6th of April 1880 is applied to Basutoland. 

254 Synoptical Index. 

with the result that most of the tribe offer armed resistance, 
it 58; on the 6th of April 1882 its application to Basutoland 
is cancelled, ii 74 
Disputed Boundary Commission: 

on the 26th of February 1878 is appointed to take evidence and 
report upon the boundary in dispute between the Transvaal 
and Zululand, i 294; on the 20th of June sends in a report 
favourable to the Zulus, i 295 
Dixie, Lady Florence: 

is a champion of Ketshwayo, ii 3 
Doda, son of the Baputi chief Morosi: 

in March 1878 sets the magistrate of Quthing at defiance, ii 43 ; in 
November 1878 is sentenced to four years imprisonment for horse 
stealing, ib. ; on the 28th of January 1879 is forcibly released from 
prison by his father, ii 44 
Donker, Malgas: 

is head of a band of Xosa vagrants, U 29 ; has taken part in distur- 
bances in Griqualand West, ib. ; in 1879 occupies islands in the 
Orange river, ib. ; gives a great deal of trouble to the colonial forces, 
ii 36 ; but is ultimately hunted down and killed, ib. 
Donovan, Captain, of the diamond field horse : 

on the 21st of March 1878 is killed in the Amatola forest, 
i 122 
Dormer, Francis Joseph : 

as editor of the Cape Argus defends himself in an action for 
libel brought against him by Attorney-General Upington, ii 38 
Dorthesia : 

ravages caused by, i 14 : discovery of a remedy for, i 15 
Drought, prolonged: 
effects of, ii 230 
Dukwana, son of Ntsikana: 

follows the Gaika chief Sandile into rebellion, i 86 ; on the 29th 
of May 1878 is killed in a skirmish at Isidengi hill, i 130 
Dunn, John, an Englishman living in Zululand : 

is engaged in supplying the Zulus with guns, i 291 ; before the 
beginning of hostilities in January 1879 abandons the Zulu 
cause and with his people takes shelter in Natal, i 306 ; 
assists in the operations against the Zulus, i 334 ; in the par- 
tition of Zululand into thirteen districts by Sir Garnet Wolseley 
nas the largest of them assigned to him, i 351 ; attempts to 
govern his district in a kind of civilised manner, ii 1 ; in July 
1881 defeats Sitimela and drives him from Zululand, ii 2 ; easily 

Synoptical Index. 255 

in 1883 is deprived of his sovereignty, but is soon afterwards 
given the position of an ordinary Kaffir chief, ii 12 
Duplessis, Fieldcornet L. M. : 

in 1876 is the leader of a party of emigrants from the South 
African Republic to Mossamedes, i 261 
Durban : 

progress of railway extension inland from, ii 206 ; improvements 
in, ii 215 ; population in July 1884, ii 236 
Durnford, Major Anthony "William, of the royal engineers; 

in 1873 is in command of the volunteers sent in pursuit of Lan- 
galibalele, i 229 ; (Lieutenant-Colonel) on the 26th of February 
1878 is appointed a member of the disputed boundary com- 
mission, i 294 ; on the 22nd of January 1879 is killed at 
Isandhlwana, i 316 
Dutch language : 

is restored to official use, ii 199 
Dutoit, Rev. Stephanus Jacobus, editor of the Patriot newspaper: 
in 1879 founds the Afrikander Bond, ii 186; early in 1884 visits 
England as a member of a deputation from the Transvaal, and 
concludes with the earl of Derby the convention of London, 
ii 153 ; on the 25th of September 1884 arranges a treaty of 
peace between the Barolong chiefs Montsiwa and Moshete, 
which is objected to by the British authorities, ii 164 
Eastern Pondoland: 

after its annexation to the Cape Colony in 1894 is divided into 
three districts, named Umsikaba, Tabankulu, and Bizana, i 222 ; 
population in 1894 of, i 223 
East London : 

an excellent harbour is constructed at, i 26 ; progress of railway 
construction inland from, ii 193 ; population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Edye, Harry Mills : 

in September 1878 is appointed acting resident magistrate and 
sub-collector of customs at Port St. John's, i 180 
Egerton, Conductor Ralph: 

after the engagement at Bronkhorst Spruit conveys the colours 
of the 94th regiment to Pretoria, ii 119 
Electric light : 

introduction into Capetown of, ii 205 
Ellknberger, Rev. D. Fred., missionary with the Baputi clan under 
Morosi : 
in the early weeks of 1879 does all in his power to induce the 
people to keep the peace, ii 48 ; reference to the volume History 
of the Basuto Ancient and Modern written by, ii 41 

256 Synoptical Index. 

Elliot, Captain: 

is made a prisoner at Bronkhorst Spruit, i% 119; is released on 
parole, but is shot dead when attempting to cross the Vaal 
river, ii 131 
Elliot, Major Henry G. : 

in August 1877 becomes chief magistrate of Tembuland Proper, 
i 62 ; to which in September 1878 Emigrant Tembuland is added, 
i 144 
Elliotdale, district of: 

in 1878 Bomvanaland takes that name, i 147 
Emigration of farmers from the South African Kepublic to Mossamedes : 

account of, i 261 
Emjanyana, in Tembuland: 

in 1876 is created a magisterial district, i 47 
Empiee League : 

particulars concerning the political association so called, ii 206 
Engcobo, in Tembuland: 

in 1876 is created a magisterial district, i 47 
Englishmen in the Transvaal in 1881 : 

attitude of, ii 131 
Eeskine, Mr., a volunteer: 

in 1873 is killed by Langalibalele's followers at the Bushman's 
river pass, i 230 
Esselen, Advocate Ewald : 

acts as secretary to the Transvaal deputation when arranging the 
convention of London, ii 154 
Etshowe, Norwegian mission station in Zululand : \ 

on the 23rd of January 1879 is reached and occupied by a 
British force under Lieutenant-Colonel Pearson, * 309 ; on the 
3rd of April is relieved by Lord Chelmsford, i 335 
Eugenie, ex-empress of France: 

on the 16th of April 1880 arrives at Capetown in the German, 
and on the 6th of July leaves Capetown to return to England 
in the Trojan, i 339 
European farmers in Betshuanaland: 

position of, ii 143 
European population of South Africa in 1873 : 

distribution of, * 2 
Europeans in Natal: 

number of in 1873, i 226; and in 1884, ii 236 
Eustace, Colonel John T. : 

in November 1876 becomes resident with Kreli, i 52 

Synoptical Index. 257 

Excise duty on spirits distilled in the Cape Colony : 

in 1878 is first imposed, i 116 
Executive council for the Transvaal under British rule : 

on the 8th of November 1879 is created, ii 100 
Exhibition, international : 

on the 5th of April 1877 is opened in Capetown, i 50 
Expenditure : _ 

of the Cape Colony, ii 229 ; and of Natal, ii 231 
Exports : 

of the Cape Colony, ii 232 ; and of Natal, ii 234 
Falls, Captain : 

in December 1880 is killed at Potchefstroom, U 117 
Farmers' Protection Association : 

in 1878 is formed in the Cape Colony, but some years later is 
merged in the Afrikander Bond, ii 186 
Faure, Rev. David P. : 

acts as interpreter to the Transvaal deputation when arranging 
the convention of London, ii 154 
Fihla, petty Galeka chief: 

on the 3rd of August 1877 is badly bruised at a Fingo wedding 
feast, which brings on the ninth Kaffir war, i 54 
Fingos in the Transkei : 

make great progress towards civilisation, i 43 
Fini, son of Tyali, Gaika chief : 

in the war and rebellion of 1877-8 takes no part, i 83 
Floods of December 1874 in the Cape Colony : 

account of, i 16 
Fort Burgers, on the Steelpoort river : 

in September 1876 is built by the volunteers who are engaged in 
trying to suppress the rebellion of Sekukuni, i 264 ; on the 
29th of that month is unsuccessfully attacked by the Bapedi, 
ib. ; in March 1878 is captured by the Bapedi, i 282 ; in 
September 1878 is reoccupied and made the base of operations 
against Sekukuni, i 285 
Fort Chelmsford : 

in April 1879 is constructed near the Inyezane river to serve as a 
dep6t for supplies, i 336 
Fort Pearson : 

in 1878 is constructed in Natal near the mouth of the Tugela 
river, i 301 
Fort Tenedos : 

in January 1879 is constructed on the northern bank of the 
lower Tugela, i 308 
VOL. II. 1 8 

258 Synoptical Index. 

Fort Weeber : 

in September 1876 is built not far west of Sekukuni's kraal, 
i 265 ; in March 1878 it is abandoned, i 283 

Franchise Amendment Act of 1882 in Natal : 
mention of, ii 209 

Frere, the right honourable Sir Henry Bartle Edward : 

on the 31st of March 1877 assumes duty as governor of the 
Cape Colony and high commissioner for South Africa, i 49 ; 
on the 4th of September 1877 arrives in King-Williamstown, 
i 57; he proceeds to Butterworth, and on the 15th of Sep- 
tember invites Kreli to meet him, i 58; but the chief declines 
to do so, ib. ; on the 5th of October he issues a proclamation 
deposing Kreli from being a chief, i 63 ; holds views different 
from those of Mr. Molteno regarding military operations, t 99 ; 
on the 6th of February 1878 dismisses the Molteno ministry, 
i 104 ; on the 26th of March 1878 leaves King-Williamstown 
to return to Capetown, i 107 ; which he reaches on the 7th of 
April, i 108; his action with regard to the late ministry is 
approved by parliament, i 114; in December 1878 he enters 
into communication with the Transvaal farmers, ii 83 ; in 
April 1879 he visits the farmers' camp at Kleinfontein, ii 86 ; 
on the 13th of that month has an interview with the Transvaal 
independence committee at Erasmus' Spruit, ib. ; gives an 
account of what transpired at this meeting, ii 93 ; in November 
1879 has an interview with a number of Cape colonists con- 
cerning Transvaal affairs, ii 97 ; alludes to confederation when 
opening and closing the Cape parliament, ii 188 and ii 191 ; 
recommends the annexation of the territory between the Atlantic 
ocean and the Transvaal, but unsuccessfully, ii 143 ; on the 
15th of September 1880 retires and leaves South Africa, ii 191 ; 
on the 29th of May 1884 dies, ib. 

Frontier Defence Commission of 1876 : 

report of, i 29; its recommendations are rejected by the Cape 
parliament, i 30 

Frost, Commandant (later Sir John) : 

in January 1878 successfully sweeps the Gaika location, t 89 ; 
on the 4th of February 1878 inflicts severe punishment upon 
Gongubela, i 91 ; in March 1878 conducts operations against the 
rebel Gaikas in the Amatola forests, i 121 

Froude, James Anthony : 

from September 1874 to January 1875 makes a tour through 
South Africa, i 20; and again from June to November 1875, ib. 

Synoptical Index. 259 

Fuller, Thomas E. (later Sir Thomas) : 

in 1873 is sent as emigration agent to England, i 4 ; in May 1880 
in the Cape house of Assembly opposes the disarmament of the 
Basuto, but fruitlessly, ii 59 
Fynn, Henry Francis : 

in January 1883 becomes British resident with Ketshwayo, ii 12 
Fynn, "William : 

in February 1878 becomes magistrate of Elliotdale, i 147 
Gabkla, Pondo counsellor : 

is killed for having caused the death of Umqikela by witchcraft, 
i 215 
Gaika location west of the Kei : 

is divided into farms in 1878, which are sold to Europeans, i 138 
Gallway, Michael Henry, attorney-general of Natal : 

on the 26th of February 1878 is appointed a member of the dis- 
puted boundary commission, i 294 
Gamka Windwai, disaffected Griqua : 

mention of, ii 31 ; on the 22nd of June 1879 is captured, ii 35 
Gangelizwe, principal Tembu chief: 

in 1875 gets into trouble by murdering a Galeka woman, i 44 ; 
he is fined by the governor, but as the Galekas threaten war, 
he offers to become a British subject, i 45; and in December 
1875 he and his tribe are taken over, i 46; in the war of 
1877-8 with the Galekas he aids the colonial forces, i 62 ; in 
the rebellion of 1880 he is faithful to the Cape government, 
i 148; on the 30th of December 1884 he dies, i 152 
Garcia's pass : 

in November 1879 a good road through is completed, ii 195 
Garner, J. H. : 

in May 1876 becomes magistrate of Mount Frere, i 37 
Gecelo, emigrant Tembu chief : 

in September 1878 becomes a British subject, i 143; in October 
1880 rises in rebellion against the Cape government, i 148; but 
is thoroughly subdued and loses everything, i 149 
German adventurers in Pondoland : 

account of, i 217 
German immigrants : 
account of, i 25 
Germany : 

in 1884 and later is seeking to obtain land in different parts of 
South Africa, ii 181 

260 . Synoptical Index. 

Ginginhlovo : 

in January 1879 the military kraal at this place is burnt by 
Lieutenant- Colonel Pearson, i 808 ; on the 2nd of April 1879 
the Zulus are defeated in a battle here, i 335 
Gladstone, the right honourable "William Ewart: 

in his electioneering speeches is very bitter against the annexa- 
tion of the Transvaal, ii 109; on the 23rd of April 1880 
becomes prime minister of England, ib. ; but then declines to 
annul the annexation, ii 110 ; is in a difficult position with 
regard to the Transvaal, ii 111 ; on the 24th of June 1885 is 
succeeded by Lord Salisbury as prime minister of England, 
ii 24 
Gladwin, F. P. : 

in October 1877 becomes resident magistrate of Tsomo, i 44 
Glynn, Lieutenant- Colonel, of the first battalion of the twenty-fourth 
regiment : 
on the 9th of December 1877 is placed in command of all the 
forces east of the Kei, i 80; on the 11th of January 1879 is 
in command of a column that crosses the Buffalo river into 
Zululand, i 310 
Godlonton, Hon. Eobert: 

on the 30th of May 1884 dies, ii 207 
Gold coinage of President Burgers : 
account of, i 249 


early in 1882 are opened at De Kaap in the district of Lyden- 
burg, ii 140 ; in 1883 very rich quartz reefs are discovered, and 
gold mining then becomes a settled industry, ii 140 ; in June 
1885 the Witwatersrand begins to attract attention, ii 141 
OOLDFIELD8 Mebcurt, organ of the English party in the 
Transvaal : 
in April 1878 ceases to exist, i 297 
Gold mining in South Africa in 1873 : 

condition of, i 1 
Gongubela, Tembu chief : 

in January 1878 joins the enemies of the Cape Colony, i 88; an 
unsuccessful expedition is undertaken against him, i 90; but on 
the 6th of February he meets with a severe defeat, i 91 ; and 
in April 1878 he is captured, * 128 
Gonya, alias Edmund Sandile ; 

in 1878 goes into rebellion against the Cape government, i 87; but 
on the 1st of July is apprehended, i 132 

Synoptical Index. 261 

Gordon, Major-General Charles George : 

transactions in South Africa of, ii 75 
Goshen, land of: 

on the 24th of October 1882 is proclaimed an independent republic, 
ii 153 
Graaff-Eeinbt : 

in August 1879 is connected by railway with Port Elizabeth, 
ii 191 ; population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Grahamstown : 

in September 1879 is connected by railway with Port Elizabeth, 
ii 193 ; population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Graving dock in Capetown : 

on the 20th of October 1881 is opened for use, ii 205 
Grey, Sir George : 

gives plots of land on individual tenure to selected Bantu, i 26 

Greyling, Commandant J. C. : 

in 1876 is the leader of a party of emigrants from the South 
African Eepublic to Mossamedes, i 261 

Griffith, Colonel Charles Duncan : 

in 1878 is in command of the colonial forces during the war with 
the Galekas, i 57 ; on the 10th of October 1878 resumes duty 
as governor's agent in Basutoland, ii 56 ; on the 8th of April 
1879 fails in an attempt to take Morosi's mountain stronghold 
by storm, ii 48; on the 22nd of December 1879 invites the 
Basuto to surrender their arms voluntarily, but very few of 
them comply, ii 58; on the 25th of August 1881 retires from 
service, ii 71 

Griqualand East, chief magistracy of: 

in December 1878 is formed of the districts of Kokstad, Umzim- 
kulu, Matatiele, Mount Frere, Maclear, Qumbu, and Tsolo, i 41 ; 
on the 1st of October 1879 the territory is annexed to the Cape 
Colony, i 42 ; mode of government of the territory, i 43 ; in 
1882 the district of Maclear is divided into two, Maclear and 
Mount Fletcher, i 164; is enlarged by the addition of the 
district of Mount Ayliff, i 166 ; population in 1885 of, i 171 

Griqualand West: 

in the wars of 1876 to 1879 prominent part taken by the men 
of, i 284 

Griquas : 

early in 1878 some of the disaffected rebel, * 37 ; but the insur- 
rection is speedily quelled, i 40 

262 Synoptical Index. 


on the 26th of September 1877 the police and Fingos are defeated 
in an engagement at, i 60 
Gwadiso, chief of a clan in Western Pondoland : 

conduct in 1877 of, i 71 
Hall, J. T. : 

in 1875 is engaged to survey a route for a railroad from Delagoa 
Bay inland, i 254 
Hamu, brother of Ketshwayo: 

is regarded by the supreme chief with much jealousy, i 293 ; 
reasons for this, ib. ; on the 3rd of February 1879 he joins 
the British forces operating against Ketshwayo, i 328; in the 
partition of Zululand into thirteen districts by Sir Garnet 
Wolseley has one of them assigned to him, * 351 ; in October 
1881 destroys about a thousand of the Abaqulusi, ii 2 ; early in 
May 1883 is attacked by Ketshwayo's army, but with Sibebu's 
assistance he utterly defeats it, ii 13; in the following month, 
however, he is again attacked, when he is beaten and is obliged 
to flee to a wild part of the country, ib. ; is relieved by Sibebu 
after the defeat of Ketshwayo at Ulundi, ii 16 ; after Sibebu's 
defeat submits to Dinizulu, ii 21 
Hanoverian mission in Zululand: 
particulars concerning, i 295 
Harbour works in Table Bay: 

progress of, ii 196 
Harrbl, Captain: 

in April 1880 reports upon the clans living south of the Molopo, 
ii 144 
Harrismith conference: 

particulars concerning, ii 213 
Havblock, Sir Arthur : governor of Natal : 

on behalf of the British ministry enters into negotiations with the 
New Republic for a settlement of Zululand, U 25 
Hawthorn, George W. : 

in January 1879 becomes magistrate of Kokstad, i 42 
Heads of the government of the Cape Colony : succession of, 

Sir Henry Barkly, governor and high commissioner, retired 

31st March 1877 
Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere, governor and high commissioner, 

assumed duty 31st March 1877; retired 15th September 1880 
Major-General H. H. Clifford, acting administrator, from 15th to 
27th September 1880 

Synoptical Index. 263 

Sir George Cumine Strahan, acting governor, from 27th September 

1880 to 22nd January 1881 
Sir Hercules George Eobert Robinson, governor and high commis- 
sioner, assumed duty 22nd January 1881 
Lieutenant-General Sir Leicester Smyth, acts as administrator 

during Sir Hercules Robinson's absence in Natal and the 

Transvaal in 1881, and again during Sir Hercules Robinson's 

absence in England to assist in arranging the convention of 

Heads of the government of Natal : succession of, 

Anthony Musgrave, Esqre,, lieutenant-governor, retired 30th April 

Lieutenant-Colonel T. Milles, acting administrator, 30th April to 

22nd July 1873 
Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine, lieutenant-governor, assumed 

duty 22nd July 1873, retired 1st April 1875 
Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley, administrator, assumed duty 1st April, 

retired 3rd September 1875 
Sir Henry Ernest Bulwer, lieutenant-governor, assumed duty 

3rd September 1875, retired 20th April 1880 
Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley, governor of Natal and the Transvaal 

and high commissioner for South-Eastern Africa, assumed duty 

28th June 1879, retired 27th April 1880. During this period 

the lieutenant-governor carried on the ordinary duties of the office 
Lieutenant- Colonel William Bellairs, acting administrator, 20th April 

to 5th May 1880 
Major-General H. H, Clifford, acting administrator, 5th May to 

2nd July 1880 
Major-General Sir George Pomeroy Colley, governor, assumed duty 

2nd July 1880, killed at Majuba hill 27th February 1881 
Lieutenant -Colonel Alexander acted as administrator from 

17th August to 14th September 1880 during Sir George 

Colley's absence in the Transvaal 
Sir Evelyn Wood, acting administrator, from 28th February to 

22nd December 1881 
Lieutenant-Colonel Redvers Buller from the 3rd of April to the 

9th of August 1881 acted as administrator during Sir Evelyn 

Wood's absence in the Transvaal 
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell, acting adminis- 
trator, from the 22nd of December 1881 to the 6th of March 

Sir Henry Ernest Bulwer, governor, assumed duty 6th March 

1882, retired 23rd of October 1885 

264 Synoptical Index. 

Heads of the Transvaal government : succession of, 

Eev. Thomas Francois Burgers, president, retired 12th April 1877 
Sir Theophilus Shepstone, administrator, from 12th April 1877 to 

March 1879 
Lieutenant-Colonel William Owen Lanyon, administrator, from 

March 1879 to 8th August 1881 
Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley, governor, from 29th September 1879 

to 27th April 1880 
Triumvirate consisting of Messrs. Stephanus Johannes Paulus 
Kruger, Petrus Jacobus Joubert, and Maryhinus Wessel Pre- 
terms, from 8th August 1881 to 8th May 1883 
Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger, president, from 8th May 
1883 onward 
Heidelberg, in the Cape Colony : 

by the rising of the Doom river in December 1875 much damage 
is caused to this village, i 16 
Heidelberg, in the South African Republic: 

on the 16th of December 1880 the Transvaal republican govern- 
ment is restored at, U 116 
Helm, Rev. Charles Daniel : 

in 1875 becomes a missionary in Matabeleland, ii 178 
Herschel : 

in April 1873 becomes a magisterial district of the Cape Colony, 
i II 
Hlangwenis : . 

in October 1874 those under Sidoyi become British subjects, i 35 
Hlubis : 

in 1873 the clan under Langalibalele in Natal is entirely broken 
up, i 234; in July 1873 those under the chief Zibi are made 
subject to the Cape government, i 31 ; and in October 1874 
those under the chief Ludidi become British subjects, * 85 
Hofmeyr, Jan Hendrik : 

exercises enormous influence for good in Cape politics, ii 186 ; 
on the 9th of May 1881 becomes minister without portfolio in 
Mr. Scanlen's cabinet, ii 70; on the 30th of November 1881 
resigns this position, ii 198 ; in May 1884 declines the governor's 
invitation to form a ministry, ii 203 
von Hohenan, Sub-Inspector : 

on the 26th of September 1877 is killed in the engagement at 
Gwadana, i 61 
Honey, James: 

in March 1883 is murdered in Betshuanaland, ii 170 

Synoptical Index. 265 

Hook, Captain David : 

on the 20th of November 1879 assists in taking Morosi's mountain 
stronghold by storm, ii 53 
Hope, Hamilton : 

in May 1877 is appointed magistrate of Quthing, ii 42 ; in April 

1878 is transferred to Qumbu, ii 43; in July takes over the 

duty there, i 41 ; on the 23rd of October 1880 with two other 

officials is treacherously murdered by Umhlonhlo's people, i 158 

Hopetown : 

on the 12th of November 1884 the railway from Capetown is 
opened to, ii 194 
Hospital at Butterworth : 

establishment and maintenance of, i 155 
House duty act of 1878 : 

particulars concerning, i 116 
Houses of parliament in Capetown : 

on the 12th of May 1875 the foundation stone is laid, ii 198 ; 
progress of at the end of 1880, ib. ; on the 15th of May 1885 
are first used, ib. 
Hudson, George : 

on the 7th of February 1880 becomes colonial secretary of the 
Transvaal, ii 113; in August 1881 becomes British resident in 
the Transvaal, ii 133 
Huguenot seminary for girls : 

in February 1874 is opened at Wellington in the Cape Colony, 
* 13 
Hut-tax : 

in 1875 is raised in Natal to fourteen shillings a year, i 243 
Hutton, Hon. Charles William : 

on the 9th of May 1881 becomes treasurer in Mr. Scanlen's 
ministry, ii 70 ; on the 19th of March 1884 retires, ii 202 
Ibeka : 

on the 29th of September 1877 the Galekas are defeated in an 
engagement at, i 61 
Immigrants from Europe : 

particulars concerning the mechanics who arrived in the Cape 
Colony in 1873-5, i 5 
Immigration : 

owing to war at the close of 1877 state-aided immigration 
ceases, i 51 ; further particulars concerning, ii 197 
Immigration of Europeans into Natal : 
account of, ii 209 

266 Synoptical Index. 

Imports : 

of the Cape Colony, ii 235 ; and of Natal, ib. 
Indians : 

settlement of in Natal, ii 209 
Individual tenure of land : 

is restricted to Europeans in the Transvaal, ii 82 
Industrial exhibition : 

in September 1884 is opened in Capetown, ii 205 
Industries of South Africa before 1873 : 

account of, i 1 
Ingogo river : 

engagement at. See Schuins Hoogte 
Intombi river : 

account of the disaster on the 12th of March 1879 at, i 329 
Inyezane : 

on the 22nd of January 1879 a Zulu army is defeated at, i 308 
Isipingo : 

in February 1880 is connected by railway with Durban, ii 209 
Jackson, Maximilian : 

in December 1878 is appointed special commissioner and com- 
mandant-general on the northern border of the Cape Colony, 
ii 33 ; he raises a force of five hundred men, but does not 
succeed in finding the marauders, ii 34 
Jacobus Afrikaner: see Afrikaner 
Jali, son of the Barabe chief Umkayi : 

in March 1878 goes into rebellion against the Cape government, 
i 126 ; and enters the Amatola forest, ib, ; on the 6th of April 
is killed in battle, i 128 
Janisch, Governor : 

on learning of the disaster at Isandhlwana sends all the soldiers 
at Saint Helena to Natal, i 332 
Joel, son of Molapo, Basuto chief : 

in July 1880 resists the order for disarmament, ii 60 
John Dunn : see Dunn 
Jojo, chief of the Xesibes : 

is an unwilling vassal of the Pondos, i 167; on the 8th of July 
1878 is received as a British subject, ib. 
Jonathan, son of Molapo, Basuto chief: 

in July 1880 complies with the order for disarmament, ii 60; in 
May 1883 is defeated by Joel, when his women and children 
flee to the Orange Free State, ii 78 
Jorissen, Dr. E. J. P. : 

in 1876 becomes attorney-general of the South African Bepublie, 

Synoptical Index. 267 

i 255; with Mr. Paul Kruger in 1877 visits England to 
endeavour to secure the independence of the Transvaal, i 278; 
but fails in his object, i 279; on the 13th of July 1883 ceases 
to be state attorney of the Transvaal, ii 139 
Josiah Jenkins, a Pondo: 

account of, i 38; conduct of, i 189 
Joubbrt, Commandant Frans : 

leads the Transvaal burghers in the engagement at Bronkhorst 
Spruit, ii 119 
Joubert, Pieter Jacobus: 

in 1875-6 acts as president of the South African Republic during 
the absence of Mr. Burgers in Europe, i 254; in 1878 with 
Mr. Paul Kruger proceeds to Europe to endeavour to obtain 
the restoration of the independence of the Transvaal, i 288 ; 
but returns without success, i 289 ; in February 1880 visits 
Sir Bartle Frere in Natal to ascertain if any assistance can be 
expected from him, ii 83 ; in April 1880 is sent with Mr. 
Kruger on a mission to the Cape Colony, ii 110 ; where he 
pleads successfully against confederation, ii 189 ; in December 
1880 is elected a member of the triumvirate to carry on the 
Transvaal government provisionally, also commandant-general of 
the Transvaal burghers, ii 115 ; on the 28th of January 1881 
defeats the British forces under Major-General Colley at Lang's 
Nek, ii 121 ; on the 6th of March concludes an armistice with 
Major-General Wood, ii 127 ; and on the 21st terms of peace 
are agreed upon, ib. ; in 1882 and 1883 conducts the opera- 
tions against the tribe of Mapoch, ii 137; on the 30th of 
August 1884 arranges a treaty of peace between Montsiwa and 
the Goshenites, which is repudiated by the British authorities, 
ii 164; in December 1885 subdues the Koranas under David 
Massou, ii 177 ; is invited to become president of the New 
Republic, but declines, ii 22 
Judge, Edward: 

in November 1878 is sent as special commissioner to the northern 
border, ii 33 
Kaffir women and children : 

treatment of those made prisoners in the rebellion of 1878, i 122 
Kaffraria (the territory between the river Kei and Natal) : 

condition of in 1873, i 30 
Kakamas labour colony : 

account of, ii 39 et seq. 
Kalabani : 

disaster on the 19th of October 1880 at, ii 63 

268 Synoptical Index. 

Kama, Christian Gunukwebe chief: 

on the 25th of October 1875 dies, and is succeeded by his son 
William Shaw Kama, i 127 

Kambula : 

on the 29th of March 1879 a great Zulu army is defeated at, 
i 330 

Kbatb award : 

effect of the, i 250 

Kentani : 

battle at on the 7th of February 1878, i 92 

Kentani, in the Transkei: 

in 1878 is created a magisterial district, i 137 ; mode of settle- 
ment of, i 127; on the 26th of August 1885 is annexed to 
the Cape Colony, i 142 

Kbtshwayo, supreme chief of the Zulu tribe : 

reference to, i 98; in September 1878 claims land north of the 
Pongolo river, i 296; account of the war with, i 306; after 
the battle of Ulundi conceals himself for a time, but on the 
28th of August 1879 he is captured, i 346; and is sent to 
Capetown, where he is confined in the castle as a prisoner of 
state, ib. ; after a time he is removed to a small farm named 
Oude Molen, ii 4; his restoration is desired by many Zulus to 
prevent internal strife, ii 2; and even by the Transvaal govern- 
ment for the same reason, ii 3 ; but the Natal colonists are 
strongly opposed to it, ib. ; he is permitted by the British 
government to visit England, ii 4; and in August 1882 he 
reaches London, where he becomes the lion of the day, ii 5 ; 
he is very kindly received by her Majesty the queen, ib. ; and 
is allowed to return to Zululand under certain conditions, ib. ; 
on the 10th of January 1883 he lands at Port Durnford, ii 73; 
at Entonjaneni on the 29th of the same month he is restored 
to his people by Sir Theophilus Shepstone, ib. ; as soon as he 
is at liberty he protests against the division of Zululand, ii 11; 
on the 21st of July 1883 he is attacked by Sibebu, when he 
is completely ruined, but manages to escape, ii 14; when trying 
to conceal himself he is discovered and wounded, but not 
mortally, ii 15 ; on the 9th of August he reaches the Inkandhla 
forest in the reserve, ib.; on the 16th of October 1883 through 
Mr. Fynn's efforts he goes to reside with Mr. Osborn at 
Etshowe, ii 16; where on the 8th of February 1884 he dies, 
ii 17 ; his remains are interred in the Inkandhla, ib. 

Kbtshwayo, eldest son of the Pondo chief Umqikela: 

in October 1886 invades the Xesibe district with a large army 

Synoptical Index. 269 

and does much damage, * 204; on the 15th of November 1886 
dies suddenly, i 210 

Khama, chief of the Bamangwato : 
reference to, ii 179 

Khamanyani, chief of the Bakatla: 

is chastised by Commandant Paul Kruger for insolence, and then 
flees from the Transvaal and is given shelter by the Bakwena 
chief Setsheli, ii 177 ; upon whom he makes war as soon as 
he gains strength, ib. ; in 1875 dies, and is succeeded by his 
son Linshwe, ib. 


on the 28th of April 1880 succeeds Sir Michael Hicks Beach as 
secretary of state for the colonies, i 141 ; on the 17th of 
December 1882 is transferred from the colonial to the India 
office, ii 153 


on the 10th of January 1884 there is a great explosion of 
dynamite at, ii 202; in November 1885 the railway from Cape- 
town is open to, ii 181 ; population in 1891 of, ii 238 


population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Kiva, Galeka chief: 

takes command of the warriors of Mapasa's clan who remain 
faithful to the Galeka cause when their chief abandons it, 
i 60; on the 24th of December 1877 crosses the Kei to the 
Gaika location, and appeals to the Karabe clans to aid Kreli 
in his time of need, i 81 ; which appeal is successful, i 82 ; 
on the 13th of January 1878 commands the Galeka army in 
an engagement, i 85; on the 7th of February 1878 leads one 
of the Galeka columns in the battle of Kentani, i 94 ; on the 
8th of March is killed in action, i 96 
Klaas Lukas, Korana captain : 

in 1879 is at war with the Cape government, ii 31 
Koegas atrocities : 

trials connected with the, ii 37 
Kok, Adam, Griqua captain : 

in October 1874 transfers his country to the Cape government 
* 34; on the 30th of December 1875 dies, i 35 
Kokstad, district of: 

in October 1874 is annexed to the British dominions, * 35 
Kokstad, town of : 

description of, i 171 

270 Synoptical Index. 

Kokstad Political Association: / 

action in 1886 of the, i 201 

Komgha : 

in December 1877 is created a magisterial district of the Caps 
Colony, i 51 

Kona, son of the Gaika chief Makoma: 

in the war and rebellion of 1877-8 takes no part, * 83 

Kotzk, Advocate : 

in March 1877 becomes a judge in the South African Republic, 
% 271 

Koyi, William: 

mention of, i 28 

Kreli, head of the Xosa tribe: 

having made war upon the colonial forces, on the 5th of October 
1877 is deposed from his chieftainship by a proclamation of Sir 
Bartle Frere, i 63; after the battle of Kentani gives up the 
contest, and retires into Bomvanaland, i 95; on the 28th of 
June 1881 surrenders with two hundred men, states that he 
relinquishes his chieftainship, and promises to be obedient to 
the government, ib. ; a tract of land in Elliotdale is purchased 
by the government and assigned to him as a residence, i 193; 
in November 1886 offers to assist the government against the 
Pondos, i 207 

Kruger, Stephanus Johannes Paulus: 

in 1874 becomes a member of the executive council of the South 
African Republic, i 250; in March 1877 becomes vice president 
of the South African Republic, * 271 ; a little later in the same 
year with Dr. Jorissen visits England to endeavour to recover 
the independence of the Transvaal, i 278; but fails in his 
object, i 279; in 1878 with Mr. Pieter Jacobus Joubert pro- 
ceeds to England again on a similar mission, i 288 ; but 
returns without success, i 289; gives some sensible advice to 
Lord Chelmsford, which is unheeded, i 311; in January 1879 
he refuses to accept an appointment under the British govern- 
ment, ii 85; in April 1880 with Mr. P. J. Joubert is sent by 
the Transvaal Independence Committee to the Cape Colony in 
order to endeavour to frustrate the government scheme of con- 
federation, ii 110 ; in which he is successful, ii 111 ; in December 
1880 is elected a member of a triumvirate to carry on the 
Transvaal government provisionally, ii 115; in 1883 is elected 
president of the Transvaal, and on the 8th of May of that 
year takes the oath of office, ii 183; early in 1884 visits 

Synoptical Index. 271 

England as a member of a deputation from the Transvaal, and 
concludes with the earl of Derby the convention of London, 
ii 153 

Laing, John: 

in February 1878 becomes commissioner of crown lands and 
public works of the Cape Colony, i 105; on the 9th of May 
1881 retires from office, ii 69 

Lambert, Lieutenant-Colonel W. : 

in January 1878 successfully sweeps the Tshitshaba valley, i 89 

Lancastbia : 

wreck of the, ii 194 

Land speculators in the Transvaal: 
account of, ii 114 

Land tenure : 

particulars concerning, * 26 ; see Individual 

Langalibalele, Hlubi chief: 

account of his settlement in Natal, i 111 ; is regarded by the 
Bantu as a powerful rainmaker, i 228; his young men acquire 
guns at the diamond fields which he refuses to have registered, 
ib. ; he enters into seditious communications with other chiefs, 
ib. ; an armed party is sent to his location to enforce obedience 
to the law, i 229 ; upon the approach of which he flees with 
his cattle over the Drakensberg, ib. ; on the top of the mountain 
his cattle are intercepted, ib. ; when his followers open fire 
upon the volunteers and kill three Europeans and two blacks, 
i 230; stronger forces are then set in operation against him, 
ib. ; on the 11th of December 1873 he is captured at Leribe in 
Basutoland, i 233 ; he is tried by a special court and sentenced 
to confinement and banishment for life, ib. ; the Cape parlia- 
ment comes to the aid of Natal, and he is confined on Bobben 
Island, i 234 ; from which he is removed by order of the 
secretary of state for the colonies, i 236; in August 1875 he is 
placed as a kind of state prisoner on a small farm near 
Mowbray in the Cape peninsula, i 237 ; where he remains until 
April 1887, when he is permitted to return to Natal, ib. ; effect 
in Kaffraria of the rebellion of, i 33 

Lang's Nek: 

on the 28th of January 1881 the British forces under Major- 
General Colley are defeated at, ii 121 

Lanyon, Lieutenant-Colonel William Owen (later Sir Owen) : 

in March 1879 becomes acting administrator of the Transvaal, and 
in June 1880 is confirmed in the appointment, ii 84 ; has very 

272 Synoptical Index. 

limited power, ib. ; on the 24th of March 1879 has an interview 
with a deputation from the Transvaal independence committee, 
ii 85 
Lkary, J. Glen : 

on the 28th of March 1894 becomes resident magistrate of 
Ngceleni, i 222 
Leary, W. Power: 

in 1894 becomes magistrate of Umsikaba, i 222 
Lefthanded clan of the Koranas : 

in 1878 is reduced to submission and disarmed by Colonel Warren, 
ii 144 
LhgisIiAtive council of Natal : 

in 1873 is enlarged, * 225; in 1875 undergoes a great change, 
i 241 ; on the 15th of July 1885 favours the annexation of 
Zululand and Tongaland, ii 24; proceedings during the session 
of 1874, i 238; during the first session of 1875, * 240 and 245; 
during the second session of 1875, i 242; during the session 
of 1878, ii 185; during the session of 1880, ii 206; during 
the session of 1881, ii 210; during the session of 1882, 
ib. ; during the session of 1883, ii 212; during the session 
of 1884, ii 214 ; during the session of 1885, ii 24 ; during the 
session of 1886, i 202 and it 26 
Legislative council of the Transvaal : 

on the 8th of November 1879 a purely nominated council is 
created, ii 100 
Legolwana, Bapedi chieftainess : 

in February 1878 assists her brother Sekukuni against the Trans- 
vaal government, i 281; on the 5th of April her kraal is partly 
taken and destroyed, i 283 
Leonard, James Weston : 

on the 28th of January 1881 becomes attorney-general of the Cape 
Colony, ii 200; on the 9th of May of the same year retires 
from office, ii 203 ; on the 1st of July 1882 becomes attorney- 
general again, ii 200; on the 13th of May 1884 retires from 
office, ii 69 
Lerothodi, great son of the Basuto chief Letsie : 

in 1873 assists the government against the rebel chief Langa- 
libalele, i 232; and in 1879 leads two thousand men against 
the rebel Baputi clan under Morosi, ii 26; in July 1880 resists 
disarmament of the Basuto tribe, ii 60 
Letsie, paramount chief of the Basuto tribe : 

in July 1880 professes to comply with the order of disarmament, 
but is insincere, ii 60 

Synoptical Index. 273 

Levey, Charles J. : 

in 1878 becomes magistrate of Southeyville, i 143 
Leyds, Dr. W. J. 

in July 1883 becomes state attorney of the Transvaal, ii 139 
Libode, in Western Pondoland : 

in March 1894 is created a magisterial district, i 222 
Likfeldt, M. W. : 

in August 1876 becomes magistrate of Matatiele, i 40 
Lighthouse at Cape Saint Francis : 

in July 1878 is opened for use, ii 195 
Linshwe, chief of the Bakatla : 

reference to, ii 177 
von Linsingen, Commandant : 

in 1878 takes part in the operations against the rebel Rarabes, 
* 125 ; on the 14th of November 1880 is killed by rebels in 
the Transkei, i 153 
Lobengula, chief of the Matabele : 

in May 1878 concedes to Mr. Gilbert McArthur the right to 
prospect for gold in Mashonaland, ii 177 ; receives some 
English officers in a very friendly manner, ii 183 
Lonsdale's horse : 

the corps so called is raised in the Cape Colony for service in 
Natal and Zululand, i 332 
Louis Napoleon, once prince imperial of France : 

on the 1st of June 1879 is killed in Zululand, i 339 
Lowe, Major Stanley : 

in July 1884 raises a corps of one hundred mounted men for 
service in Betshuanaland, ii 159 
Lunebubg : 

account of the German settlement of, i 296 
Lusizi : 

account of the battle of, i 69 
Lydenbueg alluvial goldfields : 

in 1873 are opened up, i 248 
Lydenbueg : 

during the Transvaal war of independence is held by a small 
British garrison, ii 120 
Mackenzie, Rev. John : 

early in 1884 advocates the cause of Mankoroane in England, 
ii 154 ; on the 12th of April 1884 is appointed deputy com- 
missioner for Betshuanaland, ii 157 ; announces a British pro- 
tectorate over Stellaland, ii 158; on the 22nd of May 1884 
declares Montsiwa under British protection, ii 159 ; the Trans- 
VOL. II. ip 

274 Synoptical Index. 

vaal government objects to his appointment, ii 160; as does 
the ministry of the Cape Colony, ib ; so on the 20th of August 
1884 he resigns his office, ib. 
MacKinnon, petty Ndlambe chief : 

account of, t 74; on the outbreak of the war of 1877 takes 
refuge in the Cape Colony, i 75 ; in November he is informed 
that he must surrender his arms, when rather than do so he 
flees to the Gaika location, where he is protected, ib ; but 
after a few days he submits to the government, i 76; a little 
later goes into rebellion, i 83 
Maclean, Captain Alexander : 

on the 1st of July 1879 captures the remnant of Pofadder's gang 
in the Kalahari desert, ii 36; and on the 20th of the same 
month kills Donker Malgas in action and captures all of his 
followers, ib. 
Maclean, Captain Allan : 

on the 20th of November 1879 assists in taking Morosi's mountain 
stronghold by storm, ii 53 
Maclear residency : 

in the rebellion of 1880 is gallantly defended by Mr. J. R. Thomson, 
i 158 
Macmac : 

in 1873 is so named by President Burgers, i 249 


in October 1881 is occupied by the Barolong chief Montsiwa, 
ii 150 ; is strongly fortified, ib. ; is invested by Mosbete's 
adherents, ii 151 
Mafeteng : 

on the 21st of September 1880 is attacked by a Basuto army, but 
without success, ii 61 
Mafisa : 

explanation of the Basuto custom of, ii 78 
Mahali, petty Bapedi chief : 

in June 1878 is defeated and his stronghold is destroyed, i 284 
Mail service overseas : 

in 1873 is opened monthly along the east coast to Aden, i 6; 
particulars concerning the new contracts with the Union and 
Currie companies, i 6 and 7 
Maitland cemeteries : 

in January 1886 are opened for use, ii 205 
Majuba hill : 

on the 27th of February 1881 is the scene of a disaster to the 
British force under Sir George Colley, ii 123 

Synoptical Index. \ 275 

Makaula, Baca chief : 

in September 1906 dies, i 37 

Makoma, Gaika chief: 

on the 9th of September 1873 dies on Robben Island, i 28 

Makwaisbkrg : 

on the 3lst of October 1880 is the scene of a disaster, ii 63 

Malmesbtjry : 

population in 1891 of, ii 238 

Mampuru, half brother and rival of Sekukuni : 

is appointed principal chief of the Bapedi by Sir Garnet Wolseley, 
ii 134 ; on the 13th of August 1882 murders Sekukuni, ii 135 ; 
and then takes shelter with the tribe of Mapoch, ib. ; who 
refuse to surrender him to the Transvaal government, ii 136 ; 
but as the result of war on the 8th of July 1883 he is 
surrendered to Commandant-General Joubert, ii 138 ; he is 
tried, and condemned to death, and on the 22nd of November 
1881 is hanged, ii 139 

Mankoroane, chief of a Batlapin clan: 

carries on war with the Korana captain David Massou, ii 146 ; 
enlists Europeans to assist him, ib. ; on the 26th of July 1882 
agrees to peace and assigns land as payment of his assistants, 
U 147 ; on the 3rd of May 1884 cedes to her Majesty the 
queen full authority over his country and his people, ii 158; 
account of after 1885, ii 173 

Mapasa, Galeka chief : 

is at feud with his cousin Kreli, i 53 ; his people bring on the 
ninth Kaffir war, i 54 ; but as soon as hostilities commence he 
abandons the Galeka cause and with a portion of his clan 
obtains 'protection in the Cape Colony, i 60 ; in November 1877 
when Kreli's Galekas are supposed to be beaten and dispersed, 
his people are disarmed and sent back to their old home, i 75 

Mapoch, tribe of : 

description of, ii 135 ; occupies a tract of land very difficult for 
Europeans to operate in, ib. ; refuses to surrender Mampuru, 
and sets the government at defiance, ii 136; a commando of 
two thousand men is called out to reduce it to submission, ib. ; 
which on the 30th of October 1882 takes the field, ii 137 ; on 
the 19th of December 1882 five petty chiefs with their people 
surrender, ib. ; on the 2nd of January 1883 a stronghold named 
by the Europeans Boschberg is taken, ii 138 ; and on the 
26th of February another still stronger named Vlugtkraal is 
occupied, ib. ; on the 8th of April 1883 the most important sub- 
chief of the tribe surrenders, ib. ; on the 9th of July five of 

276 Synoptical Index. 

the sub-chiefs surrender, ib. ; and on the following day the 
principal chief, who was called Njabel by the Europeans, with 
eight thousand of his people surrender, ii 139 ; he is tried and 
condemned to death, but the sentence is commuted into im- 
prisonment for life, ib. 
Marabastad : 

during the Transvaal war of independence is held by a small 
British garrison, ii 120 
Maritzburg : 

in December 1880 is connected by railway with Durban, ii 207 ; 
improvements in, ii 216 ; population in July 1884, ii 236 
Marriage law of Natal for Bantu : 

effect of, i 227; in 1875 it is repealed, i 243 
Marshall, Major-General : 

on the 21st of May 1879 visits Isandhlwana and covers the 
remains of many of the dead there with mounds of stones, 
i 323 ; in April he had been placed in command of the cavalry 
brigade acting in Zululand, i 337 ; at the close of the Zulu 
war he returns to Europe, i 346 
Marthinus-Wbsselstroom : 

during the Transvaal war of independence is held by a small 
British garrison, ii 120 
Masarwa : 

are met and described by Captain Patterson, ii 179 
Maseru : 

on the 10th of October 1880 is attacked by a strong Basuto 
army under Masupha, but is not taken, ii 62; on the 28th of 
the same month is unsuccessfully attacked again, ii 63 
Mass meeting of the Transvaal farmers on the 10th of January 1879 : 

particulars concerning, ii 83 
Mass meeting of the Transvaal farmers at Kleinfontein : 

' in April 1879 is visited by Sir Bartle Frere, ii 85 ; particulars 
concerning the meeting, ib. 
Mass meeting of the Transvaal farmers at Wonderfontein in 
December 1879 : 
particulars concerning, ii 105 
Massou Riet Taaibosch, Korana chief: 

on the 11th of June 1878 dies at Mamusa at a very advanced 
age, ii 145 
Masupha, third son in rank of the Basuto chief Moshesh : 

chafes under the restraint of a magistrate, ii 54 ; in July 1880 
rises in rebellion against the Cape government, ii 60 ; and a 

Synoptical Index. 277 

little later declares he will be satisfied with nothing short of 
independence, ii 71 ; in 1883 refuses to come under imperial 
rule, ii 79 
Matanzima, son of Sandile : 

on the 23rd of February 1878 with from 800 to 1,000 Gaikas 
attacks a colonial force on the bank of the Thomas river, but 
y is beaten off with very heavy loss, t 118; on the 8th of July 
he is apprehended, * 132 
Matanzima, emigrant Tembu chief: 

in September 1878 becomes a British subject, i 143 
Matatielb, district in Griqualand East : 

in October 1874 is annexed to the British dominions, i 35 ; in 
October 1880 the Basuto in the district rise in rebellion, i 156 
Mathebi's Kop : 

on the 4th of July 1876 is taken by the commando under President 
Burgers, i 262 
Matlabe, chief of a section of the Barolong : 

is held in high regard by the Transvaal farmers, ii 149 
McGiLLivRAY, James Scott : 

fate of, ii 150 
McTaggart, Commandant : 

in April 1879 proceeds to the northern border with a party of 
volunteers, ii 34 ; on the 27th of April breaks up Klaas Lukas's 
band, ib. ; and shortly afterwards captures nearly the whole 
of Pofadder's band, ii 35 
Melvill, Lieutenant : 

escapes from Isandhlwana with the colours of his regiment, but 
is killed after reaching Natal, i 315 
Menziwe, Fingo chief in Tembuland : 

account of, i 44 
Merensky, Rev. A., superintendent of the Berlin Mission : 

in 1876 exercises great influence with the Bapedi tribe, i 258 
and 266 
Merriman, J. X. (later the right honourable), commissioner of crown 
lands and public works: 
on the 6th of February 1878 is deprived of office by Sir Bartle 
Frere, i 104; on the 9th of May 1881 becomes commissioner 
of crown lands and public works in Mr. Scanlen's ministry, 
ii 70; in 1883 goes to England in connection with the Basuto 
difficulty, ii 78; on the 13th of May 1884 retires, ii 204 
Merriman, Thomas R. : 

in February 1878 becomes magistrate of Idutywa, i 44 

278 Synoptical Index. 

Mbthlokazulu, son of the Zulu sub-chief Sirayo : 

on the 28th of July 1878 with some others crosses the Buffalo 
river into Natal, where he seizes two fugitive wives of his 
father, Sirayo, both are murdered, i 295; Sir Henry Bulwer 
asks Ketshwayo to deliver him for trial, but meets with a 
refusal, ib. ; on the 26th of August 1879 he surrenders, but it 
is found that there is no law under which he can be tried for 
the raid into Natal, i 345 ; on the 21st of July 1883 assists 
Ketshwayo to escape from Ulundi, ii 14 

Meyer, Lucas Johannes: 

is elected president of the New Republic, ii 22; in October 
1886 is a member of a deputation sent to Maritzburg to confer 
with Sir Arthur Havelock, ii 25 

Military measures for the defence of Natal towards the close 
of 1878: 
particulars concerning, i 301 

Miller, Hon. John : 

in February 1878 becomes treasurer of the Cape Colony, i 105 ; 
on the 9th of September 1880 retires as treasurer, but remains 
minister without portfolio ; on the 8th of May 1881, vacates office 
with the ministry, ii 69 

Millbs, Lieutenant-Colonel T. : 

from the 30th of April to the 22nd of July 1873 acts as adminis- 
trator of Natal, i 224 

Mitchell, Major Charles Bullen Hugh : 

in June 1878 becomes colonial secretary of Natal, ii 210 ; (Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel) on the 22nd of December 1881 becomes acting 
administrator of Natal, ib. 

Mnyamana, principal induna under the Zulu chief Ketshwayo : 

commands the Zulu army at the battle of Kambula, i 330 ; 
objects to the diminution of territory given to Ketshwayo 
when he was sent back from England, ii 11 ; on the 30th of 
March 1883 with a large army attacks Sibebu, but is defeated 
with very heavy loss, ii 15; on the 16th of March 1884 defeats 
Sibebu in a battle, ii 18; makes overtures to some Transvaal 
farmers to assist Dinizulu against Sibebu, ii 19 ; on the 23rd 
of May 1884 with the other leaders of Dinizulu's party agrees 
to give eight hundred farms in Zululand for assistance against 
Sibebu and protection thereafter, ii 20 ; having gained his 
object, disputes the right of the farmers to the ground ceded 
to them, but unsuccessfully, ii 23 

Moffat, Rev. John Smith : 

is the first resident magistrate of Taung, ii 172 

Synoptical Index. 279 

Moffat, Ven. Dr. Robert: 

on the 10th of August 1883 dies in England, ii 206 
Molapo : 

second son in rank of the Basuto chief Moshesh : on the 28th of 
June 1880 dies, ii 60 
Molteno : John Charles (later Sir John) : 

in the session of the Cape parliament in 1875 causes an act to 
be passed for the removal of Langalibalele from Eobben Island 
to the mainland, i 236; holds views different from those of Sir 
Bartle Frere concerning military matters, i 99; on the 6th of 
February 1878 is dismissed from office by the governor, i 104 ; 
on the 9th of May 1881 becomes colonial secretary in Mr. 
Scanlen's ministry, ii 70 ; on the 1st of July 1882 retires, 
ii 200 
Molteno reservoir in Capetown : 
particulars concerning, ii 204 
Moni, chief of the Bomvanas: 

in January 1878 offers to become a British subject, i 146 ; and 
is accepted, ib. 
Monopolies : 

are granted profusely by the government of the Transvaal, ii 139 
Montsiwa, chief of a section of the Barolong tribe: 

on the second of May 1881 attacks a captain under Matlabe, 
ii 146 ; carries on war with Moshete, ii 148 ; engages Euro- 
peans to assist him, ib. ; in October 1881 is driven from 
Sehuba, and retires to Mafeking, ii 150 ; on the 24th of 
October 1882 cedes a large tract of territory to Europeans to 
obtain peace, ii 151 ; having gathered a good crop repudi- 
ates his treaty with Moshete, ii 159 ; consequently on the 
10th of May 1884 the war is renewed, ib.; on the 22nd of 
May 1884 cedes to her Majesty the queen full authority over 
his country and his people, ib. ; on the 31st of July 1884 is 
attacked by the Goshenites and suffers heavy loss, U 161 ; after 
being relieved by the expedition under General Warren tries to 
give trouble, ii 171; in 1896 dies, ii 145 
Moriarty, Captain D. B. : 

on the 12th of March 1879 is killed by Zulus at the Intombi 
river, i 329 
Moroka, district of : 

in July 1884 becomes part of the Orange Free State, but remains 
a reserve for the use of the Barolong, U 226 
Moroko, chief of the Barolong at Thaba Ntshu : 
in April 1880 dies, ii 225 

280 Synoptical Index. 

Morosi, chief of the Baputi clan of the Basuto tribe : 

account of, ii 41 ; before May 1877 he is left by the Cape govern- 
ment almost without control, ii 42; on the 28th of January 
1879 forcibly releases his son Doda from prison, and goes into 
rebellion against the Cape government, ii 44 ; in a series of 
engagement* loses nearly the whole of his cattle, ii 47; he 
occupies a mountain stronghold, which he is able to defend for 
many months, ib. ; on the 20th of November 1879 it is taken 
by storm, and he is killed in the final encounter, ii 53 
Morris, Bev. James : 

in the rebellion of 1880 conducts a party to the relief of Tsolo, 
i 160 
Moshbsh, founder of the Basuto tribe : 

fictitious pedigree of, i 174 
Moshetb, chief of a Barolong clan: 

is at feud with Montsiwa, ii 148; engages Europeans to assist 
him, ib. ; on the 17th of October 1881 attacks Montsiwa, ii 149 ; 
on the 24th of October 1882 cedes a tract of land to his Euro- 
pean assistants, ii 152 
Mount Ayliff, district of: 

in 1878 is added to the chief magistracy of Griqualand East, 
i 166 ; account of the dispute between the Pondos and the Xesibes, 
i 167 ; on the 25th of October 1886 the district is annexed to 
the Cape Colony, i 170 
Mount Fletcher, district of: 

in 1882 is cut off from Maclear, i 164 
Mount Frere, district of : 

in March 1876 is annexed to the British dominions, i 37 
Moysey, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles : 

surveys the western boundary of the Transvaal according to the 
convention of Pretoria, ii 132 
Mqanduli (in Tembuland) : 

in 1876 is created a magisterial district, i 47 
Mtetwa tribe : 

attempt in 1879 to restore the, i 350 
Musoravb, Anthony, lieutenant-governor of Natal : 

on the 30th of April 1873 retires, i 224 

heads of the government of : see Heads 
Natal : 

in 1878 the legislative council is enlarged, i 225; in 1875 it is 
swamped with nominee members, i 261 ; in 1875 the Native 
High Court is created, i 242; and the marriage law for Bantu 

Synoptical Index. 281 

is repealed, i 243; in 1878 Bantu law is codified, i 243; in 1891 
the code is improved, ib. ; in 1880 the legislative council is 
restored to its condition before 1875, ii 208 ; account of Euro- 
pean immigration under a state-aided system, i 247 ; population 
in 1878, i 245 ; and on the 31st of December 1884, ii 236 ; public 
debt in 1875, * 245 ; and at the close of 1884, ii 236 ; settle- 
ment of Indians in, ii 209 ; in October 1886 the legislative 
council passes a resolution in favour of the annexation of 
Pondoland to that colony, i 202 
National Bank of the Orange Free State : 

in June 1877 is established, ii 225 
Naval brigade : 

in December 1877 is supplied by her Majesty's ship Active to 
serve in the Kaffir war, i 79 ; on the 19th of November 1878 
the same brigade lands in Natal, i 301 ; on the 1st of January 
1879 a brigade from her Majesty's ship Tenedos lands in Natal, 
i 301 ; in May the men of the Tenedos return to their ship, 
i 337 ; on the 5th of March 1879 a strong brigade from her 
Majesty's ship Shah is landed at Natal, i 332; and on the 
16th of the same month is followed by a brigade from her 
Majesty's ship Boadicea, i 333 ; in July the men of the Active, 
Shah, and Boadicea return to their ships, i 346 ; in 1881 a naval 
brigade serves against the Transvaal burghers, ii 120 
Ndamasi, chief of the western Pondos : 

is practically almost independent of his brother Umqikela, i 176 ; 
on the 29th of August 1876 dies, and is succeeded by his son 
Nquiliso, i 177 
Ndhlobane Mountain : 

account of the disaster on the 28th of March 1879 at, i 330 
Ndimba, Ndlambe chief : 

in December 1877 goes into rebellion, i 83 ; on the 11th of June 
1878 he surrenders, i 132 
Ndwandwe tribe : 

attempt in 1879 to restore the, i 350 
Nehemiah Moshesh : 

gives much trouble to the colonial authorities, i 36 
Nelmapius, Mr. : 

obtains a monopoly for the distillation of spirits from the Trans- 
vaal Government, ii 137 ; destroys the entrances to caverns 
with dynamite in the Mapoch war, ib. 
Newcastle, in Natal : 

in 1873 is separated from Klip Biver and becomes an electoral 
division, i 225 

282 Synoptical Index. 

Newdigate, Major-General : 

in April 1879 is placed in command of a division of the forces 
in Zululand, i 338 
New Eepublic : 

on the 16th of August 1884 is proclaimed, and assumes a pro- 
tectorate over Zululand, ii 22 ; is placed in a bad position 
by two of its citizens killing Dabulamanzi in the reserve, ii 25 ; 
on the 22nd of October 1886 enters into an agreement with 
Sir Arthur Havelock, by which its independence within narrow 
limits is acknowledged and its protectorate over Zululand ceases, 
U 26 ; on the 11th of September 1887 is incorporated in the 
South African Eepublic, ii 27 
Ngceleni, in Western Pondoland : 

in March 1894 is created a magisterial district, i 222 
Ngubo, Galeka counsellor : 

account of, i 63 
van Niekerk, Gerrit Jacobus : 

is leader of the Europeans who found Stellaland, ii 147 ; is 
administrator of that republic, ii 148 
Ninth Kaffir War : see War 
Njabel : see Mapoch 
Norbury, Henry F. : 

reference to book written by, i 299 
Norris- Newman, Charles L. : reference to book written by, i 299 
Northern border war : ii 29 et seq. 
Norwegian immigrants : 

are located at Marburg in Natal, ii 212 
Norwegian mission in Zululand : 
particulars concerning, i 295 
Notification to the Zulu people : 

as made on the 11th of January 1879 by Sir Bartle Frere, i 308 
Nquiliso : 

on the 29th of August 1876 succeeds his father Ndamasi as chief 
of the western Pondos, i 177 ; in 1877 professes friendship 
towards the Cape government, i 71 ; on the 17th of July 1878 
cedes to the Cape government a strip of land at the mouth 
of the Umzimvubu, i 178 ; and is acknowledged as independent 
of Umqikela, ib. ; friendly dealings with, i 191 ; on the 19th of 
March 1894 becomes a British subject, i 221 
Oba, alias Ngonyama, son of Tyali, Gaika chief : 

purchases three farms on the western bank of the Keiskama river, 
i 27 ; in the rebellion and war of 1877-8 takes no part, i 80 ; 

Synoptical Index. 283 

in March 1878 has an interview with Governor Sir Bartle 
Frere at Lovedale, i 107 
Orange Free State: 

resolution of the volksraad in May 1877 regarding the annexation 
of the Transvaal to the British dominions, i 276; events in the, 
ii .221 ; population in 1881 of, ii 227 
Orange groves in the western districts of the Cape Colony : 

are destroyed by the dorthesia, i 14 
Orpen, Joseph Millerd : 

in July 1873 is appointed magistrate with some clans in Kaffraria, 
i 31 ; in October 1873 receives the Pondomsi chiefs Umhlonhlo 
and Umditswa as British subjects, i 32; raises a force to 
oppose the rebel Hlubi chief Langalibalele, ib. ; is obliged to 
deal sternly with Umditshwa and Umhlonhlo, i 33 ; in October 
1874 assumes authority over the Griqua territory previously 
under Adam Kok, i 34 ; in April 1875 resigns and leaves the 
territory, i 40; in May 1880 presents a petition from Letsie to 
the Cape house of assembly against the confiscation of any part 
of the district of Quthing, ii 58; on the 25th of August 1881 
becomes acting governor's agent in Basutoland, ii 71 ; tries to 
induce Letsie to enforce order, but without success, ib. ; on the 
16th of March 1883 is succeeded by Captain Matthew S. Blyth, 
ii 77 
Osborn, Melmoth : 

in 1877 becomes colonial secretary of the Transvaal, i 280 ; in 
January 1880 becomes British agent in Zululand, ii 113 ; at the 
end of March 1883 is stationed at Etshowe in the Zulu reserve 
as British resident commissioner and supreme chief, ii 12 
Ostriches, tame, in the Cape Colony in 1891 : 

number of, ii 238 
Ostrich farming : 

benefits derived from, i 14 
Ouotshoorn : population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Oversea commerce of South Africa : 

amount of, ii 236 
Paardekraal : 

in December 1880 a mass meeting is held at, when it is resolved 
to restore the South African Republic, ii 115 
Paarl : 

population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Pali, chief of the Amatshezi : 

in May 1886 is made a British subject, i 193 

284 Synoptical Index. 

Parliament of the Cape Colony : 

proceedings in the session of 1873, i 3; in the session of 1874, 
i 11 and 234 ; in the session of 1873, i 7, 19, 42, 43, and 236 ; 
in the special session of 1875, i 21 ; in the session of 1876, i 9, 
22, and 51 ; in the session of 1877, i 42 and 51 ; in the session 
of 1878, * 108 to 117, 134, and 190; in the session of 1879, 
ii 186 ; in the session of 1830, i 141 and ii 188 ; in the session 
of 1881, ii 193 and vi 195 ; in the session of 1882, i 149, i 170, 
and ii 199 ; in the session of 1883, ii 201 ; in the session of 
1884, i 142, i 181, and ii 202; in the session of 1886, i 170; 
in the session of 1894, i 222 ; in the session of 1895, ii 183 

Parr, Captain Henry Hallam : 

reference to book written by, i 299 

Patekile, chief of the Imizizi clan : 

assists Umhlangaso in his rebellion against Sigcawu, i 219 ; in 
1894 submits to Sigcawu, and is fined two hundred head of 
cattle, i 222 

Paterson, John : 

in July 1878 brings on a motion in the Cape house of assembly 
in favour of a conference concerning confederation, which is 
rejected, ii 186 ; on the 12th of May 1880 is shipwrecked in 
the Atlantic and is drowned 

Patterson, Captain R. E. : 

in June 1878 is sent by Sir Bartle Frere to explore the country 
between the Limpopo and the Zambesi, ii 178 ; visits Khama 
at Shoshong, ii 179 ; next visits Lobengula, chief of the 
Matabele, who gives him a friendly reception, ib ; proceeds 
onward to the mission station Shiloh, where the expedition is 
joined by a son of the reverend Mr. Thomas, ii 182 ; when 
three days' journey from the Zambesi the whole party dies from 
drinking poisoned water, ib. 
Pattle, T. P.: 

in September 1877 becomes resident magistrate of Butterworth, 
i 44 
Peace Preservation Act : see Disarmament 
Pearson, Henry William : 

on the 8th of May 1881 retires with the Sprigg ministry, ii 69 
Pearson, Lieutenant-Colonel : 

on the 10th of January 1879 is in command of a column that 
invades Zululand, i 307 ; in April on account of ill health he is 
forced to retire, i 837 

Synoptical Index. 285 

Petition : 

to her Majesty the queen from the Transvaal burghers, ii 87 ; 
of Cape colonists to the legislature in favour of the restoration 
of independence to the Transvaal, ii 111 ; of Cape colonists to 
her Majesty the queen asking for the restoration of independ- 
ence to the Transvaal, ii 97; to the right honourable Mr. 
Gladstone from English residents in the Transvaal in favour 
of the retention of British sovereignty, ii 101 
Philander, Dirk, captain of Mier : 

in the northern border war assists the colonial forces, ii 36 
Phylloxera : 

causes great ravages in the vineyards of the Cape Colony, i 15 ; 
discovery of a remedy for, ib. ; measures taken to prevent the 
spread of, ii 203 
Pilgrim's Rest : 

in 1873 alluvial goldfields are opened at, i 249 
Pine, Sir Benjamin C. C. : 

from the 22nd of July 1873 to the 1st of April 1875 is lieutenant 
governor of Natal, i 224 
van Pittius, Nicolaas Claudius Gey : 

is leader of the Europeans who assist Moshete, ii 150 
Pofadder, Klaas, captain of a Korana clan : 

account of, ii 30; has been friendly to the Cape government and 
supplied with ammunition, ib. ; in 1879 becomes hostile, ib. 


on the 25th of September 1894 is annexed to the Cape Colony, 
i 222. See Eastern and Western 
Pondomsis, the : 

in October 1880 rise in rebellion, i 158 
Pondos : 

origin of the, i 174 ; condition of the tribe in the time of the 
chief Umqikela, i 175 
Population, European, of South Africa in 1873, i 2 
Port Durnford, a landing place near the mouth of the Umlalazi 
river in Zululand : 
on the 29th of June 1879 is first made use of, i 337 
Port Elizabeth : 

progress of railway construction inland from, ii 193 ; population 
in 1891 of, ii 238 
Porter, Hon. William: 

in 1876 is elected first chancellor of the university of the Cape 
of Good Hope, i 4 

286 ' Synoptical Index. 

Port Grosvenor, on the coast of Pondoland : 

ludicrous effort to open trade at, i 186 
Port Natal : 

is converted into a safe and excellent harbour by the removal of 
the bar, i 26 and 247 
Port Nolloth: 

in October 1874 becomes a magisterial district, i 11 
Port St. John's : 

particulars concerning, * 175 ; on the 31st of August 1878 is pro- 
claimed British territory and is occupied by a company of the 
twenty-fourth regiment, i 179 ; on the 15th of September 1884 is 
annexed to the Cape Colony, i 181 ; population at the time, ib. ; 
statistics of the trade of the port, i 182 
Portugal : 

in 1879 subsidises a submarine cable from Durban to Delagoa 
Bay and thence to Aden, ii 192 
Portuguese authorities at Delagoa Bay : 

in 1878 act in a very friendly manner, i 291 
Postage on letters between England and South Africa : 

in 1875 is reduced to sixpence the half ounce, i 7 
Potchefstrom : 

on the 18th of December 1880 a small fort is surrendered to 
Commandant Pieter Cronje, ii 117 ; the principle fort is tena- 
ciously held by Lieutenant-Colonel Winsloe, ii 118; until the 
21st of March, when his provisions are exhausted, and he is 
obliged to surrender, ii 127 
Pottrrill, Mr., a volunteer : 

in 1873 is killed by Langalibalele's followers at the Bushman's 
pass, i 230 
Pretoria : 

from 1877 to 1879 more than doubles its population, ii 114; in 
August 1880 becomes a municipality, ib. ; garrison of in 1880, 
ii 118 
Pretorius, Marthinus Wessel : 

in January 1878 complains to Sir Theophilus Shepstone of the 
Bantu being permitted to obtain arms and ammunition at the 
diamond fields, i 281 ; in January 1879 he is appointed chairman 
of a permanent committee to work for the independence of the 
Transvaal, ii 83 ; proceedings of the committee, ii 86 ; in 
December 1880 he is elected a member of a triumvirate to 
carry on the Transvaal government provisionally, ii 115 
Products of Natal : 
show of, ii 212 

/ /. 

Synoptical Index. 287 

Protectorate of the whole coast of Pondoland : 

on the 5th of January 1885 is proclaimed by the high com- 
missioner, i 186 
Public debt of South Africa in 1873 : 

amount of, i 2 
Public debt of the Cape Colony in December 1880, ii 229 ; 

and at the close of 1884, ii 234 
Public debt of Natal in December 1880, ii 230 ; 

and at the close of 1884, ii 236 
Public offices in Bloemfontein : see Bloemfontein 

Pulleine, Lieutenant-Colonel, of the first battalion of the twenty-fourth 
regiment : 
on the 22nd of January 1879 is killed at Isandhlwana, i 316 
Pulleine's rangers : 

in January 1878 are enrolled for military service, i 84 
Quipu, chief of the Amanci : 

in August 1886 loses sixty-eight men in a battle with the Xesibes, 
i 200 ; in November 1886 decides upon abandoning the Pondo 
cause, i 208 


in May 1880 is connected by railway with East London, ii 193 ; 
population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Quthing : 

in May 1877 is cut off from Kornet Spruit and formed into a 
separate district, ii 42 ; intention of the Cape government with 
regard to the settlement of, ii 57 and ii 73 
Railroads : 

in existence in the Cape Colony in 1873, i 2 ; in 1873 and 1876 
they become the property of the Cape government, i 6 ; gauge 
of, ib. ; by acts of the Cape parliament in 1874 are to be 
greatly extended, i 12 ; on the 6th of January 1876 a line owned 
by a Company is completed from Port Nolloth to Ookiep, i 50; 
on the 19th of August 1873 the first sod of the line from East 
London inland is turned by Mr. J. C. Molteno, i 6 ; on the 1st 
of May 1877 the line from East London is opened to King- 
Williamstown, i 50 ; on the 15th of October 1883 it is opened 
to Sterkstroom, ii 194; on the 19th of March 1885 it is opened 
to Burghersdorp, ib. ; on the 19th of August of the same year 
it is opened to Aliwal North, ib. ; on the 12th of November 
1877 the line from Capetown is opened to Malmesbury, * 50 ; 
further progress of, ii 192; on the 12th of November 1884 is 
opened to Hopetown, ii 194; on the 4th of November 1885 it 
is open from Capetown to Kimberley, ii 181 ; on the 1st of June 

288 Synoptical Index. 

1881 the midland line from Port Elizabeth is opened to Cradock, 
ii 193 ; on the 16th of October 1883 is opened to Colesberg, 
ii 194 ; in March 1884 the connecting line from De Aar to 
Nauwpoort is opened, ii 194 ; early in 1885 the line from 
Grahamstown to Port Alfred is completed, ii 193 
Bailroads : 

in existence in Natal in 1873, i 2; on the 1st of January 1876 
the first sod of the line from Durban to Maritzburg is turned 
by Sir Henry Bulwer, i 246; on the first of January 1877 the 
line from the Point to Durban is purchased by the government, 
ib. ; the line to Maritzburg is constructed for the government 
by Messrs. Wythes & Jackson, of London, ib. ; on the 9th of 
February 1878 it is opened for traffic from Durban to Pinetown, 
ib. ; further progress of, ii 208 and ii 212 
Baileoad : 

scheme of President Burgers for the construction of a line from 
the South African Bepublic to Delagoa Bay, i 253 
Bamanela, Basuto sub-chief: 

chafes under the restraint of a magistrate, ii 54 ; in July 1880 
rises in rebellion against the Cape government, ii 60 
Baeabe clans : 

in 1877 give cause to believe that they intend to rebel, i 74 
Bead, Walter H. : 

in October 1878 becomes magistrate of Mount Ayliff, i 168 
Bebellion of 1880 : 

in Tembuland, i 147 ; in Griqualand East, i 155 ; by January 1881 
is completely stamped out, i 162 
Bebellion of the Barabe clans in 187,8 : 

cost of the suppression of, * 134 
Bedwatee ( 

in 1884 has caused great loss of cattle in Natal, ii 214 
Begimekts of British soldiers tbat served in South Africa during 

the period embraced in these volumes : see British 
Beitz, Advocate Francis William : 

in March 1874 becomes chief justice of the Orange Free State, 
ii 221 
Beport of the disputed boundary commission : 

particulars concerning, i 300 
Besponsible government : 

in 1874 a vote in favour of is carried in the legislative oouncil of 
Natal, i 238 
Return of cattle thefts by and from Pondos, i 203 


Synoptical Index. 


Bevenue : 

of the Cape Colony, ii 227 ; and of Natal, ii 230 
Rhodes, Cecil John : 

in 1882 is a member of the Basutoland losses commission, ii 74; 
on the 20th of March 1884 becomes treasurer of the Cape 
Colony, ii 202 ; on the 13th of May of the same year retires 
from office, ii 203 ; in August 1884 is appointed deputy com- 
missioner for Betshuanaland, ii 160; on the 25th of that month 
reaches Booi-Grond, ii 161 ; but is unable to make any satis- 
factory arrangement with the Goshenites, ib. ; on the 8th of 
September 1884 enters into an agreement with the people of 
Stellaland, ii 163; on the 16th of March 1885 resigns on account 
of disagreement with Sir Charles Warren, ii 170 
Bichards, Commodore : 

in March 1879 succeeds Bear-Admiral Sullivan as commander of 
the naval force on the South African station, i 332 
Boberts, Sir Frederick : 

in 1881 is appointed to the chief command of the troops in South • 
Africa, but is recalled before assuming the duty, ii 128 
Bobertson, Abraham Faure : 

is the first civil commissioner and resident magistrate of Vryburg, 
ii 172 
Bobinson, Sir Hercules George Bobert : 

on the 22nd of January 1881 assumes duty as governor of the 
Cape Colony and high commissioner for South Africa, ii 192 ; 
in March of that year is appointed chairman of a royal com- 
mission to arrange the terms of a convention with the Trans- 
vaal, ii 128; on the 8th of August transfers the government 
of the Transvaal to Messrs. Kruger, Pretorius, and Joubert, 
ii 130; on the 29th of April 1881 issues an award concerning 
the Basuto insurgents, ii 68 ; assists in London in making the 
arrangements for the transfer of Basutoland to imperial rule, 
ii 79 ; takes part in the arrangements that lead to the conven- 
tion of London, ii 154 ; on the 30th of May 1895 reaches 
Capetown from London again, ii 183 ; on the 30th of May 1895 
becomes governor of the Cape Colony for the second time, ii 183 
Bode valley : 

in December 1886 is purchased from the Pondos by the Cape 
government, i 214 ; in 1888 is annexed to the Cape Colony, 
t 170 
Bolland, Emile S. : 

in 1877 and 1878, during Colonel Griffith's absence, acts as 
governor's agent in Basutoland, ii 56 
VOL. II. 20 

290 Synoptical Index. 

Romilly, Commander : 

on the 27th of February 1881 is mortally wounded at Majuba, 
ii 124 
Eoos, Fieldcornet Stephanus : 

on the 28th of February 1883 is killed in the Mapoch war, 
ii 138 
Roeke's Drift, post at : 

on the 22nd of January 1879 is gallantly defended against a 
Zulu army, i 320 
Rowlands, Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh : 

in August 1878 is appointed to the chief command of the soldiers 
and volunteers in the Transvaal, i 285 ; in October with a 
strong force marchs to Sekukuni's stronghold, but returns 
without effecting anything, ib. 


during the Transvaal war of independence is held by a small 
English garrison, ii 120 
Saint Helena : 

in March 1879 all the troops on this island are sent to Natal, 
i 332 
Saint Lawrence, transport ship : 

on the 9th of November 1876 is wrecked on Paternoster Point, 
i 56 
Saint Lucia Bay : 

on the 18th of December 1884 is formally taken in possession for 
Great Britain, ii 23 
Saint Mark's : 

after the rebellion of 1880 is created a district in Tembuland, 
l 150 
Salisbury, Earl : 

on the 24th of June 1885 succeeds Mr. Gladstone as prime 
minister of England, ii 24 
Samuel Moroko : 

makes war upon the chief Tsepinare at Thaba Ntshu, and kills 
him, ii 226 
Sandile, principal Gaika chief : 

in December 1877 goes into rebellion, i 82 ; is followed by his 
two sons Edmund or Gonya and Matanzima, i 87; on the 
7th of February 1878 is present at the battle of Kentani, i 93; 
after the battle he retires to the fastnesses along the Thomas 
river, i 95 ; is expelled from the Thomas river valley, and takes 
refuge in the Amatola forests, i 120; on the 29th of May 
1878 is mortally wounded in a skirmish at Isidengi hill, and a few 

Synoptical Index. 291 

days later dies, i 131 ; on the 9th of June his body is decently 
buried by Commandant Schermbrucker, ib. 

Saubr, Jacobus Wilhelmus : 

on the 9th of May 1881 becomes secretary for native affairs in 
Mr. Scanlen's ministry, ii 70; makes a tour through Basutoland 
endeavouring to restore order, ib. ; studies the interests of 
black and white people alike, ii 73 ; on the 13th of May 1884 
retires from office, ii 203 

Scanlen, Thomas Charles (later Sir Thomas) : 

on the 9th of May 1881 becomes prime minister of the Cape 
Colony, ii 70; puts on record his policy concerning the rebel 
Basuto, ii 72; on the 1st of July 1882 ceases to be attorney- 
general and becomes colonial secretary, ii 200 ; takes part in 
the arrangements that lead to the convention of London, ii 154 ; 
on the 13th of May 1884 retires from office, ii 203 

Schermbrucker, Commandant Frederick : 

in March 1878 conducts operations against the rebel Gaikas in 
the Amatola forests, i 120 ; on the 9th of June gives decent 
burial to the corpse of the chief Sandile, i 131 ; raises a corps of 
a hundred mixed English and German horsemen, and in Feb- 
ruary 1879 proceeds with it to the defence of Luneburg, i 328 ; 
during the Basuto insurrection is commandant of the "loyals," 
ii 62 ; on the 13th of May 1884 becomes commissioner of crown 
lands and public works in the Cape Colony, ii 203 

von Schlickmann, Conrad : 

in August 1876 is commissioned by President Burgers to carry 
on the war with Sekukuni, i 264; on the 17th of November 
is killed in action, i 265 

Schools : 

statistics of in Transkei, Tembuland, Griqualand East, and 
Pondoland, i 198 


is the modern name of Mannesa, ii 175 
Schroder, Rev. Christian : 

carries out a scheme of irrigation on the northern bank of the 
Orange river, and transforms a desert into a garden, ii 38 
Schuins Hoogte : 

account of the engagement on the 8th of February 1881 at, 
ii 122 
Scott, Rev. John H. : 

in August 1876 becomes magistrate of Mqanduli, i 48 ; in July 
1879 is appointed special magistrate of the northern border, 
ii 36 

292 Synoptical Index. 

Sebele, chief of the Bakwena : 

reference to, ii 176 
Sbkaki, Basuto chief : 

lenient treatment of, ii 54 
Sekdkuni : 

in September 1861 succeeds his father H ekwati as chief of the 
Bapedi tribe, i 258; early in 1876 rebels against the South 
African Republic, i 259 ; the farmers of Lydenburg go into lager 
at Kruger's Post, ib. ; where on the 24th of June they beat off 
an attack by the rebels, but lose their cattle, i 261 ; in Feb- 
ruary 1877 the chief professes to submit, and agrees to pay a 
fine, i 266 ; but does not keep his engagement, so the British 
authorities in the Transvaal call him to account, i 281; in 
February 1878 he attacks some clans obedient to the govern- 
ment and despoils them, ib. ; he rejects terms of peace offered 
to him by Sir Garnet Wolseley, ii 102; he is then attacked 
by a very strong force, and on the 28th of November 1879 his 
stronghold is taken with very heavy loss of life to his clan, 
U 103; on the 2nd of December he is obliged to surrender to 
Commandant Ferreira, and is sent a prisoner to Pretoria, ii 104 ; 
all his vassals then submit and a settlement of the territory is 
effected, ib. ; he is liberated when the convention of Pretoria is 
signed, ii 134; on the 13th of August 1882 he is murdered by 
his half-brother Mampuru, ii 135 ; cost of Sir Garnet Wolseley's 
opei'itions against, ii 136 
Sekwati, founder of the Bapedi tribe : 

account of, i 257; in September 1861 dies, i 258 
Sendall, Mr. : 

on the 17th of February 1881 is appointed lieutenant-governor of 
Natal, but never assumes the office, ii 210 
Senbkal, Commandant, of Rustenburg : 

on the 24th of November 1882 is killed in action with the tribe 
of Mapoch, ii 137 
Sergeaunt, J. G. : 

in 1878 accompanies the exploring expedition under Captain Patter- 
son, ii 178 ; when three days' journey from the Zambesi dies 
from drinking poisoned water, ii 180 
Sergeaunt, W. C, a qualified accountant : 

in 1877 arranges the treasury books of the Transvaal, i 280 
Seti, William : 

mention of, i 28 
Setshkli, chief of the Bakwena : 
in 1893 dies, ii 176 


Synoptical Index. 293 

Seven Circles Act : 

in 1874 is passed by the Cape parliament, i 11 
Shah, her Majesty's ship : 

is at Saint Helena on her way to England from the Pacific 
when intelligence of the disaster at Isandhlwana reaches that 
island, upon which she proceeds to Natal and lands a strong 
naval brigade, i 332 
Shaw, Matthew B. : 

in June 1876 becomes magistrate of Qumbu, i 41 ; on the 
1st of October 1878 is transferred to Kentani, i 138 
Shepstonb, Henrique C. : 

in 1877 becomes secretary for native affairs in the Transvaal, 
i 280 
Shepstonb, John Wesley, acting secretary for native affairs in Natal : 
on the 26th of February 1878 is appointed a member of. the 
disputed boundary commission, i 294 ; on the 22nd of December 
1882 is appointed commissioner to reside in the Zulu reserve, 
ii 12 ; at the end of March 1883 he is succeeded by Mr. Mel- 
moth Osborn, ib. ; on the 22nd of December he becomes judge 
of the Native High Court in Natal, ib. 
Shepstonb, Sir Theophilus : 

on the 5th of October 1876 is sent by Lord Carnarvon as a 
special commissioner to the South African Eepublic, i 266 ; on 
the 22nd of January 1877 reaches Pretoria, i 269 ; sends to 
England despatches of a misleading nature, i 278 ; on the 
12th of April 1877 issues a proclamation annexing the Transvaal 
to the British dominions, and assumes duty as administrator, 
i 273 ; entirely changes his views regarding Ketshwayo's claim 
to land, i 289 ; on the 11th of March 1878 issues a proclama- 
tion threatening punishment of those taking part in public 
meetings opposed to the government, but,- it has no effect, 
i 287 ; in March 1879 ceases to be administrator of the Trans- 
vaal, ii 84; in June 1880 retires from public service with a 
pension, ib. 
Shippard, Judge Sidney G. A. : 

on the 23rd of October 1885 assumes duty as administrator of 
British Betshuanaland, ii 172 
Shipwrecks in Table Bay : 

in 1878 five take place, ii 196 
Shoshong : 

description of, ii 181 
Sibebu, one of Sir Garnet Wolseley's sovereign chiefs : 

is allowed to keep his district when Ketshwayo is sent back to 

294 Synoptical Index. 

Zululand, ii 6 ; on the 30th of March 1883 is attacked by 
Ketshwayo's army led by Mnyamana, but defeats it utterly, 
ii 13 ; on the 21st of July 1883 attacks Ketshwayo, burns his 
kraals, and completely ruins him, ii 14 ; then makes himself 
master of all northern Zululand, ii 16 ; on the 16th of March 
1884 is defeated by Mnyamana in a battle, ii 8; on the 5th of 
June 1884 is attacked by a combined Zulu and European army, 
and is completely subdued, ii 20; he makes his escape and 
flees for protection to Mr. Osborn in the reserve, ii 21 
Sigcawu, inferior son of Umqikela : 

on the 15th of February 1888 is chosen by the Pondos as his 
father's successor, i 215 ; is weak and incompetent, i 216 ; on 
the 17th of March 1894 becomes a British subject, i 221 
Sigcawu, great son of the Xosa chief Kreli: 

particulars concerning, i 64 
Silk culture : 

attempts are made to carry out this industry in the Cape Colony, 
but are unsuccessful, i 9 
Sirayo, Zulu sub-chief : 

in January 1879 loses some cattle and has his kraal destroyed 
by a detachment from Colonel Glynn's column, i 311 ; on the 
21st of July 1883 is killed when assisting Ketshwayo to escape 
from Sibebu, ii 14 
Sississon, Captain Joseph : 

in May 1878 is sent to the northern border with a hundred 
mounted men to restore order, ii 32; on the 12th of July 
inflicts severe punishment upon Klaas Lukas, ii 33 ; is after- 
wards stationed at Kenhart to patrol the country around, ib. 
Sitimela : 

attempts to drive one of Sir Garnet Wolseley's chiefs from Zulu- 
land, ii 2 ; but is defeated by John Dunn and is obliged to 
take refuge in the Transvaal, ib. 
Siwani, great son of the Earabe chief Dushane : 

during the rebellion of 1878 assists the Cape government, * 127 
Siyolo, right-hand son of Dushane : 

i in March 1878 goes into rebellion against the Cape Colony, i 126 ; 
after losing many men in an engagement, takes shelter in the 
Amatola forest, ib. ; on the 1st of June is killed in a skirmish, 
i 132 
Small- pox : 

in 1882 and 1883 causes great loss of life in the Cape Colony, 
H 200 

Synoptical Index. 295 

Smit, Commandant Nicolaas : 

leads the Transvaal burghers in the engagement at Schuins 
Hoogte, ii 122; on the 27th of February 1881 leads the 
party that wrests Majuba hill from the troops under Sir 
George Colley, ii 123 ; early in 1884 visits England as a 
member of a deputation from the Transvaal, and concludes 
with the earl of Derby the convention of London, ii 153 
Smith, the honourable Charles Abercrombie (later Sir Charles) : 

when commissioner for crown lands and public works is appointed 
auditor-general of the Cape Colony, i 9 ; opinion of parliament 
concerning the appointment, ib. 
Smith, Dr. James Walter : 

in 1878 attempts, but without success, to interfere in the Zulu 
difficulty, i 293 
Smith, Matthew : 

account of the controversy caused by, i 251 
Smith, Pommer : 

account of the rebellion of, i 37 ; he is killed in action, i 40 
Smyth, Lieutenant- General Sir Leicester : 

acts as administrator of the government of the Cape Colony 
during Sir Hercules Eobinson's absence in Natal and the Trans- 
vaal in 1881, ii 128 ; and again during Sir Hercules Eobinson's 
absence in England to assist in arranging the convention of 
London, ii 154 
Snyman, Commandant J. P. : 

on the 24th of October 1882 arranges terms of peace between 
Moshete and Montsiwa, ii 151 
Soga, reverend Tiyo : 
mention of, i 28 
Solomon, Saul : 

action in the Cape parliament of, i 21 ; supports the Scanlen 
ministry, ii 73 ; as proprietor of the Cape Argus defends 
himself in an action for libel brought against him by Attorney- 
General Upington, ii 38 ; in 1882 on account of ill health is 
obliged to retire from public life, ii 201 ; he removes to 
England, and on the 16th of October 1892 dies there, ii 202 
Southey's pass : 

in October 1873 is opened for traffic, i 8 
Sodthbyvillb, part of Emigrant Tembuland: 

in 1878 is made a magisterial district, i 143 ; in the rebellion 
of 1880 the public buildings are destroyed, i 148; it is then 
reduced in size, and is called the district of Saint Mark's, 
i 150 

296 Synoptical Index. 

Sprigg, John Gordon (later Sir Gordon) : 

in 1876 is chairman of the frontier defence commission, i 29; 
on the 6th of February 1878 becomes prime minister of the 
Cape Colony, i 105 ; on the 25th of October 1879 has an 
interview with the rebel chief Morosi on his mountain, ii 52 ; 
attends the pitso in Basutoland in October 1879, and announces 
an increase of the hut-tax and the compulsory surrender of 
guns, ii 57 ; in June 1880 is unable to carry his confederation 
proposals in the house of assembly, but in other matters still 
commands a majority, it 190; on the 9th of May 1881 is 
obliged to retire from office, ii 69; on the 13th of May 1884 
becomes treasurer of the colony, ii 204 
Sprigg, Major Howard : 

in 1894 becomes magistrate of Bizana, i 222 
Springer, Lieutenant, of the Cape mounted rifles : 

on the 20th of November 1879 is the first man to reach the 
top of Morosi's mountain, ii 53 
Standard bank building in Capetown : 

on the 17th of March 1883 is opened for use, ii 205 
Standerton : 

during the Transvaal war of independence is held by a small 
British garrison, ii 120 
Stanford, A. H. : 

on the 21st of March 1894 becomes magistrate of Libode, i 222 
Stanford, R. W. : 

in May 1881 becomes magistrate of St. Mark's, i 150 
Stanford, Walter E. : 

in April 1876 becomes magistrate of Engcobo, i 48 
Stanley, Colonel Frederick A. : 

on the 24th of June 1885 becomes secretary of state for the 
colonies, ii 24 
Stellaland, republic of : 

in July 1882 is founded, ii 148 
Stellenbosch : 

on the 14th of January 1875 a disastrous fire takes place in the 
town of, i 24; population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Sterkstroom : 

on the 15th of October 1888 the railway from East London is 
opened to, ii 194 
Stockenstrom, Attorney-General : 

opinion in regard to the question in dispute between Sir Bartle 
Frere and Mr. Molteno given by, i 103 

Synoptical Index. 297 

Stokwe, son of Ndlela, emigrant Tembu chief : 

in September 1878 becomes a British subject, i 143; in October 
1880 rises in rebellion against the Cape government, i 148 ; 
but is thoroughly subdued and loses everything, i 149 
Stokwe, son of Tshali, chief of the Amavundle clan : 

in the war of 1877-8 aids the Galekas, i 62; on the 23rd of 
March 1878 meets with a crushing defeat, i 125 ; in April 
1878 is captured, i 128 
Strachan, Donald, magistrate of Umzimkulu : 

takes an active part in the suppression of the Griqua rebellion, 
i 39 
Strahan, Sir George Cumine : 

from the 27th of September 1888 to the 22nd of January 1881 
acts as governor of the Cape Colony, ii 192 
Streatfeild, F. N. : 

on the 2nd of January 1879 becomes magistrate of Willowvale, 
i 139 
Stutterheim : 

in November 1877 is created a magisterial district of the Cape 
Colony, i 51 
Supreme court of the Orange Free State : 
in January 1876 is established, ii 223 
Surmon, Captain James, of the Cape mounted rifles : 

on the 8th of April 1879 is killed at Morosi's mountain, ii 48 
Surmon, James E. : 

is the first resident magistrate of Mafeking, ii 172 
Surmon, William Henry : 

gallantly defends the magistracy' of Mohali's Hock, id 62 
Swazis, the : 

assist the British forces to conquer the Bapedi, ii 102 


population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Tabankulu, in Eastern Pondoland: 

in 1894 is created a magisterial district, i 222 
Tainton, Messrs. (two brothers) and W. C. Brown : 

on the 31st of December 1877 are murdered by rebel Xosas, i 84 
Tarka : 

in September, 1874 becomes a magisterial district of the Cape 
Colony, i 11 
Tati gold mines : 

in 1885 are not in a prosperous state, ii 181 
Telegraphs in the Cape Colony : 

in 1873 become the property of the government, i 6; on the 

298 Synoptical Index. 

19th of April 1878 telegraphic communication is opened between 
Capetown and Durban, i 225 ; extension of in the Cape Colony, 
ii 195 ; on the 16th of February 1885 telegraphic communica- 
tion is opened between Capetown and Vryburg, ii 169 ; further 
particulars concerning, ii 195 
Telegraphs in Natal : 

in 1873 the line between Durban and Maritzburg is purchased 
by the government, i 225 ; in December 1879 telegraphic com- 
munication with England is opened by means of a cable from 
Durban to Aden, ii 192 
Tembuland, chief magistracy of : 

in September 1878 is formed of the districts of Mqanduli, 
Umtata, Emjanyana, Engcobo, Southeyville, and Xalanga, that 
is the united territory of Tembuland Proper and Emigrant 
Tembuland, i 144 ; in December 1878 the district of Elliotdale 
or Bomvanaland is added to it, i 147 ; in May 1881 the name 
Southeyville is changed to Saint Mark's, i 150 ; on the 
26th of August 1885 the seven districts are annexed to the 
Cape Colony, * 151 ; population at that time, i 152 
Tembu tribe proper : 

in December 1875 become British subjects, i 46 
Teuton, Union Company's steamer : 

heavy loss of life by the sinking of, ii 197 
Thaba Ntshu, Barolong territory : 

in July 1884 is proclaimed part of the Orange Free State, ii 226 
Thesigek, Lieutenant-General F. A. (later Lord Chelmsford) : 

on the 25th of February 1878 succeeds Sir Arthur Cunynghame 
as commander of the British forces in South Africa, i 119 ; 
conducts operations against the rebels in the Amatola forests, 
i 121 ; and against the Zulus, i 306 ; after the final defeat of 
Ketshwayo at Ulundi he returns to Europe, i 346 
Thomas, Mr., son of the missionary at Shiloh in Matabeleland : 

accompanies Captain Patterson's expedition and dies from drinking 
poisoned water, ii 182 
Thomson, J. R. : 

in November 1875 becomes magistrate of Maclear, i 40 
Tini, son of the Gaika chief Makoma : 

purchases ground in the Waterkloof, i 27; collects a large number 
of people there, but in March 1878 is easily ejected by Colonel 
Palmer with the 90th regiment and some volunteers, when 
he retires to the Amatola forests, i 119 ; on the 28th of May 
he is captured, i 130 

Synoptical Index. 299 


on the 30th of May 1895 becomes a British protectorate, ii 28 ; 
on the 30th of December 1897 is annexed to Natal, ib. 
Town Hall of Durban: 

particulars concerning, ii 215 
Toyisb, Rarabe chief : 

on the 30th of March 1878 dies, i 127 
Traditions, Bantu : 

unreliability of, i 173 
Transkei, chief magistracy of: 

in September 1879 is formed of the districts of Tsomo, 
Nqamakwe, Butterworth, Idutywa, Kentani, and Willowvale, 
i 139; on the 1st of October 1879 the four districts of 
Idutywa, Tsomo, Nqamakwe, and Butterworth are annexed to 
the Cape Colony, i 43 ; and on the 26th of August 1885 the 
other two, i 142 ; population in 1885, ib. ; revenue and expendi- 
ture at that time, ib. 
Transvaal : 

financial position in 1877, i 279 ; immigration of English people 
into in 1877-80, ii 81 ; English .opinion regarding the 
treatment of coloured people in, ib. ; reason for not allowing 
Bantu to hold land under individual tenure in, ii 82 ; view of 
Sir Michael Hicks Beach concerning, ii 94 ; on the 12th of 
April 1877 is annexed to the British dominions, * 273 ; on the 
8th of November 1879 executive and legislative (nominated) 
councils are created, ii 100 ; on the 8th of August 1881 the 
republican government, under many restrictions, is restored, 
ii 130; and on the 27th of February 1884 by the convention 
of London it again becomes an independent state, ii 155 
Transvaal farmers : see Mass meeting 
Troops in South Africa in June 1879 : 

number of, i 341 
Tsepinare, chief of the Barolong at Thaba Ntshu : 

is opposed by Samuel Moroko, and is at length killed by him, 
ii 226 
Tsetse fly : 

disappears where large game is destroyed, ii 141 
Tshingwayo, commander of the Zulu army at Isandhlwana : 

is killed on the 21st of July 1883 when Ketshwayo is defeated 
by Sibebu, ii 14 
Tsolo : 

account of the destruction of the residency and the defence of 
the prison in the rebellion of 1880, i 159 

;oo Synoptical Index. 

TubhoPe, John : 

on the 4th of March 1885 becomes colonial secretary, ii 204 
Tulare, Bantu chief : 

mention of, i 256 
Tulbagh road : 

on the 31st of August 1875 the railway from Capetown is opened 
to, i 13 
Tyala, Gaika counsellor : 

conduct of in 1877, i 82 ; pathetic death of, i 137 


on the 21st of September 1875 the railway from Port Elizabeth 
is opened to, i 13 ; population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Ukwelapa, custom of : 

explanation of, i 208 
Ulundi : 

on the 4th of July 1879 the Zulu power is overthrown in the 
decisive battle of, i 344 ; description of the military kraal at, 
i 345 ; which is entirely destroyed by Lord Chelmsford, ib. 
Umbelini, son of Umswazi : 

on the death of his father tries to supplant his half-brother 
Umbandeni, but is defeated and is obliged to place himself 
under the protection of Ketshwayo, i 267 ; he becomes a 
marauder of the worst kind, i 268 ; conduct of, i 281, 292, 
293, 296, and 328; his surrender for trial is demanded by 
Sir Bartle Frere from Ketshwayo, i 304 ; but is not complied 
with, i 306 ; on the 12th of March 1879 commands the Zulus 
in an attack upon a company of the 80th regiment at the 
Intombi river, when sixty-three Europeans lose their lives, 
i 329 ; on the 5th of April is shot dead, i 331 ; reference to, 
i 324 
Umcityu corps of the Zulu army : 
prefer death to disgrace, i 341 
Umditshwa, chief of a Pondomsi clan : 

in October 1873 becomes a British subject, i 32 ; in October 1880 
rises in rebellion, * 159 ; in January 1881 surrenders and is 
sentenced to imprisonment for three years, i 162 
Umfanta, Tembu chief: 

in January 1878 joins the enemies of the Cape Colony, i 90; in 
April is captured, i 128 
Umhlangaso, half-brother of the Pondo chief Umqikela : 

is a promoter of enmity to the Cape government, • 182; conduct 
of, * 195, 200, 212, and 217; rebels against the chief Sigcawu 
and causes much trouble, i 218; in 1884 is obliged to submit 

Synoptical Index. 301 

to the Cape government, and is located on a farm in Griqua- 
land East, i 222 
Umhlonhlo, chief of a Pondomsi clan : 

in October 1872 becomes a British subject, i 32 ; in October 1880 
murders his magistrate and goes into rebellion, i 158 ; escapes 
to Basutoland, but in 1903 is captured, is tried for murder, 
and is acquitted by a jury, i 162 
Umnini, chief of the remnant of a tribe living at the Bluff in 
Natal in Lieutenant Farewell's time : 
in March 1883 dies, ii 216 
Umqikela : 

on the 29th of October 1867 succeeds his father Faku as ofiief 
of the Pondos, i 176 ; acts in a hostile manner towards the 
Cape Colony with regard to traffic on the main road, i 182 ; 
and generally in many other respects, i 183 ; claims the 
allegiance of the Xesibes, i 167 ; in October 1887 diea, i 215 
Umsikaba, in Eastern Pondoland : 

in 1894 is created a magisterial district, i 222 
Umsila : 

meaning of the word, 176 
Umtata, in Tembuland : 

in 1876 is created a magisterial district, i 47 
Umtata, town of : 

in January 1876 is founded, i 151 ; by 1885 has become a place 
of importance, ib. 
Umxoli, petty Galeka chief : 

on the 3rd of August 1877 is badly bruised at a Fingo wedding 
feast, which brings on the ninth Kaffir war, i 54 
Umzimkulu, district of: 

in October 1874 is annexed to the British dominions, i 35 
Umzintsani : 

account of the battle on the 2nd of December 1877 at, i 77 
University of the Cape of Good Hope : 

in 1873 is created, i 3 
Upcher, Captain, of . the first battalion of the 24th regiment : 

on the 7th of February 1878 commands the European forces in 
the decisive battle of Kentani, i 94 
Upington, Thomas (later Sir Thomas) : 

in February 1878 becomes attorney-general of the Cape Colony, 
i 106 ; in April 1879 proceeds to the northern border, and 
directs operations there, ii 34 ; brings an action for libel 
against Messrs. Solomon and Dormer for articles in the 
Cape Argus, ii 38 ; on the 13th of May 1884 becomes prime 

302 Synoptical Index. 

minister of the Cape Colony, ii 204 ; with Mr. Sprigg and 
Mr. J. S. Marais in November 1884 visits Betshuanaland and 
concludes an arrangement with the Goshenites, which the high 
commissioner does not approve of, ii 165 
Uys, J. J. : 

gives some advice to Lord Chelmsford, which is unheeded, i 311 
Uys, Commandant Pieter Lavras : 

aids the British forces against the Zulus, i 324 ; on the 1st of 
February 1879 assists in the destruction of the Qulusi military 
kraal, i 327 ; on the 28th of March 1879 is killed at Ndhlobane 
mountain, i 330 ; Colonel Evelyn Wood's estimate of the 
character and services of, i 325 
Vanderkemp, Jacobus, son of the reverend Dr. Vanderkemp : 

on the 15th of January 1878 is murdered by rebel Xosas, i 88 
Verulam : 

in September 1879 is connected by railway with Durban, ii 208 
de Villiers, John Henry (later Sir Henry, later still Lord de 
Villiers) : 
in December 1873 becomes chief justice of the Cape Colony, i 9 ; 
in March 1881 is appointed a member of a royal commission 
to arrange the terms of a convention with the Transvaal, ii 128 
de Villiers, Advocate Melius : 

in January 1876 becomes a puisne judge in the Orange Free State, 
ii 223 
de Villiers, Tielman Nieuwoudt : 

in 1885 surveys and beacons off the western boundary of the 
South African Republic, ii 168 
Vryburo, town of: 

in July 1882 is founded, ii 148; the residents in the town 
petition the Cape parliament to be annexed to the Cape Colony, 
ii 153 
Vryheid, town of : 

in August 1884 is founded as the seat of government of the 
New Republic, ii 22 
"War, the ninth Kaffir : 

on the 3rd of August 1877 there is a quarrel at a Fingo wedding 
feast, when a Galeka is killed and some others are badly 
bruised, i 53 ; three days later four bands of Galekas invade 
Fingoland and avenge their friends by driving off the cattle 
belonging to several kraals, i 54 ; attempts by the British 
officials in the country to restore order fail, and a demand is 
then made upon Kreli to pay the full number of captured 
cattle, i 55 ; at the same time one hundred and fifty mounted 

Synoptical Index. 303 

policemen are sent to guard the Fingo border, ib. ; on the 24th 
of August a band of Galekas invades Fingoland, and on the 
next day a battle with the Fingos takes place, i 56 ; the first 
battalion of the 24th regiment is stationed at different posts 
west of the Kei to prevent an invasion of the colony, i 57 ; 
Sir Bartle Frere proceeds to Butterworth, and on the 15th of 
September invites Kreli to meet him and discuss matters, but 
the chief 4 ecunes to do so, i 58; on the 23rd of September 
all attempts to restore peace are abandoned, the missionaries 
and the traders leave Galekaland, and it is recognized that a 
state of war exists, i 59 ; Mapasa now abandons the Galeka 
cause, and with a portion of his clan retires to the Cape Colony 
and obtains protection, i 60; on the 26th of September the 
police and Fingos are defeated in an engagement at Gwadana, 
ib. ; but three days later the Galekas are beaten with great 
loss at Ibeka, i 61 ; strong bodies of police, volunteers, and 
Tembus now arrive at Ibeka, to strengthen the force under 
Commandant Griffith, i 62 ; on the 5th of October Sir Bartle 
Frere issues a proclamation deposing Kreli from his chieftain- 
ship, i 63 ; on the 9th of October several important kraals 
are destroyed, i 64 ; on the 18th of October operations are 
commenced for scouring the Galeka country, i 68 ; on the 21st 
the enemy is defeated with heavy loss in the battle of Lusizi, 
i 69 ; the Galekas then retire to the eastward, i 70 ; and are 
pursued to Western Pondoland by the force under Colonel 
Griffith, i 71 ; in the belief that they are entirely broken and 
dispersed, the colonial volunteers then return and are disbanded, 
i 72; on the 2nd of December it becomes known that instead 
of being defeated the Galekas have merely placed their families 
in safety and are returning to renew the war, i 77 ; on that 
day a patrol under Inspector Bourne has a sharp skirmish with 
the enemy at Umzintsani, followed that evening by a stiffly 
contested battle, ib. ; on the 9th of December Colonel Griffith 
is superseded by Colonel Glynn as commander of the forces 
east of the Kei, and operations are carried on largely with 
imperial troops, i 80; negotiations for peace are made by Kreli, 
but end in nothing, i 81 ; on the 24th of December Kiva crosses 
the Kei to the Gaika location, and appeals to the Rarabe clans 
to aid Kreli in his time of need, ib. ; which appeal is responded 
to by the great majority of them, i 82; all the troops in 
Capetown are now removed to the frontier, and a naval brigade 
is supplied from her Majesty's ship Active, i 78; the enemy 
meets at first with some success, i 83 ; and makes two raids 


304 Synoptical Index. 

into Fingoland, i 85 ; on the 13th of January 1878 the Galekas 
lose heavily in an engagement near Kentani hill, ib. ; the area 
of disturbance is constantly enlarging, i 86 ; in January 1878 
some Tembu clans join the enemies of the colony, i 88 ; but 
volunteers and burghers are coming forward in sufficient numbers 
to compensate for these new foes, ib. ; in January 1878 
Commandant Frost successfully sweeps the Gaika location, i 89 ; 
at the same time Lieutenant- Colonel Lambert clears the Tshits- 
haba valley of cattle, ib. ; an unsuccessful expedition is then 
undertaken against Gongubela, i 90 ; but on the 4th of February 
that chief meets with a severe defeat, i 91 ; on the 7th of 
February the Galekas are defeated at Kentani, i 92 ; the battle 
proves a decisive one, for after his defeat Kreli gives up the 
contest and flees into Bomvanaland, i 95 
War with the Zulus: 

on the 11th of December 1878 the* demands of the high com- 
missioner upon Ketshwayo are delivered to his delegates at the 
lower Tugela drift, i 303 ; these include not only reparation for 
misdeeds, but the disbandment of the Zulu army and the 
abolition of the Zulu military system, i 304; as Ketshwayo 
takes no notice of these demands, on the 4th of January 1879 
Sir Bartle Frere entrusts their enforcement to the military 
authorities, i 306; on the 10th of January 1879 the first columr, 
under Lieutenant- Colonel Pearson, begins to cross the lower 
Tugela into Zululand, i 307 ; it advances northward, and on 
the 21st burns the military kraal at Ginginhlovu, i 308 ; on 
the 22nd it defeats a Zulu army at Inyezane, ib. ; and on the 
23rd it reaches and occupies the Norwegian mission station 
Etshowe, i 309 ; where a little later a quantity of provisions 
reaches it, ib. ; on account of the terrible disaster at Isandhlwana 
it can go no farther, so Etshowe is fortified, and after all the 
surplus troops are sent back to Natal, the others remain there 
to hold the place, i 310 ; on the 11th of January another 
column, commanded by Lieutenant- Colonel Glynn, with whom 
are Lord Chelmsford and his staff, crosses the Buffalo, ib. ; 
and on the 20th halts at the foot of Isandhlwana hill, without 
taking any precautionary measures for protecting itself in case of 
attack, i 311 ; a detached party from this column had burnt 
the kraal of the chief Sirayo and had captured some of his 
cattle, ib. ; the best regiments in the Zulu army are sent by 
Ketshwayo against this column, i 312 ; they march to Isandh- 
lwana, and conceal themselves close to the British camp, ib.; 
on the 21st part of the British forces are sent on ahead, i 318 

Synoptical Index. 305 

in the early morning of the 22nd Lord Chelmsford himself 
with another detachment leaves, and is drawn far away by a 
Zulu band pretending to retire before it r ib. ; the camp is 
left without any protective work, and a message is sent to 
Colonel Durnford near Rorke's drift to march at once and take 
command of the force left there, ib. ; in the morning of the 
22nd of January 1879 the camp is assailed by an overpower- 
ing force, and though a desperate resistance is made and 
thousands of Zulus fall, the fight ends with the death of every 
white man who is not mounted and therefore cannot escape, 
i 315 ; a few horsemen manage to get away from the field of 
slaughter, ib. ; but over eight hundred Europeans perish, i 316 ; 
at four o'clock in the afternoon Lord Chelmsford learns what 
has taken place, and at once the whole of the men in advance 
set out to return, i 318 ; they reach Isandhlwana after dark, and 
remain there that night, ib. ; before daylight next morning they 
resume the march, and reach Natal safely, ib. 319 ; at Rorke's 
drift they find the little post still in existence, it having been 
successfully held during the night against a strong Zulu army, 
i 321 ; most of the Bantu auxiliaries now return to their homes, 
ib. ; until reinforcements can arrive from England operations from 
the side of Natal cease, i 324 ; on the 6th of January a column 
under Lieutenant-Colonel Evelyn Wood marches from Utrecht 
and crosses the Blood river to Bemba's Kop, i 326; on the 
24th of January it beats off a Zulu attack, and then moves on 
to Kambula hill, where it forms an entrenched camp, i 327 ; 
on the 1st of February the Qulusi military kraal is destroyed 
by a party of cavalry from this camp, ib. ; the column is 
strengthened by volunteer cavalry being added to it, * 328 ; on 
the 3rd of February Hamu, Ketshwayo's brother, joins the 
British forces, ib. ; on the 12th of March a company of the 
eightieth regiment is surprised at the Intombi river, when 
Captain Moriarty and sixty-two men lose their lives, i 329 ; on 
the 28th of the same month a still greater disaster takes place 
at the Ndhlobane mountain, when ninety-five Europeans are 
killed, i 330; on the following day the camp at Kambula is 
attacked by a great Zulu army, which is beaten off with heavy 
loss, ib. ; on the 5th of April the ferocious marauder Umbelini 
is killed, i 331 ; before this time all the soldiers in the Cape 
Colony, St. Helena, and Mauritius have arrived in Natal, and 
a strong naval brigade has been landed from her Majesty's ship 
Shah, i 332 ; in March and April very strong reinforcements of 
infantry, cavalry, and artillery arrive, ib. ; on the 29th of March 
VOL. II. 21 

306 Synoptical Index. 

a strong column, in two divisions, commanded by Lord Chelmsford 
in person, sets out from the lower Tugela for the relief of Etshowe, 
i 334; on the morning of the 2nd of April it is attacked at 
Ginginhlovu by a powerful Zulu army, which it beats off with 
very heavy loss, i 335 ; on the following day the troops who 
have held Etshowe for over two months are relieved, and the 
place is then abandoned, ib. ; an entrenched post, named Fort 
Chelmsford, is formed near the Inyezane river, to serve as a 
depot of supplies, i 336 ; in April arrangements are made by 
Lord Chelmsford for resuming the offensive, i 337 ; a very strong 
division of the forces is placed under command of Major-General 
Crealock, to move along the coast towards Ulundi, which on 
the 17th of June leaves -the lower Tugela, i 338; another 
division is under Major-General Newdigate, and on the 28th of 
May marches from Kopje Alleen towards Ulundi, ib. ; on the 
28th of June Brigadier- General Wood's column, which has 
marched from Kambula, effects a junction with this division, 
when Lord Chelmsford takes direct command of the united 
force, i 340 ; he learns that Sir Garnet Wolseley is on the way 
to supersede him, so makes all possible haste, and on the 
4th of July reaches Ulundi, i 344 ; there a decisive battle is 
fought, which ends in the utter defeat of the Zulus, and the 
war is over, ib. ; it costs Great Britain £5, 138,000 
War of independence of the Transvaal : 

during this war some fifty burghers lose their lives, ii 133 
Walk e r , N athan : 

on the 31st of July 1884 loses his life in action at Mafeking, ii 161 
Ward, Lieutenant of the diamond field horse : 

on the 21st of March 1878 is killed in the Amatola forest, i 122 
Warner, H. B. : 

in 1894 becomes magistrate of Tabankulu, i 222 
Warren, Lieutenant- Colonel, of the royal engineers: 

in March 1878 with seventy-five men of the diamond field horse 
defeats the rebel Rarabes under Siyolo, i 126; unsuccessfully 
endeavours to settle disputes between contending clans in Bet- 
shuanaland, ii 143 ; (Major-General Sir Charles) in November 
1884 with a force five thousand strong is sent from England 
to expel the Goshenites from Betshuanaland, ii 167 ; on the 
10th of March 1885 reaches Mafeking, and finds the Goshenites 
have fled, ii 169 ; disagrees with Mr. Rhodes, ii 170 ; and with 
the high commissioner, ib. ; sends some officers to visit the 
Matabele chief Lobengula, ii 181 ; treats Mr. Van Niekerk very 
harshly, ii 170; in July 1885 is recalled to England, ii 171 

Synoptical Index. 307 

Weatherley, Colonel : 

raises a corps of mounted volunteers, termed Weatherley's horse, 
and in February 1879 is attached to Colonel Wood's column, 
i 328; on the 28th of March is killed at Ndhlobane mountain, 
t 330 
Welborne's railway scheme in Natal : 

particulars concerning, i 244 
Wellington : 

on the 1st of October 1875 a disastrous fire takes place in this 
village, i 24 
Welsh, A. E. : 

in September 1877 becomes magistrate of Tsolo, i 41 
Western Pondoland : 

when annexed to the British empire is divided into two districts 
named Libode and Ngceleni, i 222; population in 1894, ib. 
de Wet, Jacobus Albertus (later Sir Jacobus) : 

on the 13th of May 1884 becomes secretary for native affairs in 
the Cape Colony, i 184 
de Wet, Sir Jacobus Petrus: 

in 1880 becomes chief justice of the Transvaal, ii 114 
Wheelwright, William Douglas : 

on the 8th of September 1879 is appointed British resident in 
Zululand, i 352 ; after a very short experience resigns the office, 
and in January 1880 is succeeded by Mr. Melmoth Osborn, 
ii 113 
Whindus, Captain E. J. : 

in September 1884 is appointed resident magistrate and port 
captain of Port St. John's, i 182 
White Brothers, traders : 

in July 1881 land goods at Port St. John's without paying 
customs duties, i 181 
Wilgefontein, in Natal : 

settlement of Europeans at, ii 209 
William Nota, Hlubi headman living in the Bode : 

dealings of the Eastern Pondos with, i 194 
Willowmore : 

in September 1874 becomes a magisterial district of the Cape 
Colony, i 11 
Willowvale, in the Transkei : 

in 1878 is created a magisterial district, i 137; mode of settle- 
ment of, i 138; on the 26th of August 1885 is annexed to 
the Cape Colony, i 142 

308 Synoptical Index. 

Wilmot, Hon. A. (later Count) : 

reference to book written by, i 299 

Windsor Castle, the : 

in 1873 makes the passage from England in twenty-three days, 
then the shortest on record, i 7 ; on the 19th of October 1876 
she is wrecked on Dassen Island, i 268 

Wolselby, Sir Garnet : 

from the 1st of April to the 3rd of September 1875 is adminis- 
trator of Natal, i 224; is appointed governor of Natal and the 
Transvaal, high commissioner for South-Eastern Africa, and 
commander in chief of the military forces, i 342; on the 28th 
of June 1879 reaches Maritzburg and assumes the duty, i 343; 
he proceeds to Port Durnford in the Shah, but cannot land, 
so returns to Durban, and goes overland to Major- General 
Crealock's camp, where he learns that the war is over, ib. ; 
on the 29th of September 1879 he is sworn in as governor of 
the Transvaal, ii 99 ; stations garrisons in various towns and 
villages, ib. ; offers peace to Sekukuni on certain terms, which 
that chief rejects, ii 102; in November 1879 completely subdues 
the Bapedi tribe, ii 103; causes Messrs. Pretorius and Bok to 
be imprisoned for a very short time, ii 109 ; then offers Mr. 
Pretorius a seat in the executive council, which is declined, ib. ; 
his so-called settlement of Zululand is a failure, ii 1; on the 
27th of April 1880 he retires, ii 113 

Wood, Lieutenant- Colonel (later Sir Evelyn) : 

in March 1878 assists in operations against the rebels in the 
Amatola forests, i 121 ; in 1879 is in command of a column 
that operates from the Transvaal side against the Zulus, i 324 ; 
on the 24th of January he is attacked at Bemba's Kop by a 
Zulu army, which is repulsed, i 327 ; he then moves on to 
Kambula, where he forms an entrenched camp, ib. ; (Brigadier- 
General) with his column moves from Kambula towards Ulundi, 
keeping in close touch with General Newdigate's division, with 
which, on the 28th of June, he effects a junction, i 340; at 
the close of the Zulu war returns to Europe, i 346; (Major- 
General Sir Evelyn) on the outbreak of the Transvaal war of 
independence in December 1880 he is sent from England as 
second in command of the British forces operating against the 
burghers, ii 122; upon the death of Sir George Colley on the 
27th of February 1881 succeeds as commander in chief, adminis- 
trator of Natal, and high commissioner for South-Eastern 
Africa, ii 124; on the 6th of March concludes an armistice 
with Commandant-General Joubert, ii 127 ; and on the 21st 

Synoptical Index. 309 

terms of peace are agreed to, ib. ; is then appointed member 
of a royal commission to arrange the terms of a convention 
with the Transvaal, ii 128 
Wood & Co., traders : 

in July 1881 land goods at Port St. John's without paying 
customs duties, i 181 
Woollbd sheep in the Cape Colony in 1891 : 

number of, ii 238 
Worcester : 

on the 16th of June 1876 the railway from Capetown is opened 
to, i 13; population in 1891 of, ii 238 
Wright, William : 

in May 1873 becomes resident with Gangelizwe, i 44 ; in 1876 
becomes chief magistrate of Tembuland Proper, i 48 
Xalanga, part of Emigrant Tembuland : 

in 1878 is made a magisterial district, i 143 
Xito, Galeka tribal priest : 

account of, i 93 ; is banished to Robben Island, where on the 
14th of October 1883 he dies 
Xosas : 

cattle thefts by, i 26; distinguished men among, i 28; condition 
of in 1876, ib. ; number of individuals belonging to the tribe 
in 1891, ii 237 
Yeomanry, the Cape mounted : 

by Act 5 of 1878 are constituted, i 115; in February 1879 six 
hundred are called out to assist in the operations against 
Morosi, ii 44; on the 31st of October 1881 the three regiments 
are disbanded, ii 71 
Zululand : 

boundaries of as settled by Sir Garnet Wolseley in September 
1879, when it is divided into thirteen independent districts, 
i 347; Sir Garnet Wolseley's so-called settlement breaks down 
almost at once, ii 1 ; when Ketshwayo is sent back to Zululand, 
all the land between the Umhlatusi and Tugela rivers is 
detached from his control and formed into a reserve, ii 6; on 
the 19th of May 1887 all of the country outside of the New 
Republic is annexed to the British dominions, ii 27; it is 
divided into six districts, named Etshowe, Nkandhla, Nqutu, 
Entonjaneni, Ndwandwe, and Lower Umvolosi, ib. ; to each of 
which on the 21st of June a European magistrate is appointed, 
ib. ; on the 30th of December 1897 it is annexed to Natal, ii 28 
Zulu war: 

costs Great Britain £5,138,000, ii 82 


At the age of nearly eighty-two years I am compelled with great 
reluctance to lay down my pen, owing to bodily infirmity, particularly 
defective sight and hearing. I could desire to have a few months 
more at the Hague to make further researches in the records of the 
Dutch East India Company, and better still for time to study Arabic 
and look for and examine records in that language which I have reason 
to believe are still in existence and which would throw light upon the 
movements of the Bantu tribes towards the south in olden times ; but that 
is not possible now. I must therefore ask the readers of my volumes 
to make allowances for any imperfections they may discover in them 
during those periods, and to bear in mind that this is a pioneer work 
and that the material for composing a history of South Africa is so 
great and so widespread that no single life is long enough to examine 
it all. 

I have no fear that anything I have stated will be found to be 
incorrect, but that details can be added in many instances is more 
than probable. Indeed Professor Cory has already shown in his 
valuable work that by confining oneself to a limited period many 
details can be related that I have passed over. To the utmost 
extent of my ability I have striven to write impartially, to do jtistice 
to every section of the people, without fear, favour, or prejudice In 
1919 I think this will be generally admitted, though it was not 
twenty years ago, by men of either nationality in South Africa holding 
extreme views. 

I wish now to express my warmest thanks to the various Educa- 
tional, Historical, and Eesearch associations in England, Holland, 
Portugal, Canada (my native country), and South Africa (the country 
in which the greatest part of my life has been spent), that have 
done me the honour — unsolicited in every instance by me — of elect- 
ing me a member and thus encouraging me to persevere in my work. 
Also to every individual who has assisted me by giving me informa- 
tion or pointing out where information was to be had, my most sincere 
thanks are due. Only those who have had to contend with almost 
insurmountable difficulties, such as have been thickly strewn in my 
path, can appreciate the value of even a kindly cheering word given 
at a time when hope was almost dead and further exertion seemed 
nearly useless. It has been my good fortune to receive many such 
cheering words, and any success I have attained is very largely due 
to them. 

G. M. T. 


But a short time after the above was written, and before the 
proofs were corrected and made ready for the press, Dr. Theal, the 
indefatigable worker and pioneer in South African History, passed 
away. His death was worthy of his life. In spite of his sight and 
hearing having almost failed him, and with strength barely sufficient 
to raise himself in bed, he struggled with the proof sheets in the 
hope that the last of his work might be through the press before he 
died. But it was not to be. At twenty minutes to four on April 17, 
1919, he begged his devoted daughter, Mrs. Stewart, who had been 
his constant help in his illness as well as in his work, to assist him 
from his bed to his chair and proof sheets. This exertion was then 
beyond his strength. At ten minutes to four he asked Mrs. Stewart 
to hold him up. She did so, and while resting upon her arm he quietly 
passed into Eternity. 

Thus died Dr. Theal, who for nearly half a century had worked 
directly or indirectly at South African History, and has left a 
memorial to himself in the vast amount of material which he has 
collected, thus having opened paths along which future workers 
can travel. 

That he was not unhonoured in his lifetime is evident from the 
following recognitions of his work : — 

Elected Membre correspondant, Commission pour l'histoire des 

Eglises Wallonnes, 1883. 
Member of the Maatschappij der Nederlandsche Letterkunde te 

Member of the Utrecht Historical Society, 1891. 
Appointed Colonial Historiographer, 1891. 
Hon. LL.D. Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. 
Member of the Royal Academy of Amsterdam, 1896. 
Hon. Lit.D. University of Cape of Good Hope, 1899. 
Corresponding Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society of Lisbon, 


Q. E. C, 

University of South Africa, 
University Offices, 
Somerset House, 
Vermuelen Street, 

8th March, 1919. 

On the motion of Professor Cory, seconded by Professor 
Fouche, it was unanimously resolved that the Senate of 
the University of South Africa at present in session at 
Pretoria hereby records its sense of the importance and 
value of the lifelong labours of Dr. G. M. Theal in the 
field of historical research. 

The Committee seizes this opportunity to express in the 
name of the Senate their deep sense of gratitude to 
Dr. Theal, both for his achievements and for the spirit in 
which they have been won. They wish to put on record 
their sense of the indebtedness of the intellectual world to 
him for what he has drawn from oblivion and made available 
for study. 

They look forward with confidence to the establishment 
of a South African School of historians who must always 
regard him as their founder. 

On behalf of the Senate : 

(Signed) Leo Fouche, 

W. A. Macfadybn 

for self and 
A. C. Paterson. 

Dr. G. McCall Theal, 

Cape Province. 

Printed in Great Britain by 




University of Toronto 








Acme Library Card Pocket 

Under Pat. "Ref. Index File"